I. Apprising the Guests.
(a) The host goes in person to apprise the principal guest, who comes out and meets him with two bows, the host responding in similar fashion, and then giving him the invitation.
(b) The guest formally declines, but ends by accepting, and the host bows twice, answered in similar fashion by the guest, who takes leave of him with two bows as he withdraws.
(c) No guest of the second degree is invited.
2. Setting Out the Mats and Vessels.
(a) Thereafter the mats for the guests are set out facing south and graded from the east.
(b) The mats for three representatives of the body of guests are laid adjoining one another and west of the first.
(c) The host's mat is laid at the top of the east steps, facing west.
(d) The wine-holder is placed to the east of the principal guest's mat, and consists of two vases with footless stands, the Dark Wine being on the left. Both the vases are supplied with ladles, and the cup-basket is placed to the south of it, all set squarely east.
(e) The used-water jar is placed to the south-east of the eastern steps, as far south of the hall as this is deep, and for its east and west position set in line with the eastern wall. The water is placed to the east of it, and the cup-basket on the west, all in a line facing squarely south.
(f) The musical instruments on stands are placed to the north-east of the water-jar, facing west.
3. The Stretching of the Target.
(a) Then they stretch the target, the lower brace being a foot from the ground.
(6) But the left end of the lower brace is not yet made ^ast, but is carried back across the centre, and tied at the other side.^
(c) The screen is set at a third of the shooting range^ from the target, on the west of the target, and five paces west of the shooting line.
4. Hurrying Up the Guests,
(a) When the meat is cooked, the host in dress clothes goes to hurry up the guests. These, also in dress clothes, come out to meet him and bow twice, the host responding with two bows, and then with- drawing, the guests sending him on his way with two bows.
(b) Thereupon the principal guest and the body of guests follow him.
5. Receiving the Guests and Bowing to them on Arrival.
(a) When they come to the door of the school, an assistant of the host comes out to meet them outside the door, and bows twice, the principal guest responding
with two bows. After this he makes a salute of invitation to the body of guests. Then the host goes out, and he and the principal guest exchange salutes ; after which the host enters first, the principal guest waving his hand to the body of guests, and all together entering to the left of the door, and, taking their places, facing east and graded^ from the north, the principal guest standing a little in advance.
(b) Then the host and the principal guest salute one another, the regular three times as they go up the court together. When they reach the steps, there are the usual three yieldings of precedence, the host going up one step at a time, and the guest one after him. When the host reaches the top of the eastern steps under the eave-beam, he faces north and bows twice, the guest at the head of the west steps, and also under the eave-beam, facing north and replying to him with two bows.
6 The Host offers Wine to the Principal Guest.
(a) The host then sits, and, taking a cup from the upper cup-basket, goes down with it. The guest going down also, and the host in front of the eastern steps, with his face to the west, sits, and, laying down the cup, rises and excuses himself the honour. To this the guest makes a suitable reply.
(b) Then the host sits, and, taking the cup, rises and goes to the water-jar. Sitting down, he faces south, and lays the cup at the foot of the basket, rises, washes his hands and then the cup. The guest advances, and, standing with his face north-east, declines the honour done him by washing the cup for him. The host sits down, lays the cup by the cup-basket, rises, and makes his reply ; after which the guest returns to his place at the foot of the steps.
(c) When the host has finished washing, with one salute and one yielding of precedence, he leads the guest up. The guest at the head of the western steps, with his face to the north, bows in acknowledgment of the washing. The host at the top of the eastern steps faces north, lays down the cup, and bows in return.
(d) Then he goes down again and the guest also, the host excusing himself the honour, and the guest replying. When the host has finished washing his hands preparatory to ladling out the wine, he ascends with one salute and one yielding of precedence, the guest ascending also, and taking his stand at the head of the western steps in an attitude of expectancy.
(e) Then the host sits, and, taking the cup, fills it, offering it to the guest at the front of his mat, and facing north-west. The guest at the top of the western steps faces north and bows, and the host retires a little.
(f) Then the guest advances and takes the cup in front of his mat, returning afterwards to his place. Whereupon the host at the head of the eastern steps bows, inviting him to drink, the guest retiring a little.
(g) Then the dried flesh and hash are served, and the guest gets on to the mat from the west side. Whereupon the stand with the dismembered joints is set down, and the host stands at the east of the east steps in an expectant attitude. The guest sits, and, taking the cup in his left hand, makes an offering with his right of the dried flesh and hash. Then, laying the cup to the left of the relishes, he rises, and, taking the lung, sits, cuts off the end, and offers it ; and, with left hand uppermost, tastes it, rises, and places it on the stand.
(h) Sitting down, he wipes his hands, and, taking 77
the cup, pours a libation of the wine, rises, and, sitting again at the end of his mat, sips the wine, leaves the mat, sits, lays down the cup, and bows in acknowledgment of the quality of the wine. He then takes the cup and rises, the host at the head of the steps acknowledging his goodness with a bow.
(i) Then the guest at the head of the west steps, and facing north, sits and drinks off the cup, rises, sits, sets down the cup, and bows. He takes the cup and rises, the host at the head of the eastern steps acknowledging his politeness with a bow.
7. The Principal Guest Toasts the Host.
(a) The principal guest then takes the empty cup and descends the steps, the host going down also. Then the guest, in front of the western steps, sits facing east, lays down the cup, rises, and excuses him- self the honour of the host's descent, the host replying suitably.
(b) The guest sits again, takes the cup, rises, goes to the water-jar, faces north, sits, lays the cup at the foot of the basket, rises, washes his hands and the cup. The host, standing to the east of the eastern steps, faces south, and excuses himself the honour of the washing. Then the guest sits, lays the cup by the basket, rises, and replies, and the host goes back to his place at the top of the eastern steps.
(c) The guest, after finishing the washing, ascends with the usual forms, and the host bows in acknowledgment of the washing. The guest bows in return, rises, goes down, and washes his hands with the ceremonial used by the host.
(d) The guest ascends, fills the cup, comes to the front of the host's mat, and, with his face to the south-west, offers the toast to the host. He, at the top of
his steps, bows, and the guest draws back a little. The host then advances, and, receiving the cup, returns to his place, the guest at the head of the western steps bowing and inviting him to drink.
(e) The dried flesh and hash are served, and the host goes on to his mat from the north side. There-upon the stand of dismembered joints is set down, and he makes his offering as the guest did, but does not praise the quality of the wine. From the front of his mat he goes to the top of the steps, sits facing north, and finishes the cup, rises, sits, lays down the cup, and bows, takes it again and rises, the guest at the top of the western steps, and facing north, replying with a bow. The host then sits, lays the cup at the end of the inner wall, and at the head of the eastern steps bows twice, in acknowledgment of the honour done to his wine, the guest at the top of the western steps responding with two bows.
8. The Host Pledges the Principal Guest.
(a) The host sits, and, taking the goblet from the cup-basket, descends the steps.
(h) The guest also descends, and the host, laying down the goblet, excuses himself the honour, where-upon the guest replies and takes his stand, facing east. The host then sits, takes the goblet, and washes it. The guest does not decline the honour of the washing. When the washing is finished, they go up with the usual formalities, and the guest takes his stand at the head of the western steps in an attitude of expectancy.
(c) The host then fills the goblet and pledges the guest. He goes to the top of his steps, faces north, sits, lays down the goblet, and bows, takes it again and rises, the guest at the top of the western steps replying with a bow. Then the host sits and pours a libation,
after which he drinks off the goblet ; and when this is done, rises, sits, lays down the goblet, bows, takes the goblet, and rises. The guest at the top of the western steps responds with a bow.
(d) Then the host goes down to wash the goblet, followed by the guest, and he declines, as in the case of the presentation of the wine. When they go up, the guest does not bow acknowledging the washing, but stands at the head of the western steps. Then the host fills the goblet, and in front of the guest's mat faces north. The guest at the top of the western steps bows. The host then sits, and lays the goblet to the west of the relishes. The guest excuses himself, but sits, takes the goblet, and rises, returning to his place. The host then, at the top of the eastern steps bows, asking him to drink, and the guest, facing north, sits down, and, laying down the goblet to the east of the relishes, returns to his place.
(e) The host then makes a salute and goes down, the guest following and standing facing east, to the west side of the western steps, in line with the w-est inner wall.
g. The Host Offers Wine to the Body of Guests.
(a) Vide VI, 11, a.
(b) and (c). Vide VI., 11, b. The only difference being that the cup here is taken from the end of the inner wall, where it had last been placed.
(d) Vide VI., 11, c.
(e) Vide VI., 11, d.
(f) Vide VI., 11, e.
(g) Vide VI., 11, f and g.
10. One Man Raises the Goblet,
(a) Vide VI., 12, a and b.
(b) Vide VI, 12, c and d.
VERY EARLY HATS.
To face p. 80.
11. The Ceremonial when a Notable Man is Present.
(a) If among the great officers who come there happens to be a notable, he enters by the left of the door.
(b) The host goes down the steps to meet him inside the door.
(c) The principal guest and the body of guests also descend, and return to their places to the west of the western steps.
(d) The host leads the great officer up the steps with the usual ceremonial, and then bows in acknowledgment of his coming, the great officer bowing in return. Then the host takes the cup and descends, the great officer descending also. The host excuses himself the honour, and the great officer excuses himself the honour of having the cup washed for him, just as in the case of a guest. The notable's mat is spread to the east of the wine-holder.
(e) When they re-ascend the great officer does not bow in acknowledgment of the washing. The host fills the cup, and standing before the great officer's mat, offers it. He, at the head of the western steps, bows, and, advancing, receives the cup and returns to his place. Then the host, standing at his right hand, bows, inviting him to drink.
(f) The great officer declines the honour of more mats than one, and the host makes a reply, but does not have the additional mats taken away.
(g) Then they bring forward the dried flesh and hash, and when the great officer has ascended his mat, the stand of dismembered joints is placed, and the offering proceeds according to the usage in the case of an ordinary guest ; but the great officer does not taste the lungs, sip the wine, or praise its quality. On the
VOL. I. 81 G
top of the western steps he finishes the cup and bows the host bowing in return.
(h) Then the great officer descends to wash the cup, and the host returns to the east step and goes down, the declining by the great officer being as before. When the washing is complete, the host washes his hands, and they go up with the usual ceremony. The great officer hands the cup to the host between t"he pillars, and returns to his place. The host fills the cup, and proceeds to drink the toast at the top of the western steps. Sitting, he lays down the cup and bows, the great officer bowing in return. The host then sits, pours a libation, finishes the cup, and bows, the great officer bowing in return.
(i) The host, sitting down, lays the cup to the south of the west pillar, and bows twice in acknowledgment of the honour done to his wine, the great officer returning his bow. The host then returns to the eastern steps, and, saluting, goes down, the great officer also descending, and taking his stand to the south of the principal guest.
(j) The host then leads the principal guest up with the usual ceremony, and the great officer and three seniors of the body of guests ascend the steps and go to their mats.
12. The Music.
(a) The mats for the musicians are spread at the top of the western steps, and a little to the east. The bandmaster first goes up, and stands to the west of them, with his face to the north.
(b) Vide VI., 13, b and d, except that, instead of saying as there, " the heads of the lutes to the back," this says, "the heads of the lutes to the front."
(c) Then the organ-blowers enter below the hall, and stand to the west of the suspended instruments.
(d) Vide Vl., 13, p.
(e) Vide VI., 13, g.
(f) The host takes a cup from the upper cup-basket, and offers wine to the musicians.
(g) If a Grand Master of Music be present, the cup is washed for him. The principal guest goes down the steps to attend the washing, and the host excuses himself the honour ; but the musicians do not excuse themselves the honour of having the cup washed for them, and after he has finished the washing he ascends the steps and fills the cup.
(h) The musicians do not rise, but taking their lutes in their left hands, the senior bows and receives the cup, the host at the head of the eastern steps bowing and inviting him to drink.
(i) Then the dried flesh and hash are served, and a man is deputed to help the musicians to make the offering. The senior musician does not bow when drinking, but finishes the cup and hands it back to the host. Nor do the rest of the musicians bow in receiving the cup. They pour a libation when about to drink, but take the dried flesh and hash as they please without making an offering.
(j and k) Vide VI., 13, m and n.
(l) Then the host takes the cup, descends the steps, and, placing it in the cup-basket, returns, ascends the steps, and goes to his mat.
13. The Appointment of an Overseer . This section is practically identical with Chap. VII., sect. I ; the additional details in the text here will be found in that paragraph.
14. The Invitation to Shoot, (a) Before the general pledging, which finishes the entertainment —
(b) The three pairs of contestants chosen by the director of archery from among the most proficient of his pupils take their stand to the west of the western hall, facing south, and graded from the east.
(c) Then the director of archery goes to the west of the western hall, and, baring his left arm, and putting on his finger-stall and armlet, takes his bow from the west of the western steps, and, laying his set of four arrows on the bow, mounts the western steps, and at their top faces north, and announces to the principal guest : " The bows and arrows are ready, and your servant invites you to shoot."
(d) The principal guest replies : " I am no adept at shooting, but I accept on behalf of these gentlemen."
(e) Then the director of archery goes to the top of the eastern steps, and, facing north-east, announces to the host : " I have invited the guests to shoot, and they have consented."
15. Bringing in the Implements of Archery.
(a) Then the director of archery descends by the western steps, and, standing in front of them and facing westward, commands the junior pupils to bring in the implements of archery.
(h) Whereupon they bring them in. These are all together at the west of the western hall. The bows of the principal guest and the great officer are placed leaning against the western inner wall, with the arrows below them, the feathered ends being to the north. The rest of the bows are leant against the west side of the west hall, with their arrows above them.
(c) The host's bow and arrows are leant against the east side of the eastern inner wall.
16. Arranging the Three Sets of Competitors.
The director of archery does not lay down his bow and arrows, but uses them to discriminate the three sets of competitors to the west of the western hall. Then, standing to the south of these three couples, and facing north, he says to the first shot in each couple : " So-and-so will wait on your honour." To the second shot he says : " Your honour will shoot with his honour So-and-so."
17. Tying the Cord, and Placing the Flag.
(a) The overseer then takes up the duties of the master-at-arms. 3
(b) Then, as master-at-arms, he orders the stretching of the target, and the pupils undo the knot, and make fast the lower left brace.
(c) The master-at-arms also orders the marker to lean the flag against the centre of the target. He comes from the west side, and, sitting, takes the flag, leans it against the centre of the target, and withdraws.
18. The Removal of the Musical Instruments.
(a) The bandmaster then goes to the west side and commands the pupils to assist the musicians in removing the instruments to the court below the hall.
(b) The pupils assist the musicians, as when they first entered, to descend by the west steps, and seat themselves facing west to the south-east of the eastern steps in line with the eastern hall, and three arrows' 4 length from it, grading themselves from the north.
(c) And the bandmaster takes his stand to the south of them, and faces north.
19. The Three Couples take their Places for Shooting.
(a) The director of archery, still with his set of arrows on the bow, uses them to direct the three shooting couples, each yielding precedence to his fellow, to take their bows and arrows and arrange them.
(b) The three couples all bare the left arm, and put on the finger-stall and armlet. Assistants, grasping the hold of the bow in their left hand, and the string in their right, hand the bows to the combatants, and after these the arrows.
(c) All the members of the three couples then take their bows, and thrusting three of the arrows into the girdle, lay one on the string.
(d) The director of archery then first takes his stand to the south-west of where they are to place the tally-holder later, with his face to the east.
(e) The three couples then advance from the west of their director, and, taking their places to the south-west of him, face east, and, grading from the north, stand ready.
20. Demonstrating the Method of Shooting.
(a) The director of archery stands to the north of the three couples with his face to the east, and putting three arrows in his belt, lays one on the string.
(b) He then salutes, and invites them to advance. When they are opposite the steps he faces north and salutes, does so again when they reach the steps, and once more when they ascend to the hall. In the case of a school with no back apartments to it, he keeps to the inner side of the pillar, but in the case of a hall he passes to the outside. When he comes opposite the
left shooting-mark he faces north and salutes, and again salutes when he comes to the west mark.
(c) He then puts his left foot on the mark, but does not bring his two feet together. Then, turning his head, he looks over his left shoulder at the centre of the target, and afterwards bends over to the right and adjusts his right foot.
(d) The flag is not taken away.
(e) Then the director shows them how to shoot, using the whole set of four arrows. Thereafter he takes the bow, not putting an arrow on it, but holding the string with his right hand.
(f) He then salutes, facing south, as when he goes up to shoot. Thereafter he descends, and, issuing by the south of his former station, goes to the west of the western hall, and instead of taking, as formerly, four arrows, now takes one and fits it on the string.
(g) Then he goes to the western steps, and, taking his rod,^ puts it into his belt and goes back to his place.