III. Third year.







 1. In the [duke's] third year, in spring, the Gongzi Yingqi of Chu led a force and invaded Wu.
2. The duke went to Jin.
3. In summer, in the fourth month, on Renxu, the duke and the marquis of Jin made a covenant in Changchu.
4. The duke arrived from Jin.
5. In the sixth month, the duke had a meeting with the viscount of Shan, the marquis of Jin, the duke of Song, the marquis of Wey, the earl of Zheng, the viscount of Ju, the viscount of Zhu, and Guang, heir-son of Qi; and on Jiwei they made a covenant together at Jize.
6. The marquis of Chen sent Yuan Qiao to be present at the meeting.
7. On Wuyin, Shusun Bao, and the great officers of the various princes, made a covenant with Yuan Qiao of Chen.
8. In autumn, the duke arrived from the meeting.
9. In winter, Xun Ying of Jin led a force, and invaded Xu.
 春.楚子重伐吳.為簡之師.克鳩茲.至于衡山.使鄧廖帥組甲三百.被練三千以侵吳.吳人要而擊之.獲鄧廖.其能免者.組甲八十.被練三百而已.子重歸.既飲至.三日.吳人伐楚.取駕.駕.良邑也.鄧廖.亦楚之良也.君子謂子重於是役也.所獲不如所亡.楚人以是咎子重.子重病之.遂遇心病而卒. This spring, Zichong of Chu invaded Wu with an army selected for the purpose. He subdued Jiuzi, and proceeded as far as mount Heng. Thence he sent Deng Liao to make an incursion into the country, with a force of 300 men, wearing buff-coats lacquered as if made of strings, and 3,000, whose coats were covered with silk. The people of Wu intercepted and attacked him. Deng Liao himself was taken, and of the men who wore buff-coats looked as if made of strings only 80 escaped, and of the others only 300. Zichong had returned [to Ying]; and three days after he had drunk his arrival [in the ancestral temple], the people of Wu invaded Chu, and took Jia. Jia was a good city, as Deng Liao was a good officer of Chu. Superior men observed that what Zichong gained in this expedition was not equal to what he lost. The people of Chu on this account blamed Zichong, who was so much distressed, that he fell into mental trouble, and died.
 公如晉.始朝也. The duke went to Jin, this court-visit was made as being proper on the duke's accession to the State. 
 夏.盟于長樗.孟獻子相.公稽首.知武子曰.天子在.而君辱稽首.寡君懼矣.孟獻子曰.以敝邑介在東表.密邇仇讎.寡君將君是望.敢不稽首.In summer,  at the covenant in Changchu, Meng Xianzi directed the duke, who bowed with his head to the ground. Zhi Wuzi said, "The son of Heaven is alive; and for your ruler to bow his head to the ground before him makes my ruler afraid." Xianzi replied, "Considering how our poor State stands there in the east, in proximity to our enemies, all our ruler's hope is in yours;—dare he but bow his head to the ground?"'
  晉為鄭服故.且欲脩吳好.將合諸侯.使士匄告于齊曰.寡君使匄以歲之不易.不虞之不戒.寡君願與一二兄弟相見.以謀不協.請君臨之使.匄乞盟.齊侯欲勿許.而難為不協.乃盟於外. In consequence of the submission of Zheng, and wishing to cultivate the friendship of Wu, Jin proposed to call a meeting of the States, and therefore [the marquis] sent Shi Gai to inform Qi, saying, "My ruler has sent me, because of the difficulties of every year, and the want of preparation against evils that may arise, [to say that] he wishes to have an interview with his brethren, to consult about the case of States that are not in harmony with us, and begs your lordship to come to it. He has sent me to beg a convenant with you." The marquis of Qi wanted to refuse, but felt the difficulty of appearing to be among the discordant, and made a covenant [with Gai], beyond the Er
祁奚請老.晉侯問嗣焉.稱解狐.其讎也.將立之而卒.又問焉.對曰.午也可.於是羊舌職死矣.晉侯曰.孰可以代之.對曰.赤也可.於是使祁午為中軍尉.羊舌赤佐之. Qi Xi (see the Zhuan after VIII. xviii. 3) asked leave to resign his office on account of age. The marquis of Jin asked him about his successor, and he recommended Xie Hu, who was his enemy. Hu, however, died, as he was about to be appointed, and the marquis consulted Xi again. He replied, "Wu (his own son) may do." About the same time Yangshe Zhi died, and the marquis asked Xi who should take his place, when he replied, "Chi (Zhi's son) will do."Accordingly Qi Wu was appointed tranquillizer of the army of the centre, and Yangshe Zhi assistant to him.

 君子謂祁奚於是能舉善矣.稱其讎.不為諂.立其子.不為比.舉其偏.不為黨.商書曰. The superior man will say that Qi Xi thus showed himself capable of putting forward good men. He recommended his enemy;—evidently no flatterer; he got his own son appointed;—but from no partiality; he advanced his subordinate;—but with no partizanship. One of the Books of Shang (Shu, V. iv. 14) says,
 無偏無黨.王道蕩蕩.其祁奚之謂矣.解狐得舉.祁午得位.伯華得官.建一官而三物成.能舉善也.夫唯善.故能舉其類.詩云. "Without partiality, and without deflection, Broad and long is the royal path;" —words which may be applied to Qi Xi. Xie Hu, was recommended; Qi Wu got his position; and Bohua (Yangshe Chi) got his office:—in the filling up of one office three things were accomplished. He was indeed able to put forward good men. Good himself, he could put forward those who were like him. The ode (Shi, II. vi. ode X. 4) says,
 惟其有之.是以似之.祁奚有焉. "They have the ability, And right is it their actions should show it;"—so was it with Qi Xi!'].
 六月.公會單頃公及諸侯.己未.同盟于雞澤.晉侯使荀會逆吳子于淮上.吳子不至. In the 6th month, the duke met duke Qing of Shan and the various princes; and on Jiwei they made a covenant together at Jize. The marquis of Jin sent Xun Hui to meet the viscount of Wu on the Huai, who, however, did not come [to the meeting].'
 楚子辛為令尹.侵欲於小國.陳成公使袁僑如會.求成.晉侯使和組父告于諸侯. Zixin of Chu, being made chief minister of the State, was exorbitant in his desire [for bribes] from the small States. [In consequence], duke Cheng of Chen sent Yuan Qiao to the meeting [of the States], to seek for reconciliation and peace.  The marquis of Jin made He Zufu inform the princes of it. 
  秋.叔孫豹及諸侯之大夫.及陳袁僑盟.陳請服也.In the autumn, Shusun Bao and the great officers of the [other] States made a covenant with Yuan Qiao;—on Chen's thus begging to tender its submission.
晉侯之弟揚干.亂行於曲梁.魏絳戮其僕.晉侯怒謂羊舌赤曰.合諸侯以為榮也.揚干為戮.何辱如之.必殺魏絳.無失也.對曰.絳無貳志.事君不辟難.有罪不逃刑.其將來辭.何辱命焉.言終.魏絳至.授僕人書.將伏劍.士魴.張老.止之.公讀其書曰.日君乏使.使臣斯司馬.臣聞師眾以順為武.軍事有死無犯為敬.君合諸侯.臣敢不敬.君師不武.執事不敬.罪莫大焉.臣懼其死.以及揚干.無所逃罪.不能致訓.至於用鉞.臣之罪重.敢有不從.以怒君心.請歸死於司寇. Yanggan, a brother of the marquis of Jin, having thrown the ranks into confusion at Quliang (near Jize), Wei Jiang (marshal of the army of the centre) executed his charioteer. The marquis was angry, and said to Yangshe Chi, "We assembled the States for our glory, and now this execution has been done on Yanggan; —the disgrace is extreme. You must put Wei Jiang to death without fail." Chi replied, "Jiang is not a man of double purpose. He will avoid no difficulty in the service of his ruler, and will evade no punishment due to any offence he may commit. He will be here to state his case; why should you send such an order about him?" When he had done, Wei Jiang arrived, gave a written statement to one of the [marquis's] attendants, and was about to fall upon his sword, but was stopped by Shi Fang and Zhang Lao. The marquis read the statement, which said, "Formerly, being in want of servants, you gave to me this office of marshal. I have heard that in a host submission to orders is the soldier's duty, and that when the business of the army may require the infliction of death, not to shrink from inflicting it is the officer's reverential duty. Your lordship had assembled the States, and I dared not but discharge my reverential duty. If your lordship's soldiers had failed in their duty, and your officers in theirs, the offence would have been extreme. I was afraid that the death which I should incur would also extend to Yanggan; I do not dare to escape from the consequences of guilt, for I was unable to give the necessary instructions previously, and proceeded to use the axe. My offence is heavy, and I dare not shrink from accepting the due, so as to enrage your mind. Allow me to return, and die at the hands of the minister of Crime."
 公跣而出.曰.寡人之言.親愛也.吾子之討.軍禮也.寡人有弟.弗能教訓.使干大命.寡人之過也.子無重寡人之過.敢以為請.晉侯以魏絳為能.以刑佐民矣.反役.與之禮食.使佐新軍.張老為中軍司馬.士富為候奄. The duke ran out barefoot, saying, "I spoke out of my love for my brother; you punished in accordance with military law. I was not able to instruct my brother, which made him violate your great orders;—that was my fault; do not you render it still heavier. Let me presume to request this of you." The marquis [now] considered that Wei Jiang was able by his use of punishments to aid [in the govt. of] the people. When then they returned from the service, he gave him a feast of ceremony, and made him assistant-commander of the new army]. Zhang Lao was made marshal of the army of the centre, and Shi Fu was made scout-master.
 楚司馬公子何忌侵陳.陳叛故也. The Gongzi Heji, minister of War of Chu, made an incursion into Chen, because of the revolt of that State].
 許靈公事楚.不會于雞澤.冬.晉知武子帥師伐許. Duke Ling of Xu adhered to Chu, and was not present at the meeting in Jize. In winter Zhi Wuzi of Jin led a force, and invaded Xu.