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I. The Musicians Sing. 

(a) The mats for the musicians are laid at the top of the western steps, and a little to the east of them. The bandmaster 1 first ascends, and, turning his face north, stands to the west of the mats. 

(b) Retainers meet the musicians, four in number, with two small lutes. The retainers shoulder the lutes with the bodies to the front, grasping them by the sound-holes, the strings being towards them. They use the right hand to lead the musicians, and, entering, ascend by the west steps, and arranging themselves facing north, and, graded from the east, sit down, the retainers sitting down to hand them the lutes, and then descending the steps. 

(c) The musicians sing " The call of the deer," " The four steeds," and " How glorious are the flowers!" 

(d) When the songs are finished, the Master of Ceremonies washes the cup, and, ascending the steps, presents it to the musicians. They do not rise, but, holding the lute in the left hand, one of them bows and receives the cup, and the Master of Ceremonies, at the top of the west steps, bows, inviting him to drink. 

(e) The relishes are served, and a man is appointed to help the musicians with the offering. When they 


finish the drinking they do not bow, and the Master of Ceremonies receives the empty cup. 

(f) None of the musicians bow as he receives the cup, but he sits and pours a libation, and then drains the cup. The relishes are served to them all, and they do not make an offering of them. The Master of Ceremonies receives the empty cup, and, taking it down, places it in the cup-basket. 

2. The Duke Raises the Cup to Begin the General Pledging on Behalf of the Great Officers. 

The Duke also raises the goblet that was set down, 2 pledging them in whatever order he chooses. He then takes the goblet to the western steps to begin the general pledging as before, and this is brought to a close in the usual fashion. 

3. The Music Ready. ' 3

(a) The organ-players enter, and, standing among the bells and stones, play — " The southern steps," " White blossoms," and " The millet's in flower." 

(b) Then the Master of Ceremonies washes a cup, ascends, offers wine to the organ-players at the top of the western steps. One of them bows, and, ascending the steps, but not entering the hall, receives the cup and goes down, the Master of Ceremonies bowing and inviting him to drink. In front of the steps he sits, and, pouring a libation, stands up and drinks off the cup, not bowing as he finishes it. Then he goes up and hands it to the Master of Ceremonies. None of the players bows when he receives the cup, but, descending, sits, pours a libation, stands, and finishes the cup. Relishes are served to them all, and they do not offer them. 


(c) Then the musicians and organ-players perform in turns. The musicians sing, " The fish to the basket," and the organs play, "All in their kind." The musicians give, " There are barbels in the south," and the organs, " All to their best." The musicians then sing, " The T'ai of the southern hills," and the organs follow with " None but is right." Then they sing together the district music — namely, the pieces from the songs of Chou and the south called, " Kuan-kuan go the ospreys," " The fibre plant spreads far and wide," and "The mouse-ear;" and from the songs of Shao and the south, " The magpie's nest," " Gathering the southern wood," and " Gathering the duckweed." 

(d) Then the leading musician announces to the bandmaster that the suitable music has all been performed. 

(e) And the bandmaster, passing within the pillars, goes to the east of the eastern pillar and reports this announcement to the Duke, descends the steps, and returns to his place. 

4. Appointing an Over seer. 

(a) The captain of the archers, from the front of the eastern steps, asks permission to be overseer. The Duke consents, and he forthwith takes up that office. 

(b) The overseer washes the horn goblet, and, sitting, facing south, places it on the middle line of the court, ascends, and, at the east of the eastern pillar, takes his orders, and then, from the top of the western steps, bowing, with his face to the north, says to the ministers and great officers : '' The Duke commands you to put yourselves at your ease in his presence." The guests reply : " Certainly. Dare we not do so ?" 

(c) The overseer goes down by the western steps, 


and, sitting, facing south, takes the goblet, goes up, and fills it at the ordinary wine-holder, faces south, sits, lays down the goblet, turns to the right, faces north, adjusts his position carefully, and stands. He then sits down, takes the cup, rises, sits, and does not pour a libation, but finishes the goblet and sets it down, rises, sits again, and kowtows twice. 

(d) Then he turns by the left, faces south, sits, takes the goblet, washes it, turns south again, and sets the goblet in its place. 

5. Removing the Stands. 

(a) The overseer then ascends by the west steps, and, at the east of the eastern pillar, asks to be allowed to remove the stands and carry them away. The Duke assents, and the overseer announces this to the principal guest, who faces south, and takes up his stand to go out with it. The court steward then removes the Duke's stand, and, going down by the east steps, carries it to the eastern apartments. 

(b) The ministers and the great officers then descend together and stand at the foot of the steps, facing east, and graded from the north, in order to await the return of the guest. 4

6. Putting Off Shoes, Ascending, Sitting Down, and having the Dainties Served. 

(a) When the guest, on his return, enters, and reaches the place where the ministers and great officers stand, they all take off their shoes, ascend, and go to their mats. The Duke then prevails on the principal guest and the others to sit, and dispose themselves in easy postures. 

(b) Whereupon the ordinary dainties are served. 


(c) A great officer makes an offering from the relishes. 

(d) Then the overseer ascends to take his orders. These apply to all. The Duke says : " Let there be none who does not drink to the full." The guest, ministers, and great officers all rise and reply: " Certainly. Dare we not do so ?" Then all return and sit down. 

7. The Master of Ceremonies Offers Wine to the Ordinary Officers. 

(a) The Master of Ceremonies, having washed a goblet, ascends, and offers wine to the ordinary officers at the top of the western steps. The senior among them goes up, and, bowing, receives the goblet, the Master of Ceremonies bowing as he invites him. to drink it. Then the officer sits, pours a libation, stands and drinks, not bowing as he finishes the cup. The others do not bow when they receive the goblet, but sit to pour the libation, and stand to drink. 

(h) Then they bring in the relishes. The overseer, a captain of archers, the commander of the ordinary officers, and two cover-lifters, stand to the south of the goblet, facing north, and graded from the east. 

(c) The wine is offered to all the ordinary officers in succession, and each, after receiving it, goes and stands at the east side, facing west, and graded from the north. Thereafter the relishes are served to them. 

(d) The liturgist, recorder, and retainer, also go to their places, and have the relishes served to them. 

(e) Then the Master of Ceremonies goes to the wine-holder set for those who are to take part in the general feasting, and offers wine to them. They do not bow in receiving the cup, but sit to pour a libation, and stand to drink. 


8. The Archery at the Banquet. 

If there be shooting, the commandant of the archers acts as director of archery, with the ceremonial used at the district archery meetings. 

9. The Principal Guest Raises the Goblet to the Duke. 

(a) The principal guest descends and washes a goblet, then ascends to raise it to the Duke. He ladles out a cupful from the ordinary wine-holder, descends, and bows. The Duke descends one step, and a retainer declines the honour on his behalf. So the guest reascends and kowtows twice, the Duke answering with two bows. 

(b) The guest then sits and pours a libation, after which he finishes the cup and kowtows twice, the Duke responding with two bows. 

(c) Then the guest descends and washes the ivory goblet, ascends, ladles out wine from the Duke's holder, sits, and lays down the goblet to the south of the relishes. Then he descends and bows, a retainer declining the honour on behalf of the Duke. Then the guest ascends and completes his reverence, the Duke responding with two bows, and the guest returning to his place. 

10. The Duke Begins the General Pledging on Behalf of the Ordinary Officers. 

(a) The Duke sits down, and, taking the goblet which the principal guest had raised to him, pledges the officers in whatever order pleases him. 

(b) The one who receives the pledge acts as the principal guest did in like circumstances. He then descends, changes the goblet, and, washing the one he 


takes, ascends, and ladles wine into it out of the Duke's holder. Then he descends and bows, a retainer declining the honour on behalf of the Duke. Thereafter he ascends and completes his reverence, the Duke replying with a bow. He then goes to his mat and sits down, and the cup goes on its round. 

(c) Cupbearers are appointed. 

(d) Only those who receive the cup directly from the Duke bow. 

(e) Then the overseer orders the cupbearer to take the cup round, and, when he has offered it to all, the last to receive it rises and takes it to pledge the ordinary officers. 

(f) The last great officer to receive the pledge takes the cup, rises, and goes to the top of the western steps to pledge the ordinary officers. These ascend one at a time, and the great officer, laying down the goblet, bows, the ordinary officer responding with a bow. The great officer, standing, drinks off the goblet without bowing, and then fills and offers it to the ordinary officer. He bows as he receives it, the great officer bowing an invitation to him to drink. The other officers are pledged one after the other at the top of the western steps until all have partaken. 

(g) The officers fill each for the next until all are gone through. 

11. The Master of Ceremonies Offers Wine to the Cadets 5 and Those below Them. 

The Master of Ceremonies washes the goblet, and, ascending the western steps, offers wine to the cadets at the top of the steps, with the ceremonial used in the case of the ordinary officers. When they have all partaken, he descends, washes the goblet, and offers 


wine to the senior officials of the left and right divisions and the retainers, at the top of the eastern steps, with the ceremonial used towards the cadets. 

12. Drinking Without Measure. 

(a) Ordinary officers are deputed to take the lead in this — one to bear the Duke's goblet, and others to carry the ordinary cups. 

(b) The officer who bears the Duke's cup ladles wine into it, and presents it to the Duke, w^ho receives it without bowing. 

(c) Those who bear the ordinary cups fill them and present them, as ordered by the Duke. 

(d) The great officer to whom it is so given stands to receive it, leaves his mat, and, laying down the cup in front of the mat, kowtows twice, the Duke responding with two bows. 

(e) Whoever receives the cup presented by the Duke's orders takes it to his mat and sits down, waiting until the Duke has finished his own cup, and then drinking it off. 

(f) The bearer of the Duke's cup receives it when empty, fills it, and lays it down to the south of the relishes. 

(g) The great officer who receives the cup at the Duke's order rises, and hands it to the bearer of the ordinary cup, who ladles wine into it and sets it on its round. 

(h) It is only the one who receives the cup directly from the Duke who bows. The last to receive it rises, and pledges the ordinary officers at the top of the western steps. One of these ascends, but the great officer pledging him does not bow, but drinks, and then fills the cup. The ordinary officer does not bow 


in receiving the cup, and the great officer goes to his mat. 

(i) The ladling out of the wine by the ordinary officers for one another is conducted in the usual fashion. 

(j) If the Duke commands that the covers be raised in order that all the wine may be drunk, the ministers and great officers go down the steps, and, standing facing north, and graded from the east, kowtow twice, the Duke sending a retainer to decline the honour on his behalf, and they replying with two bows, the great officers all drawing aside as if unworthy the honour. 

(k) Thereafter they go up again, return to their mats, and sit down, the ordinary officers finishing their general pledging up in the hall as before. 

(l) Then follows music without restriction. 

(m) When it grows dark a cadet holds a torch at the head of the eastern steps, and the keeper of the vessels another at the head of the western steps ; while the cultivators of the ducal domain hold large torches in the court, and the doorkeeper prepares a large one outside the door. 

13. The Guests Leave. 

(a) When the principal guest has drunk as much as he can carry, he turns his face to the north, sits, and, taking the dried flesh from among his relishes, starts to go down the steps. 

(b) Then the Kai is played. 

(c) The meat that the principal guest carries is given to the bell-players under the rain-gutter of the inner gate-house. Then the guest goes out, followed by the ministers and grand officers. 

(d) The Duke, however, does not escort them.



To face p. 144. 

14. The Duke Feasts with the Visitors. 6 

(a) Then the Duke feasts with the visitors from other States.7 

(b) The invitation is extended to them in the following form : " Our unworthy Prince has some inferior wine, and, wishing your honours to spend a little time with him, he sends me to invite you." 

(c) To this they reply : " Our unworthy Prince is a feudatory of yours, so let your Prince not incur dis- grace by conferring benefits on us mere messengers. Your servants venture to decline." 

(d) The messenger replies : " My unworthy Prince insists on saying that the wine is of poor quality, and sends me to press the invitation on your honours." To which the guests reply : *' Our unworthy Prince is the feudatory of yours, and your Prince should not demean himself by showing kindness to mere messengers. Your servants venture to persist in declining." 

(e) The messenger again replies : " My unworthy Prince persists in saying the wine is of no quality, and he sends me to urge his invitation on you." They answer : " As we have failed to secure permission to decline, dare we do other than accept ?" 

(f) The words he uses in communicating his instructions are : " My unworthy Prince sends me to say that his wine is of no quality, and to invite your honours to spend a short time with him." 

(g) They reply : " Your Prince confers many favours on our unworthy ruler, and demeans himself by giving presents to mere messengers such as we are. Your servants presume to bow in acknowledgment of his gracious commands." 8

VOL. I. 145 L 

15. Thirteen Notes, 

(1) The Clothes Worn, and the Place of the Banquet. At the banquet dress clothes are worn, and the feast is held in the private apartments. 

(2) The Animal. The domestic animal slaughtered is a dog, which is cooked outside the door, and on the east side. 

(3) What Happens at the Banquet Shared by the Duke with Guests from the Four Quarters. 

(a) If guests from the four quarters take part in a banquet with the Duke, then the Duke meets them inside the great door, and they bow and yield precedence in the usual way as they approach and ascend the steps. 

(b) If the visitor be such as to call for special honour, the mat is spread for him to the west of the east steps, facing north. There is a stand of meat provided for him, but he does not taste the lungs or sip the wine. His attendants are treated as was the principal guest. 

(c) In this case there is no wine-holder or cup provided for the Duke's own use. 

(4) As to Who should be the Principal Guest. If there be ministers present, then a great officer is invited to be the principal guest. If none higher than a great officer be present, then the principal guest is also a great officer. 

(5) Those Who Serve the Dainties, and the Cover-Holders. 

The man who serves the dainties to the Duke, and the cover-holders, are all ordinary officers. It is an 


under- steward who brings in the viands for the ministers. 

(6) Matters Connected with the Full Performance of the Music. 

(a) If music be played when the guests are being received, then, when the guests reach the court, the Ssu Hsia is played. When the guest bows his thanks for the wine offered, and the Master of Ceremonies bows in return, the music stops. When the Duke bows on receiving the cup, the Ssu Hsia is played again, and when he has finished the cup, and the Master of Ceremonies goes up, and, receiving the cup, takes it down, the music again stops. 

(b) The musicians in the hall sing *' The call of the deer," and the flutes below in the court play ^' The new palace." 

(c) When the organ-players enter, they perform three tunes,^ and afterwards join in the district music. 

(d) If the Duke command dancing, they perform the Cho 10 

(7) Those Who have Meat-Stands. 

Only the Duke and the principal guests have meat- stands set for them. 

(8) The Words Used in Handing the Duke His Cup. 

In offering the goblet to the Duke, the words used are : "Your servant presumes to offer the goblet and receive your commands." 

(9) The Regulation about Striding Up the Steps. 

Whoever has his homage declined by the Duke goes up by strides, but never covers more than two steps at a time. 


( 10) The Regulation Concerning the Asking Permission to Start a General Pledging by the One Who Receives the Pledge from the Duke, 

The person pledged by the Duke, after bowing, asks leave to pledge the attendants in order. 

(11) Those Who Serve the Relishes and the Dainties, and the Dainties Served in the Chamber. 

(a) It is the under ducal steward who is employed to bring in the relishes and serve the dainties. 

(b) Dainties are also served in the chamber. 

(12) When the Duke Shoots. 

(a) When the Prince takes part in the shooting, he becomes the second shot. He bares his arm to the red undershirt, and waits for the music to begin before going to his mark. A retainer hands him the arrows, loosely tied together in a napkin. 

(b) He does not shoot in time with the music. 

(c) After he has shot, a retainer receives the bow, and hands it to the bowmaker. 

(d) The first shot stands an arrow's length behind his mark, and, after he has loosed, he faces the Prince and stands at attention. If the Prince be on the losing side, he drinks two cups, as at the banquet. When the Prince is present, the great officers bare their arms to the buff. 

(13) The Form of Words and the Music when Guests from the Four Quarters are Banqueted. 

(a) If the Duke be eating with guests from any of the four quarters, on the lifting of the cup the guest 


says : " Your servant accepts the gift, and asks to be allowed to assist the cupbearer." 

(b) The one who is assisting replies : " Let your honour not disgrace himself by helping." 

(c) Chamber music is provided.