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I. The General Pledging 1 

(a) The principal guest, turning his face northwards, sits down and takes the goblet from the west of the meat-stand, gets up, and at the head of the eastern steps faces north and pledges the host, who descends from his mat and stands to the east of the guest. 

(6) Then the principal guest sits down, and, laying down the goblet, bows, takes the goblet, and rises, the host returning his bow. He does not pour a libation, but finishes the goblet without bowing. Nor does he wash the goblet, but, filling it, goes forward and stands facing south-east. The host, at the top of the eastern steps, faces north and bows. The principal guest withdraws a little, and the host advances and receives the goblet, the principal guest, to the west of the host, facing north and bowing as he invites him to drink, and then saluting and returning to his mat. 

(c) The host takes the goblet to the top of the western steps in order to pledge the great officer, who leaves his mat and stands to the west of the host, using the forms which the guest used in pledging the host. Then the host salutes and goes to his mat. 

(d) If there happen to be no great officer present, the senior among the three representatives of the body of guests accepts the pledge in like fashion. 


(e) The overseer goes to the west steps and assists in the general pledging, calling on the person who is to receive the pledge as follows : " So-and-so pledges your honour So-and-so." The one to be pledged then descends from his mat. 

(f) Then the overseer retires, and stands at the end of the west inner wall, with his face to the east. 

(g) All those receiving the pledge bow, rise, and drink with the ceremonial used by the principal guest in pledging the host. When all have drunk, they pledge those below the hall, who come up and accept the pledge at the head of the western steps. The last one to receive the pledge takes the goblet down and places it in the cup-basket. Then the overseer descends and returns to his place. 

2. Two Men Raise the Goblet. 

(a) Two men are then told off to raise the goblet to the principal guest and the great officer. 

(b) The goblet-raisers both wash goblets, and, ascending, fill them, and then, at the top of the western steps, with faces northward, sit down, and, laying down the goblets, bow, take them again, and rise. The principal guest and the great officer return these bows from the end of their mats. Then the goblet- raisers both sit down, and, pouring a libation, drink off" their goblets, rise, sit, lay down the goblets, bow, take them again and rise, the principal guest and great officer both returning their bows. 

(c) Then the goblet-raisers descend in the reverse order of their ascent, wash the goblets, ascend, fill them, and both take their stand at the head of the western steps, facing north and graded from the east. The principal guest and the great officer bow. The goblet-raisers both advance, sit, and lay down the 


goblets to the right of the relishes. The guest and great officer ask to be excused this added honour, but sit and accept the goblet and rise. The goblet-raisers withdraw, and, returning to their places, both bow, inviting them to drink. Then they descend, and the guest and great officer sit, return the goblets to their places, and get up. 

(d) If no great officer happen to be present, then only the senior of the cup-lifters officiates, and he offers only to the principal guest. 

3. Removing the Meat-Stands. 

(a) Vide VII., 4, a to c. 

(b) Vide VII., 4, d and e, except that the reference to guests of the second grade is here omitted, and the definite " great officer " takes the place of the indefinite " notable." 

(c) Then the principal guest takes the stand, and, turning, hands it to the overseer, who proceeds to descend the western steps with it, followed by the guest, who stands to the west of the steps with his face east, while the overseer takes the stand out and hands it to the assistant for taking to the guest's lodging. 

(d) The host takes his stand, and, turning, hands it to the pupil, who receives it, and, going down by the west steps, turns eastward, and hands it to an attendant. The host goes down by the east steps and stands, facing west. 

(e) The great officer takes his stand, and, turning, hands it to a pupil, who takes it, and, going down the west steps, leaves the house, and hands it to an assistant. The great officer follows the pupil, and, descending, stands to the south of the principal guest. 

(f) The representatives of the body of guests


descend together, and stand to the south of the great officer, a little farther back and graded from the north. 

4. Putting Off the Shoes and Ascending the Hall. 

The host salutes, and yields precedence with the principal guest in putting off their shoes and ascending to the hall, the great officer and the representatives of the body of guests also putting off theirs and going up to sit down. 

5. The Drinking without Measure. 

(a) Then the dainties are brought in. 

(b) And drinking without measure is engaged in. Two men are told off to raise the goblets. The principal guest and the great officer do not rise, but, taking the goblets which have been laid down for them, they drink, and do not bow when they are finished. 

(c) The cup-bearers then receive the goblets from them, and, filling them, hand the guest's to the host, while the senior of the body of guests receives the cup the great officer had used. In the next turn the order is reversed.^ 

(d) When all have drunk, the man who receives the cup last rises and pledges the rest of the company in the court, at the top of the western steps. 

(e) The leader of these accepts the pledge. The one who offers the pledge does not bow, but drinks off the goblet, and then fills it. 

(f) Nor does the one who receives the pledge bow as he accepts it. 

(g) And when all are pledged they all abstain from bowing. 


(h) The goblet-bearers all take part in the general pledging. 

(i) The last to receive the pledge takes the empty-goblet down the steps and places it in the cup-basket. 

(j ) Then the cup-bearers take goblets, and, going up, fill them, and begin again by laying them before the principal guest and great officer. 

(k) Thereupon music is performed, without taking account of the number or order of tunes. 

6. The Guests Leave. 

(a) As the principal guest gets up, the bandmaster commands the musicians to strike up the Kai (Vide VII., note 2). Then, as, in descending, he reaches the head of the steps, the Kai is played. 

(b) With the departure of the principal guest, the body of guests also leave, the host escorting them outside the door and bowing twice. 

7. Acknowledging the Bounty and the Condescension. 

(a) On the morrow the guests, in their dress clothes, come and bow in acknowledgment of the host's bounty outside the door of the school, the host excusing himself from seeing them. 3

(b) The host, dressed as his visitors had been, follows them home, and, after bowing outside their several doors, in acknowledgment of their condescension without seeing them, withdraws. 

8. Relieving the Overseer of his Office. 

(a) Then the host, putting off his dress clothes, relieves the overseer of his office, and invites him to drink wine. There are no guests of the second degree at the ceremony. 



To fate p. 112. 

(b) No animal is killed. A man is sent to hurry-up the guests, and they are met outside the door. They do not bow, but enter and ascend the steps. Neither is their arrival acknowledged with a bow, nor do they bow in acknowledgment of the washing of the cup. The relishes are served, but there is no meat-stand. 

(c) When the guest toasts the host, the host does not bow in acknowledgment of the honour done to his wine, nor does he bow to the body of guests. 

(d) When the wine has been offered to the guests one man raises the goblet, and the drinking without measure follows. 

(e) There is no overseer appointed. 

(f) Nor does the principal guest take any part in the ceremony. 

(g) They invite any who care to come, announcing the entertainment to the retired officials and notables of the district, if that is desired. 

(h) The dainties used are such as they happen to have, and the music is such as they care to call for. 

9. Forty-eight Notes. 

(i) The Principal Guest. If great officers are taking part in the entertainment, then one in official employ is invited to be the principal guest. Since all invited are versed in ceremonial, there is neither the apprising nor the bidding of the guests. 

(2) The Animal. Wine-Holder, Cover, and Mats. 

Vide VII, II, (3), (4), and (5). 

(3) The Mat at the Western Inner Wall. 

The head of the mat at the foot of the western inner wall is laid to the north. 

VOL. I. 113 I 

(4) The Use of the Cup and the Goblet, and the Rule for those Bowing with the Cup. 

Vide VII, II, (5), and (8), a. 

(5) Concerning the Dried Flesh and Hash. 

The dried flesh is brought in in a splint-basket, and is in five shoes, with half a slice for offering laid across on the top. The pickled hash is in a holder. They are brought from the eastern chamber. The slices are I foot 2 inches long. 

(6) The Meat-Stand. 

Vide VII., 7. Except that here there is no reference to a stand for a guest of the second degree. 

(7) The Various Regulations for the Ceremonial. Vide VII., II, (11), and 11, (8), a, c, and d. 

(8) The Distinction between the Notables, as Feudal Duke and Great Officer. 

If there be a feudal Duke present, he is treated with the ceremony due to a principal guest; and a great officer with the ceremony due to a guest of the second degree. But if there be no feudal Duke present, then the great officer is treated with the ceremony due to the principal guest. 

(9) On the Entrance of the Great Officer^ and the Place of the Bandmaster. 

Vide VII., II, (12), and (10). 

(10) The Organs. 

For the organ music to be complete, there must be three large organs, and a small one for the accompaniment. 


(ii) Offering Wine to the Musicians and Organ Players. Vide VII., II, (13), and (14). 

(12) The Places of those who Stand. 

Vide VII., II, (9), first part. 

(13) The Regulation for the Overseer and his Relishes. 

When the overseer has raised the goblet, the relishes are served to him in his place. 

(14) The Three Couples. The three couples are taken from among the pupils, and are warned against faults by the director in front of all the competitors. 

(15) The Place where the Director's Bow^ Arrows , and Rod are Leant. 

The bow, arrows, and rod of the director are leant against the west of the west steps. 

(16) The Regulation with Regard to the Simultaneous Action of the Director of Archery and the Master-at-Aj-ms. 

When the director, having bared his left arm and put on his finger-stall and armlet, goes up into the hall, the master-at-arms commands, from in front of the steps, that the target be stretched, and then that the flag be laid against it. 

(17) The Target, 

(a) In the centre of the target the Son of Heaven has a bear's mask on a white ground ; a feudal lord has a tailed deer's mask on a dark red ground ; a great officer a white cloth ground, with the masks of a tiger and a cat drawn on it ; and the ordinary officer the 


same background, with the masks of a deer and a boar drawn on it. 

(b) The figuring of the ornamental border round the centre is on a background of light red. 

(18) The Shooting Marks, 

(a) The shooting takes place between the pillars. The marks are an arrow's length long, and a bow's length separates them. The cross-piece is a pace in length. 

(b) In a school 4 the marks are under the central beam, but in a hall they are under the second beam. 

(19) The Place from -which the Master-at-Arms orders the Marker to Stand with his Back to the Target. 

This is done by the master-at-arms from his place, and he does not ascend to the hall. 5 

(20) The Route folio-wed in Going to the West of the Hall. 

Whoever proceeds to the west of the hall passes south of the master-at-arm.s both in going and coming, but when the principal guest or a great officer descends the steps, he turns sharp to the west to get his bow and arrows. 

(21) The Banners. 

(a) For banner each uses the material proper to his rank. 

(b) If there be no material proper to his rank, then a combination of white and red feathers is used, the pole being three jén (24 feet) long, and sheathed for the upper two hsin (16 feet) with swansdown. 

(22) The Rule for Gripping the Arrows. In gripping the arrow, the archer takes it between his two fingers and sets it across the bow. 116 

(23) The Place of the Director of Archery, and the Regulation for the Master-at-Arms when Holding his Bozo. 

The director stands to the north of the master-at-arms, and if the latter have no business in hand he does not carry his bow. 

(24) The Gradual Progression in the Second and Third Shootings. The advance in the elaboration of the three shootings is indicated by this, that in the first shooting no hit is tallied, in the second the hits are tallied, and in the third the shooting takes place in time with the music, 

(25) The Places Right and Left at the Shooting. 

In shooting, the first shot takes his place on the right. 

(26) The Arrow-Stand. 

(a) The arrow-stand is as long as an arrow-shaft, 3 inches broad, and ij inches deep. The ends are shaped like dragons' heads, and the middle like intertwined snakes. The band between the heads is of light red leather. 

(b) It is painted red and black. It is held with two hands across the body, and the bearer sits, facing south, to lay it down. Its position on the north and south line is abreast the used-water jar. 

(27) The Punishment. 

If the pupils in shooting break the rules of form, they are beaten.^ 

(28) The Body of Guests up in the Hall. 

As the three representatives of the body of guests do not take part with the more exalted personages, they do not descend with them. 


(29) Gathering the Arrows from the Demonstration along with the Others. 

When those sent to lift the arrows used in the demonstration have collected all the others, they gather together the set shot for the demonstration, and take them away, without placing them on the stand. 7

(30) The Director Acting as Usher at the Ascent and. Descent. 

When the principal guest and the host shoot, the director acts as usher to them in their going down and up. When they finish shooting they go on to their mats, and he returns to his place, and thus this stage of the business comes to an end. 

(31) The Tally-Holder. 

The deer-shaped tally-holder is painted in colours. The animal's forelegs are bent to kneel. Its back is hollowed out to hold eight tallies. The scorer carries it forward in both hands, the head being in front. 

(32) The Place below the Hall where the Great Officer Stands, and his Method of Baring the Left Arm, 

(a) When the great officer descends, he stands to the west of the hall, to wait his turn for shooting. 

(b) When a great officer is shooting in the company of ordinary officers he bares his left arm so as to expose his crimson under-garment, but not his flesh. His partner stands a little behind the mark. 

(33) The Laying Down by the Director of the Bow and Arrows, 

The director lays down his bow and arrows, both in examining the score and in offering wine to the scorer. 


(34) Concerning the Importance attached to Piercing the Target. 8 

In the ceremonial shootings they do not attach importance to the piercing of the hide on the target, but to the " form " and the hit. In the cases in which they attach importance to the piercing of the hide, those who are successful shoot again, but those who fail go down from the hall and take no further part. 

(35) Where the Host Stands when he Drinks. Even the host when on the losing side drinks along with the losers at the top of the western steps. 

(36) The Contents of the Meat-Stands for the Marker and Scorer.

(a) The stand offered to the marker contains the disjointed spine, ribs, lung, and lower foreleg. 

(b) The east side of the target is the right edge. 

(c) The stand for the scorer contains the disjointed spine, ribs, and lung. The stands for both of them have part of the lung prepared for sacrificing. 

(37) The Great Officer Removes the Binding of his Arrows. He does this sitting down. 

(38) The Number of Times the Song is Repeated. 

When the Tsou-yü is sung, or " Gathering the duckweed," it is repeated five times. 

(39) No Limit to the Number of Competitors. In the shooting at the end no limit is put to the number of ordinary guests who compete. 

(40) The General Pledging and the Entrance of an Ordinary Officer. 

In olden days, during the general pledging they conversed on grave and appropriate subjects. Those 


who take part in the general pledging do not wash the cup, and when it is not washed no libation is poured from it. After this pledging no ordinary officer enters. 

(41) The Regulation for the Exit of the Great Officer. 

In leaving, the great officer follows the host out the door, and the latter bids farewell to him outside the door with two bows. 

(42) The Measurements for the District Target. 9 

(a) The target used at the district archery meetings is five hsin (40 feet) at the upper edge, and 10 feet square at the centre. 

(b) The shooting range is fifty bow-lengths (300 feet). The centre is measured with a bow 2 inches thick at the hold. 

(c) The edging is twice the breadth of the centre, and the right and left tongue are together twice the length of the edging. The lower tongue is half the length of the upper. 

(43) The Number of Arrows. The arrows number eighty, each a foot and a grip long, with the grip scraped white. 

(44) The Rod. The rod is a rough thorn branch an arrow's length long, and smoothed at the handle for i foot of its length. 

(45) The Regulations for the Riders Shooting, 

(a) When the Prince shoots he takes place as the second shot. The first shot retires an arrow's length behind his mark. When he has loosed, he turns face to the Prince, and stands at attention. 

(b) The Prince waits for the music to begin before


going to the mark. For the shooting he bares his arm only to his red under-garment. An under-servant uses a napkin to wipe the bow, and holds the arrows as he hands them to him. 

(c) If the Prince be on the losing side and be offered wine, the ceremonial used is that proper at the feast, and he drinks twice, refilling for himself. 

(46) The Sets of Tally-Holders and Flags. 

(a) When the Prince shoots in the city the tally-holder is in the figure of a pi-shu, 10 and a feather standard is used by the marker, of red and white feathers combined. 

(b) When the shooting is in the suburbs 11 the tally-holder is a lu, 12 and an ordinary standard is used by the marker. 

(c) If the shooting take place in the provinces, the tally-holder is tiger-shaped, and the marker uses a dragon banner. 

(d) Great officers have a tally-holder in the shape of a rhinoceros, and each rank a banner of the material proper to it for the use of its marker. An ordinary officer has a deer-shaped tally-holder, and the marker uses a standard of feathers. 

(47) Ministers do not hold Shooting Matches in the Capital. 

No one but the ruler holds a shooting match in the capital. 

(48) The Rule for a Great Officer in Attendance on the Prince when he Bares his Arm. 

When a Prince is present a great officer strips his arm to the skin.