| IV. Fourth year.|
1. In the [duke's] fourth year, in spring, in the king's third month, Wu, marquis of Chen, died.
2. In summer, Shusun Bao went to Jin.
3. In autumn, in the seventh month, on Wuzi, [duke Cheng's] wife, the lady Si, died.
4. There was the burial of duke Cheng of Chen.
5. In the eighth month, on Xinhai, we buried our duchess, Ding Si.
6. In winter, the duke went to Jin.
7. A body of men from Chen laid siege to the capital of Dun.
| 傳四年．|| COMMENTARY|
| 春．楚師為陳叛故．猶在繁陽．韓獻子患之．言於朝曰．文王帥殷之叛國．以事紂．唯知時也．今我易之．難哉．三月．陳成公卒．楚人將伐陳．聞喪乃止．陳人不聽命．臧武仲聞之曰．陳不服於楚必亡．大國行禮焉而不服．在大猶有咎．而況小乎．夏．楚彭名侵陳．陳無禮故也．|| This spring, the army of Chu, in consequence of the revolt of Chen, was still in Fanyang. Han Xianzi was troubled about it, and said in the court [of Jin], "When king Wen led on the revolted States of Yin to serve Zhou, he knew the time. It is different now with our course. Alas!" In the 3d month, duke Cheng of Chen died; and when the people of Chu, who were then about to invade Chen, heard of the event, they stayed their movement. Nevertheless, the people of Chen would not hearken to Chu's commands. When Zang Wuzhong heard of it, he said, "Chen, thus refusing to submit to Chu, is sure to perish. When a great State behaves with courteous consideration, not to submit to it would be deemed blameworthy in [another] great State; how much more must it be deemed so in a small one!" In summer, Peng Ming of Chu made an incursion into Chen, because of the want of propriety which Chen had manifested.|
| 穆叔如晉．報知武子之聘也．晉侯享之．金奏肆夏之三．不拜．工歌文王之三．又不拜．歌鹿鳴之三．三拜．韓獻子使行人子員問之．曰．子以君命辱於敝邑．先君之禮．藉之以樂．以辱吾子．吾子舍其大而重．拜其細．敢問何禮也．對曰．三夏．天子所以享元侯也．使臣弗敢與聞．文王．兩君相見之樂也．臣不敢及．鹿鳴．君所以嘉寡君也．敢不拜嘉．四牡．君所以勞使臣也．敢不重拜．皇皇者華．君教使臣曰．必諮於周．臣聞之．訪問於善為咨．咨親為詢．咨禮為度．咨事為諏．咨難為謀．臣獲五善．敢不重拜．|| 'Mushu went to Jin, in return for the friendly mission of Zhi Wuzi. The marquis gave him an entertainment; and when the bells gave the signal, [there were sung] three pieces of the Sixia, but he made no bow in acknowledgment. The musicians then sang the first three pieces in the first Book of the Greater odes of the kingdom; but neither did he bow in acknowledgment of these. They sang finally the first three pieces in the 1st Book of the Minor odes, in acknowledgment of which he bowed three times. Han Xianzi sent the internuncius Ziyuan to him, saying, "You have come by the command of your ruler to our poor State. We have received you with the ceremonies appointed by our former rulers, adding the accompaniment of music. Where the honour was the greatest, you overlooked it; and where it was the least, you acknowledged it:—I presume to ask by what rules of propriety you were guided." The envoy replied, The first three pieces were those proper to an occasion when the son of Heaven is entertaining a chief among the princes; I did not presume to seem as if I heard them. The second three were those proper to the music at an interview between two princes; I did not presume to appear as if I had to do with them. But in the first of the last three, your ruler was complimenting mine;—I could not but presume to acknowledge the compliment. In the second, your ruler was cheering me for the toil of my embassy;—I dared not decline deeply to acknowledge [his kindness]. In the third, your ruler was instructing me, and telling me to be prosecuting my inquiries among the good. I have heard that to inquire about goodness is [the proper] questioning; to inquire about relative duties is [the proper] seeking for information; to inquire about propriety is [the proper] deliberation; to inquire about governmental affairs is [the proper] consultation; to inquire about calamities is [the proper] devising:——thus I obtained five excellent instructions, and I dared not but deeply to acknowledge [the favour]."'|
| 秋．定姒薨．不殯于廟．無櫬．不虞．匠慶謂季文子曰．子為正卿．而小君之喪不成．不終君也．君長．誰受其咎．|| 'In autumn, Ding Si died, and [it was proposed] that her coffin should not be carried into the ancestral temple on occasion of her interment; that there should be no [double] coffin; and that the subsequent ceremony of lamentation should be omitted. The artificer Qing said to Ji Wenzi, "You are our chief minister, and in making the funeral rites of the duchess thus incomplete, you are not doing your duty to our ruler. When he is grown up, who will receive the blame?"|
| 初．季孫為己樹六檟於蒲圃東門之外．匠慶請木．季孫曰．略．匠慶用蒲圃之檟．季孫不御．君子曰．志所謂多行無禮．必自及也．其是之謂乎．|| Before this, Jisun had planted for himself six jia trees in the Pu orchard outside the east gate. Qing asked him for some trees [to make the coffin], and when he gave a half assent, the other used the jia in that orchard, without Jisun's forbidding him. The superior man will say, "Might not what we find in an [old] book, that he who is guilty of many breaches of propriety will find his conduct recoil upon himself, be spoken of Jisun?" |
| 冬．公如晉聽政．晉侯享公．公請屬鄫．晉侯不許．孟獻子曰．以寡君之密邇於仇讎．而願固事君．無失官命．鄫無賦於司馬．為執事朝夕之命敝邑．敝邑褊小．闕而為罪寡君．寡君是以願借助焉．晉侯許之．|| The duke now went to Jin, to receive its orders (as to the services to be rendered to the leading State). The marquis of Jin entertained him, and the duke requested that Zeng might be attached to Lu. The marquis not agreeing to this, Meng Xianzi said, "Our ruler in Lu is in proximity to your adversaries, and wishes to serve your lordship firmly, without failing in any of the requirements of your officers. Zeng contributes no levies to your minister of War. Your officers are continually laying their commands on our poor State, which being of small dimensions is liable to fail in discharging them, and may be charged with some offence. Our ruler therefore wished to borrow the assistance [of Zeng]." On this the marquis assented to the application.|
| 楚人使頓間陳．而侵伐之．故陳人圍頓．|| The people of Chu made Dun watch for opportunities in Chen, and attack it or make inroads into it. In consequence, the people of Chen laid siege to its principal city.|
| 無終子嘉父使孟樂如晉．因魏莊子納虎豹之皮．以請和諸戎．晉侯曰．戎狄無親而貪．不如伐之．魏絳曰．諸侯新服．陳新來和．將觀於我．我德則睦．否則攜貳．勞師於戎．而楚伐陳．必弗能救．是棄陳也．諸華必叛．戎禽獸也．獲戎失華．無乃不可乎．夏訓有之曰．有窮后羿．公曰．后羿何如．對曰．昔有夏之方衰也．后羿自鉏遷于窮石．因夏民以代夏政．恃其射也．不脩民事．而淫于原獸．棄武羅．伯困．熊髡．尨圉．而用寒浞．寒浞．伯明氏之讒子弟也．伯明后寒棄之．夷羿收之．信而使之．以為己相．浞行媚于內．而施賂于外．愚弄其民．而虞羿于田．樹之詐慝(tè)．以取其國家．外內咸服．羿猶不悛(quān)．將歸自田．家眾殺而亨之．以食其子．其子不忍食諸．死于窮門．靡奔有鬲氏．浞因羿室．生澆及豷．恃其讒慝詐偽而不德于民．使澆用師．滅斟灌及斟尋氏．處澆于過．處豷于戈．靡自有鬲氏．收二國之燼以滅浞．而立少康．少康滅澆于過．后杼滅豷于戈．有窮由是遂亡．失人故也．昔周辛甲之為大史也．命百官．官箴王闕．於虞人之箴曰．|| 'Jiafu, viscount of Wuzhong (a tribe of the Hill Rong) sent Meng Le to Jin, and through Wei Zhuangzi (Wei Jiang) presented a number of tiger and leopard skins, begging that Jin would agree to be in harmony with the various tribes of the Rong. The marquis said, "The Rong and Di know nothing of affection or friendship, and are full of greed. The best plan is to attack them." Wei Jiang said, "The States have only recently declared their submission to Jin, and Chen has recently sought our friendship. They will all be watching our course. If that be one of kindly goodness, they will maintain their friendship with us; if it be not, they will fall off and separate from us. If we make a toilsome expedition against the Rong, and Chu [in the mean time] invade Chen, we shall not be able to relieve that State;—we shall be throwing Chen away. The States also will be sure to revolt from us;—shall we not be acting an impolitic course, if we lose the States, though we gain the Rong? And in the Book of Instructions of Xia (Shu, III. iii. 2) mention is made of "Yi, prince of Qiong." The marquis said, "What about the prince Yi?" He replied, "Formerly, when the princes of Xia were in a decaying State, prince Yi removed from Chu to Qiongshi, and took advantage of [the dissatisfaction of] the people to supersede the line of Xia. Relying [afterwards] on his archery, he neglected the business of the people, and abandoned himself to the pursuit of the beasts of the plains. He put away from him Wu Luo, Bo Yin, Xiong Kun, and Meng Yu, and employed Zhuo of Han. This Zhuo was a slanderous scion of the House of Boming, prince of Han, who cast him out. Yi, [prince of Qiong], received him, trusted him, and made him his chief minister. Zhuo then fell to flattering all inside the palace, and gave bribes to all outside it. He cajoled the people, and encouraged Yi in his fondness for hunting. He plied more and more his deceit and wickedness to take from Yi his kingdom, until inside and outside the palace all were ready to acknowledge him. Still Yi made no change in his ways; and as he was [on one occasion] on his return from the field, his own servants killed him, boiled him, and gave his flesh to his sons to eat. They could not bear to eat it, and all died in the gate of Qiong. Mi then fled to the State of Youge. Zhuo took to himself Yi's wife, and by her had Jiao and Yi. Relying on his slanderous villanies and deceit, he displayed virtue in governing the people, and made Jiao with an army extinguish the States of Zhenguan and Zhenxun. He then placed Jiao in Guo (過), and Yi in Ge (戈). [In the meantime], Mi went from Youge, and collected the remnant of the people of those two States, with whom he extinguished Zhuo, and raised Shaokang to the throne. Shaokang extinguished Jiao in Guo, and [his son], the sovereign Zhu, extinguished Yi in Ge: The princes of Qiong thus perished because they had lost the people. Formerly, in the times of our own Zhou, when Xin Jia was grand historiographer, he ordered each of the officers to write some lines reproving the king's defects. In the lines of the forester it was said,|
| 芒芒禹跡．畫為九州．經啟九道．民有寢廟．獸有茂草．各有攸處．德用不擾．在帝夷羿．冒于原獸．忘其國恤．而思其麀牡．武不可重．用不恢于夏家．獸臣司原．取告僕夫．虞箴如是．可不懲乎．於是晉侯好田．故魏絳及之．公曰．然則莫如和戎乎．對曰．和戎有五利焉．戎狄荐居．貴貨易土．土可賈焉．一也．邊鄙不聳．民狎其野．穡人成功．二也．戎狄事晉．四鄰振動．諸侯威懷．三也．以德綏戎．師徒不動．甲兵不頓．四也．鑒于后羿．而用德度．遠至邇安．五也．君其圖之．公說．使魏絳盟諸戎．脩民事．田以時．|| 'Wide and long Yu travelled about, When the nine regions he laid out, And through them led the nine-fold route. The people then safe homes possessed; Beasts ranged the grassy plains with zest. For man and beast sweet rest was found, And virtue reigned the empire round. Then took Yi Yi the emperor's place, His sole pursuit the wild beasts' chase. The people's care he quite forgot. Of does and stags alone he thought. Wars and such pastimes kings should flee; Soon passed the power of Xia from Yi. A forester, these lines I pen, And offer to my king's good men.' Such were the lines of the forester;—is there not matter of admonition in them?" At this time the marquis of Jin was fond of hunting, and therefore Wei Jiang took the opportunity to touch on the subject. The marquis then said, "Well then, will it not be our best plan to be on good terms with the Rong?" Jiang replied, "To be on good terms with the Rong has five advantages. The Rong and Di are continually changing their residence, and are fond of exchanging land for goods. Their lands can be purchased;—this is the first advantage. Our borders will not be kept in apprehension. The people can labour on their fields, and the husbandmen complete their toils;—this is the second. When the Rong and Di serve Jin, our neighbours all round will be terrified, and the States will be awed and cherish our friendship;—this is the third. Tranquillizing the Rong by our goodness, our armies will not be toiled, and weapons will not be broken;—this is the fourth. Taking warning from the sovereign Yi, and using only measures of virtue, the remote will come to us, and the near will be at rest;—this is the fifth." The marquis was pleased, and sent Wei Jiang to make a covenant with all the Rong. He also attended to the business of the people, and hunted [only] at the proper seasons.'|
| 冬．十月．邾人．莒人．伐鄫．臧紇救鄫．侵邾．敗于狐駘．國人逆喪者皆髽．魯於是乎始髽．國人誦之曰．臧之狐裘．敗我於狐駘．我君小子．朱儒是使．朱儒朱儒．使我敗於邾．|| In winter, in the 10th month, a body of men from Zhu and another from Ju in vaded Zeng. Zangsun He succoured Zeng, and made an incursion into Zhu, when he was defeated at Hutai. The people of the State went to meet the dead [who were being brought back], and all had their hair tied up with sack cloth. It was now that this style commenced in Lu. The people sang these lines on the occasion:—|
"The fox-fur robe of Zang, Caused our loss at Hutai. Our ruler a child; Our general a dwarf. O dwarf, O dwarf, You caused our defeat in Zhu!"