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1. Formerly Kung-nî was present as one of the guests at the Kâ sacrifice; and when it was over, he went out and walked backwards and forwards on the terrace over the gate of Proclamations, looking sad and sighing. What made him sigh was the state of Lû. Yen Yen was by his side, and said to him, ‘Master, what are you sighing about?’ Confucius replied, ‘I never saw the practice of the Grand course, and the eminent men of the three dynasties; but I have my object in harmony with theirs.

2. ‘When the Grand course was pursued, a public and common spirit ruled all under the sky; they chose men of talents, virtue, and ability; their words were sincere, and what they cultivated was harmony. Thus men did not love their parents only, nor treat as children only their own sons. A competent provision was secured for the aged till their death, employment for the able-bodied, and the means of growing up to the young. They showed kindness and compassion to widows, orphans, childless men, and those who were disabled by disease, so that they were all sufficiently maintained. Males had their proper work, and females had their homes. They accumulated articles of value, disliking that they should be thrown away upon the ground, but not wishing to keep them for their own gratification. They laboured with their strength, disliking that it should not be exerted, but not exerting it only with a view to their own advantage. In this way selfish schemings were repressed and found no development. Robbers, filchers, and rebellious traitors did not show themselves, and hence the outer doors remained open, and were not shut. This was the period of what we call the Grand Union.

3. ‘Now that the Grand course has fallen into disuse and obscurity, the kingdom is a family inheritance. Every one loves above all others his own parents and cherishes as children only his own sons. People accumulate articles and exert their strength for their own advantage. Great men imagine it is the rule that their states should descend in their own families. Their object is to make the walls of their cities and suburbs strong and their ditches and moats secure. The rules of propriety and of what is right are regarded as the threads by which they seek to maintain in its correctness the relation between ruler and minister; in its generous regard that between father and son; in its harmony that between elder brother and younger; and in a community of sentiment that between husband and wife; and in accordance with them they frame buildings and measures; lay out the fields and hamlets for the dwellings of the husbandmen; adjudge the superiority to men of valour and knowledge; and regulate their achievements with a view to their own advantage. Thus it is that selfish schemes and enterprises are constantly taking their rise, and recourse is had to arms; and thus it was also that Yü, Thang, Wăn and Wû, king Khăng, and the duke of Kâu obtained their distinction. Of these six great men every one was very attentive to the rules of propriety, thus to secure the display of righteousness, the realisation of sincerity, the exhibition of errors, the exemplification of benevolence, and the discussion of courtesy, showing the people all the normal virtues. Any rulers who did not follow this course were driven away by those who possessed power and position, and all regarded them as pests. This is the period of what we call Small Tranquillity.’

4. Yen Yen again asked, ‘Are the rules of Propriety indeed of such urgent importance?’ Confucius said, ‘It was by those rules that the ancient kings sought to represent the ways of Heaven, and to regulate the feelings of men. Therefore he who neglects or violates them may be spoken of as dead, and he who observes them, as alive. It is said in the Book of Poetry,

“Look at a rat-how small its limbs and fine!

Then mark the course that scorns the proper line.

Propriety’s neglect may well provoke

A wish the man would quickly court death’s stroke.”

5. Therefore those rules are rooted in heaven, have their correspondencies in earth, and are applicable to spiritual beings. They extend to funeral rites, sacrifices, archery, chariot-driving, capping, marriage, audiences, and friendly missions. Thus the sages made known these rules, and it became possible for the kingdom, with its states and clans, to reach its correct condition.’

6. Yen Yen again asked, ‘May I be allowed to hear, Master, the full account that you would give of these rules?’ Confucius said, ‘I wished to see the ways of Hsiâ, and for that purpose went to Khî. But it was not able to attest my words, though I found there “The seasons of Hsiâ.” I wished to see the ways of Yin, and for that purpose went to Sung. But it was not able to attest my words, though I found there “The Khwan Khien.” In this way I got to see the meanings in the Khwan Khien, and the different steps in the seasons of Hsiâ.

7. ‘At the first use of ceremonies, they began with meat and drink. They roasted millet and pieces of pork; they excavated the ground in the form of a jar, and scooped the water from it with their two hands; they fashioned a handle of clay, and struck with it an earthen drum. Simple as these arrangements were, they yet seemed to be able to express by them their reverence for Spiritual Beings.

8. ‘By-and-by, when one died, they went upon the housetop, and called out his name in a prolonged note, saying, "Come back, So and So." After this they filled the mouth of the dead with uncooked rice, and set forth as offerings to him packets of raw flesh. Thus they looked up to heaven whither the spirit was gone, and buried the body in the earth. The body and the animal soul go downwards; and the intelligent spirit is on high. Thus also the dead are placed with their heads to the north, while the living look towards the south. In all these matters the earliest practice is followed.

9. ‘Formerly the ancient kings had no houses. In winter they lived in caves which they had excavated, and in summer in nests which they had framed. They knew not yet the transforming power of fire, but ate the fruits of plants and trees, and the flesh of birds and beasts, drinking their blood, and swallowing also the hair and feathers. They knew not yet the use of flax and silk, but clothed themselves with feathers and skins.

10. ‘The later sages then arose, and men learned to take advantage of the benefits of fire. They moulded the metals and fashioned clay, so as to rear towers with structures on them, and houses with windows and doors. They toasted, grilled, boiled, and roasted. They produced must and sauces. They dealt with the flax and silk so as to form linen and silken fabrics. They were thus able to nourish the living, and to make offerings to the dead; to serve the spirits of the departed and God. In all these things we follow the example of that early time.

11. ‘Thus it is that the dark-coloured liquor is in the apartment where the representative of the dead is entertained; that the vessel of must is near its entrance door; that the reddish liquor is in the hall; and the clear, in the court below. The victims also are displayed, and the tripods and stands are prepared. The lutes and citherns are put in their places, with the flutes, sonorous stones, bells, and drums. The prayers of the principal in the sacrifice to the spirits and the benedictions of the representatives of the departed are carefully framed. The object of all the ceremonies is to bring down the spirits from above, even their ancestors; serving also to rectify the relations between ruler and ministers; to maintain the generous feeling between father and son, and the harmony between elder and younger brother; to adjust the relations between high and low; and to give their proper places to husband and wife. The whole may be said to secure the blessing of Heaven.

12. ‘They proceed to their invocations, using in each the appropriate terms. The dark-coloured liquor is employed in every sacrifice. The blood with the hair and feathers of the victim is presented. The flesh, uncooked, is set forth on the stands. The bones with the flesh on them are sodden; and rush mats and coarse cloth are placed underneath and over the vases and cups. The robes of dyed silk are put on. The must and clarified liquor are presented. The flesh, roasted and grilled, is brought forward. The ruler and his wife take alternate parts in presenting these offerings, all being done to please the souls of the departed, and constituting a union of the living with the disembodied and unseen.

13. ‘These services having been completed, they retire, and cook again all that was insufficiently done. The dogs, pigs, bullocks, and sheep are dismembered. The shorter dishes round and square, the taller ones of bamboo and wood, and the soup vessels are all filled. There are the prayers which express the filial piety of the worshipper, and the benediction announcing the favour of his ancestors. This may be called the greatest omen of prosperity; and in this the ceremony obtains its grand completion.’

14. Confucius said, ‘Ah! Alas! I look at the ways of Kâu. The kings Yû and Lî corrupted them indeed, but if I leave Lû, where shall I go to find them better? The border sacrifice of Lû, however, and the association with it of the founder of the line of Kâu is contrary to propriety;--how have the institutions of the duke of Kâu fallen into decay! At the border sacrifice in Khî, Yü was the assessor, and at that in Sung, Hsieh; but these were observances of the sons of Heaven, preserved in those states by their descendants. The rule is that only the son of Heaven sacrifices to heaven and earth, and the princes of states sacrifice at the altars to the spirits of the land and grain.’

15. When no change is presumptuously made from the constant practice from the oldest times between the prayer and blessing at the beginning of the sacrifice, and the benediction at the end of it, we have what might be called a great and happy service.

16. For the words of prayer and blessing and those of benediction to be kept hidden away by the officers of prayer of the ancestral temple, and the sorcerers and recorders, is a violation of the rules of propriety. This may be called keeping a state in darkness.

17. The use of the kan cup of Hsiâ and the kiâ cup of Yin, and the pledging in them between the representative of the dead and the ruler are contrary to propriety;-these things constitute ‘a usurping ruler.’

18. For ministers and Great officers to keep the cap with pendents and the leathern cap, or military weapons, in their own houses is contrary to propriety. To do so constitutes ‘restraint of the ruler.’

19. For Great officers to maintain a full staff of employees, to have so many sacrificial vessels that they do not need to borrow any; and have singers and musical instruments all complete, is contrary to propriety. For them to do so leads to ‘disorder in a state’.

20. Thus, one sustaining office under the ruler is called a minister, and one sustaining office under the head of a clan is called a servant. Either of these, who is in mourning for a parent, or has newly married, is not sent on any mission for a year. To enter court in decayed robes, or to live promiscuously with his servants, taking place among them according to age:--all these things are contrary to propriety. Where we have them, we have what is called ‘ruler and minister sharing the state.’

21. Thus, the son of Heaven has his domain that he may settle there his sons and grandsons; and the feudal princes have their states; and Great officers their appanages that they may do the same for theirs. This constitutes ‘the statutory arrangement.’

22. Thus, when the son of Heaven goes to visit a feudal prince, the rule is that he shall lodge in the ancestral temple, and that he do not enter it without having with him all the rules to be observed. If he act otherwise, we have an instance of ‘The son of Heaven perverting the laws, and throwing the regulations into confusion.’ A prince, unless it be to ask about the sick or to condole with a mourner, does not enter the house of a minister. If he act otherwise, we have the case of ‘ruler and minister playing with each other.’

23. Therefore, ceremonies form a great instrument in the hands of a ruler. It is by them that he resolves what is doubtful and brings to light what is abstruse; that he conducts his intercourse with spiritual beings, examines all statutory arrangements, and distinguishes benevolence from righteousness; it is by them, in short, that government is rightly ordered, and his own tranquillity secured.

24. When government is not correct, the ruler’s seat is insecure. When the ruler’s seat is insecure, the great ministers revolt, and smaller ones begin pilfering. Punishments then are made severe, and manners deteriorate. Thus the laws become irregular, and the rules of ceremony uncertain. When these are uncertain, officers do not perform their duties; and when punishments become severe, and manners deteriorate, the people do not turn to what is right. We have that condition which may be described as ‘an infirm state.’

25. In this way government is the means by which the ruler keeps and protects his person, and therefore it must have a fundamental connection with Heaven. This uses a variety of ways in sending down the intimations of Its will. As learned from the altars of the land, these are receptivity and docility imparted to the earth. As learned from the ancestral temple, they are benevolence and righteousness. As learned from the altars of the hills and streams, they are movement and activity. As learned from the five sacrifices of the house, they are the statutes of their various spirits. It is in this way that the sage rulers made provision for the safe keeping of their persons.

26. Hence the sage forms a ternion with Heaven and Earth, and stands side by side with spiritual beings, in order to the right ordering of government. Taking his place on the ground of the principles inherent in them, he devised ceremonies in their order; calling them to the happy exercise of that in which they find pleasure, he secured the success of the government of the people.

27. Heaven produces the seasons. Earth produces all the sources of wealth. Man is begotten by his father, and instructed by his teacher. The ruler correctly uses these four agencies, and therefore he stands in the place where there is no error.

28. Hence the ruler is he to whose brightness men look; he does not seek to brighten men. It is he whom men support; he does not seek to support men. It is he whom men serve; he does not seek to serve men. If the ruler were to seek to brighten men, he would fall into errors. If he were to seek to nourish men, he would be unequal to the task. If he were to seek to serve men, he would be giving up his position. Therefore the people imitate the ruler, and we have their self-government; they nourish their ruler, and they find their security in doing so; they serve the ruler, and find their distinction in doing so. Thus it is by the universal application of the rules of propriety, that the lot and duty of different classes are fixed; thus it is that men acting contrary to those rules, would all have to account death a boon, and life an evil.

29. Therefore the ruler, making use of the wisdom of others, will put away the cunning to which that wisdom might lead him; using their courage, he will in the same way put away passion; and using their benevolence, he will put away covetousness.

30. Therefore, when calamity comes on a state, for the ruler to die for its altars is to be regarded as right; but for a Great officer to die for the ancestral temple is to be regarded as a change of the duty required from him.

31. Therefore when it is said that the ruler being a sage can look on all under the sky as one family, and on all in the Middle states as one man, this does not mean that he will do so on premeditation and purpose. He must know men’s feelings, lay open to them what they consider right, show clearly to them what is advantageous, and comprehend what are their calamities. Being so furnished, he is then able to effect the thing.

32. What are the feelings of men? They are joy, anger, sadness, fear, love, disliking, and liking. These seven feelings belong to men without their learning them. What are ‘the things which men consider right?’ Kindness on the part of the father, and filial duty on that of the son; gentleness on the part of the elder brother, and obedience on that of the younger; righteousness on the part of the husband, and submission on that of the wife; kindness on the part of elders, and deference on that of juniors; with benevolence on the part of the ruler, and loyalty on that of the minister;--these ten are the things which men consider to be right. Truthfulness in speech and the cultivation of harmony constitute what are called ‘the things advantageous to men.’ Quarrels, plundering, and murders are ‘the things disastrous to men.’ Hence, when a sage ruler would regulate the seven feelings of men, cultivate the ten virtues that are right; promote truthfulness of speech, and the maintenance of harmony; show his value for kindly consideration and complaisant courtesy; and put away quarrelling and plundering, if he neglect the rules of propriety, how shall he succeed?

33. The things which men greatly desire are comprehended in meat and drink and sexual pleasure; those which they greatly dislike are comprehended in death, exile, poverty, and suffering. Thus liking and disliking are the great elements in men’s minds. But men keep them hidden in their minds, where they cannot be fathomed or measured. The good and the bad of them being in their minds, and no outward manifestation of them being visible, if it be wished to determine these qualities in one uniform way, how can it be done without the use of the rules of propriety implied in the ceremonial usages?

34. Man is the product of the attributes of Heaven and Earth, by the interaction of the dual forces of nature, the union of the animal and intelligent souls, and the finest subtile matter of the five elements.

35. Heaven exercises the control of the strong and light force, and hangs out the sun and stars. Earth exercises the control of the dark and weaker force, and gives vent to it in the hills and streams. The five elements are distributed through the four seasons, and it is by their harmonious action that the moon is produced, which therefore keeps waxing for fifteen days and waning for fifteen.

36. The five elements in their movements alternately displace and exhaust one another. Each one of them, in the revolving course of the twelve months of the four seasons, comes to be in its turn the fundamental one for the time.

37. The five notes of harmony, with their six upper musical accords, and the twelve pitch-tubes, come each, in their revolutions among themselves, to be the first note of the scale.

38. The five flavours, with the six condiments, and the twelve articles of diet, come each one, in their revolutions in the course of the year, to give its character to the food.

39. The five colours, with the six elegant figures, which they form on the two robes, come each one, in their revolutions among themselves, to give the character of the dress that is worn.

40. Therefore Man is the heart and mind of Heaven and Earth, and the visible embodiment of the five elements. He lives in the enjoyment of all flavours, the discriminating of all notes of harmony, and the enrobing of all colours.

41. Thus it was that when the sages would make rules for men, they felt it necessary to find the origin of all things in heaven and earth; to make the two forces of nature the commencement of all; to use the four seasons as the handle of their arrangements; to adopt the sun and stars as the recorders of time, the moon as the measurer of work to be done, the spirits breathing in nature as associates, the five elements as giving substance to things, rules of propriety and righteousness as their instruments, the feelings of men as the field to be cultivated, and the four intelligent creatures as domestic animals to be reared.

42. The origin of all things being found in heaven and earth, they could be taken in hand, one after the other. The commencement of these being found in the two forces of nature, their character and tendencies could be observed. The four seasons being used as a handle, the people could be stimulated to the business of each. The sun and stars being constituted the measures of time, that business could be laid out in order. The moon being taken as the measure of work to be done, that work could be accomplished successfully. The spirits breathing in nature being considered as associates, what is done will be maintained permanently. The five elements being considered as giving substance to things, what has been done could be repeated. Rules of propriety and righteousness being viewed as the instruments, whatever was done would be completed. The feelings of men being the field to be cultivated, men would look up to the sages as to their lords. The four intelligent creatures being made to become domestic animals, there would be constant sources of food and drink.

43. What were the four intelligent creatures? They were the Khî-lin, the phoenix, the tortoise, and the dragon. When the dragon becomes a domestic animal, all other fishes and the sturgeon do not lie hidden from men in the mud. When the phoenix becomes so, the birds do not fly from them in terror. When the Khî-lin does so, the beasts do not scamper away. When the tortoise does so, the feelings of men take no erroneous course.

44. The ancient kings made use of the stalks and the tortoise-shell; arranged their sacrifices; buried their offerings of silk; recited their words of supplication and benediction; and made their statutes and measures. In this way arose the ceremonial usages of the states, the official departments with their administrators, each separate business with its own duties, and the rules of ceremony in their orderly arrangements.

45. Thus it was that the ancient kings were troubled lest the ceremonial usages should not be generally understood by all below them. They therefore sacrificed to God in the suburb of the capital, and thus the place of heaven was established. They sacrificed at the altar of the earth inside the capital, and thus they intimated the benefits derived from the earth. Their sacrifices in the ancestral temple gave their fundamental place to the sentiments of humanity. Those at the altars of the hills and streams served to mark their intercourse with the spirits breathing in nature. Their five sacrifices of the house were a recognition of the various business which was to be done. For the same reason, there are the officers of prayer in the ancestral temple; the three ducal ministers in the court; and the three classes of old men in the college. In front of the king there were the sorcerers, and behind him the recorders; the diviners by the tortoise-shell and by the stalks, the blind musicians and their helpers were all on his left and right. He himself was in the centre. His mind had nothing to do, but to maintain what was entirely correct.

46. By means of the ceremonies performed in the suburb, all the spirits receive their offices. By means of those performed at the altar of the earth, all the things yielded by the earth receive their fullest development. By means of those in the ancestral temple, the services of filial duty and of kindly affection come to be discharged. By means of those at the five sacrifices of the house, the laws and rules of life are correctly exhibited. Hence when the ideas in these sacrifices in the suburb, at the altar of the earth, in the ancestral temple, at the altars of the hills and streams, and of the five sacrifices of the house are fully apprehended, the ceremonies used are found to be lodged in them.

47. From all this it follows that rules of ceremony must be traced to their origin in the Grand Unity. This separated and became heaven and earth. It revolved and became the dual force in nature. It changed and became the four seasons. It was distributed and became the breathings thrilling in the universal frame. Its lessons transmitted to men are called its orders; the law and authority of them is in Heaven. While the rules of ceremony have their origin in heaven, the movement of them reaches to earth. The distribution of them extends to all the business of life. They change with the seasons; they agree in reference to the variations of lot and condition. In regard to man, they serve to nurture his nature. They are practised by means of offerings, acts of strength, words and postures of courtesy, in eating and drinking, in the observances of capping, marriage, mourning, sacrificing, archery, chariot-driving, audiences, and friendly missions.

48. Thus propriety and righteousness are the great elements for man’s character; it is by means of them that his speech is the expression of truth and his intercourse with others the promotion of harmony; they are like the union of the cuticle and cutis, and the binding together of the muscles and bones in strengthening the body. They constitute the great methods by which we nourish the living, bury the dead, and serve the spirits of the departed. They supply the channels by which we can apprehend the ways of Heaven and act as the feelings of men require. It was on this account that the sages knew that the rules of ceremony could not be dispensed with, while the ruin of states, the destruction of families, and the perishing of individuals are always preceded by their abandonment of the rules of propriety,

49. Therefore the rules of propriety are for man what the yeast is for liquor. The superior man by his use of them becomes better and greater. The small man by his neglect of them becomes meaner and worse.

50. Therefore the sage kings cultivated and fashioned the lever of righteousness and the ordering of ceremonial usages, in order to regulate the feelings of men. Those feelings were the field to be cultivated by the sage kings. They fashioned the rules of ceremony to plough it. They set forth the principles of righteousness with which to plant it. They instituted the lessons of the school to weed it. They made love the fundamental subject by which to gather all its fruits, and they employed the training in music to give repose to the minds of learners.

51. Thus, rules of ceremony are the embodied expression of what is right. If an observance stand the test of being judged by the standard of what is right, although it may not have been among the usages of the ancient kings, it may be adopted on the ground of its being right.

52. The idea of right makes the distinction between things, and serves to regulate the manifestation of humanity. When it is found in anything and its relation to humanity has been discussed, the possessor of it will be strong.

53. Humanity is the root of right, and the embodying of deferential consideration. The possessor of it is honoured.

54. Therefore to govern a state without the rules of propriety would be to plough a field without a share. To make those rules without laying their foundation in right would be to plough the ground and not sow the seed. To think to practise the right without enforcing it in the school would be to sow the seed and not weed the plants. To enforce the lessons in the schools, and insist on their agreement with humanity, would be to weed and not to reap. To insist on the agreement of the lessons with humanity, and not give repose to the minds of the learners by music, would be to reap, and not eat the product. To supply the repose of music and not proceed to the result of deferential consideration would be to eat the product and get no fattening from it.

55. When the four limbs are all well proportioned, and the skin is smooth and full, the individual is in good condition. When there is generous affection between father and son, harmony between brothers, and happy union between husband and wife, the family is in good condition. When the great ministers are observant of the laws, the smaller ministers pure, officers and their duties kept in their regular relations and the ruler and his ministers are correctly helpful to one another, the state is in good condition. When the son of Heaven moves in his virtue as a chariot, with music as his driver, while all the princes conduct their mutual intercourse according to the rules of propriety, the Great officers maintain the order between them according to the laws, inferior officers complete one another by their good faith, and the common people guard one another with a spirit of harmony, all under the sky is in good condition. All this produces what we call the state of great mutual consideration and harmony.

56. This great mutual consideration and harmony would ensure the constant nourishment of the living, the burial of the dead, and the service of the spirits of the departed. However greatly things might accumulate, there would be no entanglement among them. They would move on together without error, and the smallest matters would proceed without failure. However deep some might be, they would be comprehended. However thick and close their array, there would be spaces between them. They would follow one another without coming into contact. They would move about without doing any hurt to one another. This would be the perfection of such a state of mutual harmony.

57. Therefore the clear understanding of this state will lead to the securing of safety in the midst of danger. Hence the different usages of ceremony, and the maintenance of them in their relative proportions as many or few, are means of keeping hold of the feelings of men, and of uniting high and low, and saving them from peril.

58. The sage kings showed their sense of this state of harmony in the following way:--They did not make the occupants of the hills remove and live by the streams, nor the occupants of the islands remove and live in the plains; and thus the people complained of no hardship. They used water, fire, metal, wood, and the different articles of food and drink, each in its proper season. They promoted the marriages of men and women, and distributed rank and office, according to the years and virtues of the parties. They employed the people with due regard to their duties and wishes. Thus it was that there were no plagues of flood, drought, or insects, and the people did not suffer from bad grass or famine, from untimely deaths or irregular births. On account of all this heaven did not grudge its methods; earth did not grudge its treasures; men did not grudge the regulation of their feelings. Heaven sent down its fattening dews; earth sent forth its springs of sweet wine; hills produced implements and chariots; the Ho sent forth the horse with the map on his back. Phoenixes and Khî-lins were among the trees of the suburbs, tortoises and dragons in the ponds of the palaces, while the other birds and beasts could be seen at a glance in their nests and breeding places. All this resulted from no other cause but that the ancient kings were able to fashion their ceremonial usages so as to convey the underlying ideas of right, and embody their truthfulness so as to secure the universal and mutual harmony. This was the realisation of it.