IX. Ninth year.

  1. 春.宋災.
  2. 夏.季孫宿如晉.
  3. 五月.辛酉.夫人姜氏薨.
  4. 秋.八月.癸未.葬我小君穆姜.
  5. 冬.公會晉侯.宋公.衛侯.曹伯.莒子.邾子.滕子.薛伯.杞伯.小邾子.齊世子光.伐鄭.
  6. 十有二月.己亥.同盟于戲.楚子伐鄭.
 IX. Ninth year.
1. In the [duke's] ninth year, in spring, there was a fire in Song.
2. In summer, Jisun Su went to Jin.
3. In the fifth month, on Xinyou, duke [Xuan's] wife, Jiang, died.
4. In autumn, in the eighth month, on Guiwei, we buried our duchess Mu Jiang.
5. In winter, the duke joined the marquis of Jin, the duke of Song, the marquis of Wey, the earl of Cao, the viscounts of Ju, Zhu, and Teng, the earls of Xue and Qi, the viscount of Little Zhu, and Guang, heir-son of Qi, in invading Zheng. In the twelfth month, on Jihai, these princes made a covenant together in Xi.
6. The viscount of Chu invaded Zheng.

 春.宋災.樂喜為司城.以為政.使伯氏司里.火所未至.徹小屋.塗大屋.陳畚挶(jú).具綆(gěng)缶.備水器.量輕重.蓄水潦.積土塗.巡丈城.繕守備.表火道.使華臣具正徒.令隧正.納郊保.奔火所.使華閱討右官.官庀其司.向戌討左.亦如之.使樂遄庀刑器.亦如之.使皇鄖命校正出馬.工正出車.備甲兵.庀(pǐ)武守.使西鉏吾庀府守.令司宮巷伯儆宮.二師令四鄉正敬享.祝宗用馬于四墉.祀盤庚于西門之外. 'In the duke's 9th year, in spring, there was a fire in Song. Yue Xi (Zihan) was then minister of Works, and made in consequence [the following] regulations [for such an event]. He appointed the officer Bo to take charge of the streets where the fire had not reached. He was to remove small houses, and plaster over large ones. He was to set forth baskets and barrows for carrying earth; provide well-ropes and buckets; prepare water jars; have things arranged according to their weight; dam the water up in places where it was collected; have earth and mud stored up; go round the walls, and measure off the places where watch and ward should be kept; and signalize the line of the fire. He appointed Hua Chen to have the public workmen in readiness, and to order the commandants outside the city to march their men from the borders and various stations to the place of the fire. He appointed Hua Yue to arrange that the officers of the right should be prepared for all they might be called on to do; and Xiang Xu to arrange similarly for the officers of the left. He appointed Yue Chuan in the same way to prepare the various instruments of punishment. He appointed Huang Yun to give orders to the master of the horse to bring out horses, and the chariot-master to bring out chariots, and to be prepared with buff-coats and weapons, in readiness for military guard. He appointed Xi Chuwu to look after the records kept in the different repositories. He ordered the superintendent and officers of the harem to maintain a careful watch in the palace. The masters of the right and left were to order the headmen of the 4 village-districts reverently to offer sacrifices. The great officer of religion was to sacrifice horses on the walls, and sacrifice to Pan'geng outside the western gate.
 晉侯問於士弱曰.吾聞之.宋災.於是乎知有天道.何故.對曰.古之火正.或食於心.或食於咮(zhòu).以出內火.是故咮為鶉火.心為大火.陶唐氏之火正閼伯.居商丘.祀大火.而火紀時焉.相土因之.故商主大火.商人閱其禍敗之釁.必始於火.是以知其有天道也.公曰.可必乎.對曰.在道.國亂無象.不可知也. 'The marquis of Jin asked Shi Ruo what was the reason of a saying which he had heard, that from the fires of Song it could be known there was a providence. "The ancient director of fire," replied Ruo, "was sacrificed to either when the heart or the beak of the Bird culminated at sunset, to regulate the kindling or the extinguishing of the people's fires. Hence the beak is the star Chunhuo, and the heart is Dahuo. Now the director of fire under Taotang (Yao) was Ebo, who dwelt in Shangqiu, and sacrificed to Dahuo, by fire regulating the seasons. Xiangtu came after him, and hence Shang paid special regard to the star Dahuo. The people of Shang, in calculating their disasters and calamities, discovered that they were sure to begin with fire, and hence came the saying about thereby knowing there was a providence." "Can the thing be certainly [known beforehand]?" asked the marquis, to which Ruo replied, "It depends on the ruler's course. When the disorders of a State have not evident indications, it cannot be known [beforehand]."'
 夏.季武子如晉.報宣子之聘也.In summer, Ji Wuzi went to Jin, the visit was in return for that of Fan Xuanzi to Lu [in the end of last year.]
 穆姜薨於東宮.始往而筮之.遇艮之八.史曰.是謂艮之隨.隨其出也.君必速出.姜曰.亡.是於周易.曰.隨元亨利貞.咎.元.體之長也.亨.嘉之會也.利.義之和也.貞.事之幹也.體仁足以長人.嘉德足以合禮.利物足以和義.貞固足以幹事.然故不可誣也.是以雖隨咎.今我婦人而與於亂.固在下位.而有不仁.不可謂元.不靖國家.不可謂亨.作而害身.不可謂利.棄位而姣.不可謂貞.有四德者.隨而無咎.我皆無之.豈隨也哉.我則取惡.能無咎乎.必死於此.弗得出矣. Mu Jiang died in the eastern palace. When she first went into it, she consulted the milfoil, and got the second line of the diagram Gen (艮). The diviner said, 'This is what remains when Gen becomes Sui (隨). Sui is the symbol of getting out; your ladyship will soon get out from this." She replied, "No. Of this diagram it is said in the Zhou yi, 'Sui indicates being great, penetrating, beneficial, firmly correct, without blame.' Now that greatness is the lofty distinction of the person; that penetration is the assemblage of excellences; that beneficialness is the harmony of all righteousness; that firm correctness is the stem of all affairs. The person who is entirely virtuous is sufficient to take the presidency of others; admirable virtue is sufficient to secure an agreement with all propriety. Beneficialness to things is sufficient to effect a harmony of all righteousness. Firm correctness is sufficient to manage all affairs. But these things must not be in semblance merely. It is only thus that Sui could bring the assurance of blamelessness. Now I, a woman, and associated with disorder, am here in the place of inferior rank. Chargeable more over with a want of virtue, greatness cannot be predicated of me. Not having contributed to the quiet of the State, penetration cannot be predicated of me. Having brought harm to myself by my doings, beneficialness cannot be predicated of me. Having left my proper place for a bad intrigue, firm correctness cannot be predicated of me. To one who has those four virtues the diagram Sui belongs;—what have I to do with it, to whom none of them belongs? Having chosen evil, how can I be without blame? I shall die here; I shall never get out of this."'
 秦景公使士雃(jiān)乞師于楚.將以伐晉.楚子許之.子囊曰.不可.當今吾不能與晉爭.晉君類能而使之.舉不失選.官不易方.其卿讓於善.其大夫不失守.其士競於教.其庶人力於農穡.商工皁隸.不知遷業.韓厥老矣.知罃稟焉.以為政.范匄少於中行偃而上之.使佐中軍.韓起少於欒黶.而欒黶士魴上之.使佐上軍.魏絳多功.以趙武為賢而為之佐.君明臣忠.上讓下競.當是時也.晉不可敵.事之而後可.君其圖之.王曰.吾既許之矣.雖不及晉.必將出師. 'Duke Jing of Qin sent Shi Qian to beg the assistance of an army from Chu, intending to invade Jin. The viscount granted it, but Zinang objected, saying, "We cannot now maintain a struggle with Jin. Its ruler employs officers according to their ability, and his appointments do justice to his choice. Every office is filled according to the regular rules. His ministers give way to others who are more able than themselves; his great officers discharge their duties; his scholars vigorously obey their instructions; his common people attend diligently to their husbandry; his merchants, mechanics, and inferior employés know nothing of changing their hereditary employments. Han Jue having retired in consequence of age, Zhi Ying asks for his instructions in conducting the government. Fan Gai was younger than Zhonghang Yan, but Yan had him advanced and made assistant-commander of the army of the centre. Han Qi was younger than Luan Yan, but Yan and Shi Fang had him advanced, and made assistant commander of the 1st army. Wei Jiang had performed many services, but considering Zhao Wu superior to himself, he became assistant under him. With the ruler thus intelligent and his servants thus loyal, his high officers thus ready to yield their places, and the inferior officers thus vigorous, at this time Jin cannot be resisted. Our proper course is to serve it; let your Majesty well consider the case." The king said, "I have granted the request of Qin. Though we are not a match for Jin, we must send an army forth." 
 秋.楚子師于武城.以為秦援.秦人侵晉.晉饑.弗能報也. In autumn, the viscount of Chu took post with an army at Wucheng, in order to afford support to Qin. A body of men from Qin made an incursion into Jin, which was suffering from famine, and could not retaliate.']
 冬.十月.諸侯伐鄭.庚午.季武子.齊崔杼.宋皇鄖.從荀罃.士匄.門于鄟門.衛北宮括.曹人.邾人.從荀偃.韓起.門于師之梁.滕人.薛人.從欒黶.士魴.門于北門.杞人.郳人.從趙武.魏絳.斬行栗.甲戌.師于氾.令於諸侯曰.脩器備.盛餱糧.歸老幼.居疾于虎牢.肆眚圍鄭.鄭人恐.乃行成.中行獻子曰.遂圍之.以待楚人之救也.而與之戰.不然無成.知武子曰.許之盟而還師.以敝楚人.吾三分四軍.與諸侯之銳.以逆來者.於我未病.楚不能矣.猶愈於戰.暴骨以逞.不可以爭.大勞未艾.君子勞心.小人勞力.先王之制也. In winter, on the 10th month, the States invaded Zheng. On Gengwu, Ji Wuzi, Cui Shu of Qi, and Huang Yun of Song, followed Xun Ying and Shi Gai, and attacked the Zhuan gate. Beigong Kuo of Wey, an officer of Cao, and an officer of Zhu followed Xun Yan and Han Qi, and attacked [the gate] Shizhiliang. Officers of Teng and Xue followed Luan Yan and Shi Fang, and attacked the north gate. Officers of Qi and Ni followed Zhao Wu and Wei Jiang, and cut down the chesnut trees along the roads. On Jiaxu, the armies collected in Fan, and orders were given to the States, saying, "Look to your weapons that they be ready for service; prepare dried and other provisions; send home the old and the young; place your sick in Hulao; forgive those who have committed small faults:—we are going to lay siege to the capital of Zheng." On this the people of Zheng became afraid, and wished to make peace. Zhonghang Xianzi (Xun Yan) said, "Let us hold the city in siege, and wait the arrival of the succours from Chu, and then fight a battle with them. If we do not do so, we shall have accomplished nothing." Zhi Wuzi, however, said, "Let us grant Zheng a covenant, and then withdraw our armies, in order to wear out the people of Chu. We shall divide our 4 armies into 3, and [with one of them and] the ardent troops of the States, meet the comers:—this will not be distressing to us, while Chu will not be able to endure it. This is still better than fighting. A struggle is not to be maintained by whitening the plains with bones to gratify [our pride]. There is no end to such great labour. It is a rule of the former kings that superior men should labour with their minds, and smaller men labour with their strength."
 諸侯皆不欲戰.乃許鄭成.十一月.己亥.同盟于戲.鄭服也.將盟.鄭六卿公子騑.公子發.公子嘉.公孫輒.公孫.公孫舍之.及其大夫門子皆從鄭伯.晉士莊子為載書.曰.自今日既盟之後.鄭國而不唯晉命是聽.而或有異志者.有如此盟.公騑趨進曰.天禍鄭國.使介居二大國之閒.大國不加德音.而亂以要之.使其鬼神不獲歆其禋祀.其民人不獲享其土利.夫婦辛苦墊隘.無所底告.自今日既盟之後.鄭國而不唯有禮與彊.可以庇民者是從.而敢有異志者.亦如之.荀偃曰.改載書.公孫舍之曰.昭大神要言焉.若可改也.大國亦可叛也.知武子謂獻子曰.我實不德.而要人以盟.豈禮也哉.非禮何以主盟.姑盟而退.脩德息師而來.終必獲鄭.何必今日.我之不德.民將棄我.豈唯鄭.若能休和.遠人將至.何恃於鄭.乃盟而還. 'None of the States wished to fight; so they granted peace; and in the 11th month, on Jihai, they made a covenant together in Xi,—on the submission of Zheng. When they were about to covenant, the six ministers of Zheng, —the Gongzis, Fei (Zisi), Fa (Ziguo), and Jia (Zikong), and the Gongsuns, Zhe (Zi'er), Chai (Zijiao), and Shezhi (Zizhan), with the great officers and younger members of the ministerial clans, all attended the earl of Zheng. Shi Zhuangzi made the words of the covenant to this effect, "After the covenant of today, if the State of Zheng hear any commands but those of Jin, and incline to any other, may there happen to it according to what is [imprecated] in this covenant!" The Gongzi Fei rushed forward at this, and said, "Heaven has dealt unfavourably with the State of Zheng, and given it its place midway between two great States, which do not bestow on it the marks of favour which could be appreciated, but demand its adherence by violence. Thus its Spirits cannot enjoy the sacrifices which should be presented to them, and its people cannot enjoy the advantages of its soil. Its husbands and wives are oppressed and straitened, full of misery, having none to appeal to. After this covenant of today, if the State of Zheng follow any other but that which extends propriety to it and strength to protect its people, but dares to waver in its adherence, may there happen to it according to [the imprecations in] this covenant!" Xun Yan said, "Change [the conditions of] this covenant." Gongsun Shezhi said, "These are solemn words in which we have appealed to the great Spirits. If we may change them, we may also revolt from your great State." Zhi Wuzi said to Xianzi "We indeed have not virtue, and it is not proper to force men to covenant with us. Without propriety, how can we preside over covenants? Let us agree for the present to this covenant, and withdraw. When we come again, after having cultivated our virtue, and rested our armies, we shall in the end win Zheng. Why must we determine to do so today? If we are without virtue, other people will cast us off, and not Zheng only; if we can rest and be harmonious, they will come to us from a distance. Why need we rely upon Zheng?" Accordingly they covenanted [as related above], and the forces of Jin withdrew.
 晉人不得志於鄭.以諸侯復伐之.十二月.癸亥.門其三門.閏月.戊寅.濟于陰阪.侵鄭.次于陰口而還.子孔曰.晉師可擊也.師老而勞.且有歸志.必大克之.子展曰.不可. 'The people of Jin had thus not got their will with Zheng, and they again invaded it with the armies of the States. In the 12th month, on Guihai, they attacked the [same] three gates, and persevered for five days at each (閏 月 ought to be 門 五 日). Then on Wuyin, they crossed [the Wei] at Yinban, and over ran the country. After halting at Yinkou, they withdrew. Zikong proposed to attack the army of Jin, saying that it was old and exhausted, and the soldiers were all bent on returning home, so that a great victory could be gained over it. Zizhan, however, refused to sanction such a movement.'
 公送晉侯.晉侯以公宴于河上.問公年.季武子對曰.會于沙隨之歲.寡君以生.晉侯曰.十二年矣.是謂一終.一星終也.國君十五而生子.冠而生子.禮也.君可以冠矣.大夫盍為冠具.武子對曰.君冠.必以祼享之禮行之.以金石之樂節之.以先君之祧處之.今寡君在行.未可具也.請及兄弟之國.而假備焉.晉侯曰.諾.公還及衛.冠于成公之廟.假鍾磬焉.禮也. 'The duke accompanied the marquis of Jin [back from Zheng], and when they were at the He and he was with the marquis at a feast, the latter asked how old he was. Ji Wuzi replied, "He was born in the year of the meeting at Shasui (see VIII. xvi. 8)." He is twelve then," said the marquis. "That is a full decade of years, the period of a revolution of Jupiter. The ruler of a State may have a son when he is fifteen. It is the rule that he should be capped before he begets a son. Your ruler may now be capped. Why should you not get everything necessary for the ceremony ready?" Wuzi replied, "The capping of our ruler must be done with the ceremonies of libation and offerings; its different stages must be defined by the music of the bell and the musical stone; it must take place in the temple of his first ancestor. Our ruler is now travelling, and those things cannot be provided. Let us get to a brother State, and borrow what is necessary to prepare for the ceremony." The marquis assented; so, when the duke had got as far as Wey on his return, he was capped in the temple of duke Cheng. They borrowed the bell and musical stone of it for the purpose;—as was proper.'
 楚子伐鄭.子駟將及楚平.子孔.子蟜.曰.與大國盟.口血未乾而背之.可乎.子駟.子展.曰.吾盟固云唯彊是從.今楚師至.晉不我救.則楚彊矣.盟誓之言.豈敢背之.且要盟無質.神弗臨也.所臨唯信.信者言之瑞也.善之主也.是故臨之.明神不蠲(juān)要盟.背之可也.乃及楚平.公子罷戎入盟.同盟于中分.楚莊夫人卒.王未能定鄭而歸. The viscount of Chu invaded Zheng, and Zisi proposed to make peace with him. Zikong and Zijiao said, "We have just made a covenant with the [other] great State, and, while the blood of it is not dry on our mouths, may we break it?" Zisi and Zizhan replied, "At that covenant we said that we would follow the strongest. Here now is the army of Chu arrived, and Jin does not come to save us, so that Chu is the strongest;—we are not presuming to break the words of the covenant and oath. Moreover, at a forced covenant where there is no sincerity, the Spirits are not present. They are present only where there is good faith. Good faith is the gem of speech, the essential point of all goodness; and therefore the Spirits draw near to it. They in their intelligence do not require adherence to a forced covenant;—it may be broken." Accordingly they made peace with Chu. The Gongzi Pirong entered the city to make a covenant, which was done in [the quarter] Zhongfen. [In the meantime], the widow of [king] Zhuang of Chu died, and [king] Gong returned [to Ying], without having been able to settle [the affairs of] Zheng.'
 晉侯歸.謀所以息民.魏絳請施舍.輸積聚以貸.自公以下.苟有積者.盡出之.國無滯積.亦無困人.公無禁利.亦無貪民.祈以幣更.賓以特牲.器用不作.車服從給.行之期年.國乃有節.三駕而楚不能與爭. [The Zhuan appends here a notice of the measures of internal reform in Jin:——'When the marquis of Jin returned to his capital, he consulted how he could give rest and prosperity to the people. Wei Jiang begged that he would confer favours on them and grant remissions. On this all the accumulated stores of the State were given out in benefits. From the marquis downwards, all who had such stores brought them forth, till none were left unappropriated, and there was no one exposed to the endurance of want. The marquis granted access to every source of advantage, and the people did not covet more than their proper share. In religious services they used offerings of silks instead of victims; guests were entertained with [the flesh of] a single animal; new articles of furniture and use were not made; only such chariots and robes were kept as sufficed for use. When this style had been practised for twelve months, a right method and order prevailed throughout the State. Then three expeditions were undertaken, and Chu was not able to contend [any more] with Jin].'