X. Tenth year.

  1. 春.公會晉侯.宋公.衛侯.曹伯.莒子.邾子.滕子.薛伯.杞伯.小邾子.齊世子光.會吳于柤.
  2. 夏.五月.甲午.遂滅偪陽
  3. 公至自會.
  4. 楚公子貞.鄭公孫輒.帥師伐宋.
  5. 晉師伐秦.
  6. 秋.莒人伐我東鄙.
  7. 公會晉侯.宋公.衛侯.曹伯.莒子.邾子.齊世子光.滕子.薛伯.杞.伯.小邾子.伐鄭.
  8. 冬.盜殺鄭公子騑.公子發.公孫輒.
  9. 戍鄭虎牢.
  10. 楚公子貞帥師救鄭.
  11. 公至自伐鄭.
 X. Tenth year.
1. In his tenth year, in spring, the duke joined the marquis of Jin, the duke of Song, the marquis of Wey, the earl of Cao, the viscounts of Ju, Zhu, and Teng, the earls of Xue and Qi, the viscount of Little Zhu, and Guang, heir-son of Qi, in a meeting with Wu at Zha.
2. In summer, in the fifth month, on Jiawu, [Jin] went on [from the above meeting] to extinguish Biyang.
3. The duke arrived from the meeting.
4. The Gongzi Zhen of Chu, and the Gongsun Zhe of Zheng, led a force, and invaded Song.
5. An army of Jin invaded Qin.
6. In autumn, a body of men from Ju invaded our eastern borders.
7. The duke joined the marquis of Jin, the duke of Song, the marquis of Wey, the earl of Cao, the viscounts of Ju and Zhu, Guang, heir-son of Qi, the viscount of Teng, the earls of Xue and Qi, and the viscount of Little Zhu, in invading Zheng.
8. In winter, some ruffians killed the Gongzis Fei and Fa, and the Gongsun Zhe, of Zheng.
9. We [sent troops] to guard Hulao.
10. The Gongzi Zhen of Chu led a force to relieve Zheng.
11. The duke arrived from the invasion of Zheng.
 春.會于.會吳子壽夢也.三月.癸丑.齊高厚相大子光.以先會諸侯于鍾離.不敬.士莊子曰.高子相大子以會諸侯.將社稷是衛.而皆不敬.棄社稷也.其將不免乎.夏.四月.戊午.會于柤.  In spring, the meeting at Zha was a meeting with Shoumeng, viscount of Wu. In the 3d month, on Guichou, Gao Hou of Qi came with his marquis's eldest son Guang, and had a previous meeting with the princes in Zhongli (see VIII. xv. 10), when they behaved disrespectfully. Shi Zhuangzi (Shi Ruo) said, "Gaozi, coming in attendance on his prince to a meeting of the States, ought to have in mind the protection of Qi's altars, and yet they both of them behave disrespectfully. They will not, I apprehend, escape an evil end." In summer, in the 4th month, on Wuwu, there was the meeting at Zha.'
 晉荀偃.士匄.請伐偪陽而封宋向戌焉.荀罃曰.城小而固.勝之不武.弗勝為笑.固請.丙寅.圍之.弗克.  Xun Yan and Shi Gai of Jin asked leave to attack Biyang, and that it should be conferred on Xiang Xu of Song. Xun Ying said, "The city is small but strong. If you take it, it will be no great achievement; if you do not take it, you will be laughed at." They persisted in their request; and on Bingyin they laid siege to it, but could not overcome it.
 孟氏之臣秦堇父.輦重如役.偪陽人啟門.諸侯之士門焉.縣門發.郰人紇抉之.以出門者.狄虒彌建大車之輪.而蒙之以甲.以為櫓.左執之.右拔戟.以成一隊.孟獻子曰.詩所謂有力如虎者也.主人縣布.堇父登之.及堞而絕之.隊則又縣之.蘇而復上者三.主人辭焉.乃退.帶其斷以徇於軍三日.  'Qin Jinfu, the steward of the Meng family, drew after him a large waggon to the service. The people of Biyang having opened one of their gates, the soldiers of the States attacked it, [and had passed within]. Just then, the portcullis gate was let down, when He of Zou raised it up, and let out the stormers who had entered. Di Simi carried the wheel of a large carriage, which he covered with hides and used as a buckler. Holding this in his left hand, and carrying a spear in his right, he took the place of a body of 100 men. Meng Xianzi said, "To him we may apply the words of the ode (Shi, I. iii. ode XIII. 2), 'Strong as a tiger."' The besieged hung strips of cloth over the wall, by one of which Jinfu climbed up to the parapet, when they cut it. Down he fell, when they hung out another; and when he had revived, he seized it and mounted again. Thrice he performed this feat, and on the besieged declining to give him another opportunity he retired, taking with him the three cut pieces, which he showed all through the army for three days.
 諸侯之師.久於偪陽.荀偃.士匄.請於荀罃曰.水潦將降.懼不能歸.請班師.知伯怒.投之以机.出於其間曰.女成二事而後告余.余恐亂命.以不女違.女既勤君而興諸侯.牽帥老夫.以至于此.既無武守.而又欲易余罪.曰是實班師.不然克矣.余羸老也.可重任乎.七日不克.必爾乎取之.  'The forces of the States were long detained at Biyang; and Xun Yan and Shi Gai went with a request to Xun Ying, saying, "The rains will soon fall and the pools gather, when we are afraid we shall not be able to return. We ask you to withdraw the troops." Zhi Bo, (Xun Ying) became angry, and threw at them the stool on which he was leaning, which passed between the two. "You had determined," said he, "on two things, and then came and informed me of them. I was afraid of confusing your plans, and did not oppose you. You have imposed toil on our ruler; you have called out [the forces of] the States; you have dragged an old man like myself here. And now you have no prowess to show, but want to throw the blame on me, saying, that I ordered the retreat of the troops, and but for that you would have subdued the place. Can I, thus old and feeble, sustain such a heavy responsibility? If in 7 days you have not taken it, I shall take yourselves instead of it."
 五月.庚寅.荀偃.士匄.帥卒攻偪陽.親受矢石.甲午.滅之.   On this, in the 5th month, on Gengyin, Xun Yan and Shi Gai, led on their men to the attack of the city, themselves encountering [the shower] of arrows and stones. On Jiawu they extinguished it.
 書曰.遂滅偪陽.言自會也.以與向戌.向戌辭曰.君若猶辱鎮撫宋國.而以偪陽光啟寡君.群臣安矣.其何貺(kuàng)如之.若專賜臣.是臣興諸侯以自封也.其何罪大焉.敢以死請.乃予宋公.  'The language of the text,—"They went on to extinguish Biyang," shows that they proceeded to attack it from the meeting [at Zha]. [The marquis of Jin] would then have given Biyang to Xiang Xu, but he declined it, saying, "If your lordship will still condescend to guard and comfort the State of Song, and by the gift of Biyang distinguish my ruler and increase his territory, all his ministers will be at ease;—what gift can be equal to this? If you insist on conferring it on me alone, then I shall have called out the States to procure a fief for myself,—than which there could not be a greater crime. Though I die, I must entreat you not to do so." Biyang accordingly was given to the duke of Song.
 宋公享晉侯于楚丘.請以桑林.荀罃辭.荀偃.士匄.曰.諸侯宋魯.於是觀禮.魯有禘樂.賓祭用之.宋以桑林享君.不亦可乎.舞師題以旌夏.晉侯懼而退.入于房.去旌.卒享而還.及著雍.疾.卜.桑林見.荀偃.士匄.欲奔請禱焉.荀罃不可曰.我辭禮矣.彼則以之.猶有鬼神.於彼加之.晉侯有間.以偪陽子歸.獻于武宮.謂之夷俘.偪陽.妘姓也.使周內史選其族嗣.納諸霍人.禮也.  'The duke entertained the marquis of Jin in Chuqiu, and asked leave to use, [on the occasion, the music of] Sanglin (the music which had been used by the sovereigns of Shang). Xun Ying declined it, but Xun Yan and Shi Gai said, "Among the States, it is [only] in Song and Lu that we can see the ceremonies [of the kings]. Lu has the music of the grand triennial sacrifice, and uses it when entertaining guests and at sacrifices; is it not allowable that Song should entertain our ruler with the Sanglin?" The master of the pantomimes began indicating to them their places with the great flag, when the marquis became afraid, and withdrew to another apartment. When the flag was removed, he returned and finished the entertainment. On his way back [from Song], he fell ill at Zhuyong. They consulted the tortoise-shell [about his sickness], and [the Spirit of] Sanglin appeared. Xun Yan and Shi Gai wanted to hurry [back to Song], and to pray to it. Xun Ying, however, refused to allow them, and said, "I declined the ceremony. It was they who used it. If there indeed be this Spirit, let him visit the offence on them." The marquis got better, and took the viscount of Biyang back with him to Jin, and presented him in the temple of [duke] Wu, calling him an Yi captive. [The lords of] Biyang had the surname of Yun. [The marquis] made the historiographer of the Interior in Zhou select one from the family of the [old] House to continue [its sacrifices], whom he placed in Huo as its commandant;—which was proper.
 師歸.孟獻子以秦堇父為右.生秦丕茲.事仲尼.  'When our army returned, Meng Xianzi employed Qin Jinfu as the spearman on the right of his chariot. He had a son, Qin Pizi, who was a disciple of Zhongni.'

 六月.楚子囊.鄭子耳.伐宋.師于訾毋.庚午.圍宋門于桐門.  In the 6th month, Zinang of Chu and Zi'er of Zheng invaded Song, taking post [first] at Ziwu. On Gengwu they laid siege to the capital, and attacked the Tong gate.'
 晉荀罃伐秦.報其侵也.  'Xun Ying of Jin invaded Qin, to retaliate its incursion.'
 衛侯救宋.師于襄牛.鄭子展曰.必伐衛.不然.是不與楚也.得罪於晉.又得罪於楚.國將若之何.子駟曰.國病矣.子展曰.得罪於二大國必亡.病不猶愈於亡乎.諸大夫皆以為然.故鄭皇耳帥師侵衛.楚令也.  'The marquis of Wey went to succour Song, and encamped with his forces at Xiangniu. Zizhan of Zheng said, "We must invade Wey. If we do not do so, we shall not be doing our part for Chu. We have offended against Jin, and if we also offend against Chu, what will be the consequence to our State?" Zisi said, "It will distress the State;" but Zizhan replied, "If we offend against both the great States, we shall perish. We may be distressed, but is that not better than perishing?" The other great officers all agreed with him, and Huang'er accordingly led a force and made an incursion into Wey,—[having received] orders from Chu.
 孫文子卜追之.獻兆於定姜.姜氏問繇曰.兆如山陵.有夫出征.而喪其雄.姜氏曰.征者喪雄.禦寇之利也.大夫圖之.衛人追之.孫蒯獲鄭皇耳于犬丘.  'Sun Wenzi (Linfu) consulted the tortoise-shell about pursuing the enemy, and presented the indication he had obtained to Ding Jiang (the mother of the marquis of Wey), who asked what the corresponding oracle was. "It is this," said Wenzi. 'The indication being like a hill, a party go forth on an expedition, and lose their leader."' The lady observed, "The invaders lose their leader;—this is favourable for those who resist them. Do you take measures accordingly." The people of Wey then pursued the enemy, and Sun Kuai captured Huang'er at Quanqiu.'
 秋.七月.楚子囊.鄭子耳.伐我西鄙.還圍蕭.八月.丙寅.克之.九月.子耳侵宋北鄙.孟獻子曰.鄭其有災乎.師競已甚.周猶不堪競.況鄭乎.有災.其執政之三士乎.  In autumn, in the 7th month, Zinang of Chu and Zi'er of Zheng invaded our western borders. On their return they laid siege to Xiao (a city of Song), and reduced it in the 8th month, on Bingyin. In the 9th month. Zi'er of Zheng made an incursion on the northern border of Song. Meng Xianzi said, "Calamity must be going to be fall Zheng." The aggressions of its armies are excessive. Even Zhou could not endure such violent efforts, and how much less Zheng! The calamity is likely to befall the three ministers who conduct its government!"
 莒人間諸侯之有事也.故伐我東鄙.  The people of Ju taking advantage of the States being occupied, invaded our eastern borders.
 諸侯伐鄭.齊崔杼使大子光先至于師.故長於滕.己酉.師于牛首.  'The States invaded Zheng. Cui Shu of Qi came with Guang, the eldest son of the marquis, to the army early, and the prince therefore took precedence of Teng. On Jiyou, the whole army took post at Niushou.
 初子駟與尉止有爭.將禦諸侯之師.而黜其車.尉止獲.又與之爭.子駟抑尉止曰.爾車非禮也.遂弗使獻.  'Before this, Zisi (the Gongzi Fei) had a quarrel with Wei Zhi, and when he was about to take the field against the army of the States, he reduced the number of the chariots [which Zhi wanted to contribute to the expedition]. He had another quarrel with Zhi about the captives whom he had taken, and kept him down, saying his chariots had been beyond the number prescribed by rule, and would not allow him to present his spoils [before the marquis].
 初.子駟為田洫.司氏.堵氏.侯氏.子師氏.皆喪田焉.故五族聚群不逞之人.因公子之徒以作亂.於是子駟當國.子國為司馬.子耳為司空.子孔為司徒.冬.十月.戊辰.尉止.司臣.侯晉.堵女父.子師僕.帥賊以入.晨攻執政于西宮之朝.殺子駟.子國.子耳.劫鄭伯.以如北宮.子孔知之.故不死.書曰盜.言無大夫焉.  'Before this also, Zisi, in laying out the ditches through the fields, had occasioned the loss of fields to the Si, Du, Hou and Zishi families; and these four, along with Wei Zhi, collected a number of dissatisfied individuals, and proceeded, with the adherents of the sons of the ruling House (killed in the 8th year by Zisi; see the Zhuan after viii.2) to raise an insurrection. At this time the govt. was in the hands of Zisi; Ziguo (the Gongzi Fa) was minister of War; Zi'er (the Gongsun Zhe) was minister of Works; and Zikong was minister of Instruction. In winter in the 10th month, on Wuchen, Wei Zhi, Si Chen, Hou Jin, Du Rufu, and Zishi Pu, led a band of ruffians into the palace, and early in the morning attacked the chief minister at the audience in the western palace. They killed Zisi, Ziguo, and Zi'er, and carried off the earl to the northern palace. Zikong had known of their design, and so escaped death. The word 'ruffians' in the text indicates that none of them were great officers.
 子西聞盜.不儆而出.尸而追盜.盜入於北宮.乃歸授甲.臣妾多逃.器用多喪.  'Zixi, the son of Zisi) hearing of the ruffians, left his house without taking any precautions, went to [his father's] corpse, and pursued them. When they had entered the northern palace, however, he returned, and began giving out their arms [to his followers]. Most of the servants and concubines had fled, and most of the articles of furniture and use were lost.
 子產聞盜為門者.庀群司.閉府庫.慎閉藏.完守備.成列而後出.兵車十七乘.尸而攻盜於北宮.子蟜帥國人助之.殺尉止.子師僕.盜眾盡死.侯晉奔晉.堵女父.司臣.尉翩.司齊.奔宋.  Zichan (the son of Ziguo), hearing of the ruffians, set a guard at his gate, got all his officers in readiness, shut up his storehouses, carefully secured his depositories, formed his men in ranks, and, then went forth with 17 chariots of war. Having gone to [his father's] corpse, he proceeded to attack the ruffians, in the northern palace. Zijiao (the Gongsun Chai) led the people to his assistance, when they killed Wei Zhi and Zishi Pu. The majority of their followers perished, but Hou Jin fled to Jin, and Du Rufu, Si Chen, Wei Pian, and Si Qi fled to Song.

 子孔當國.為載書.以位序聽政辟.大夫諸司門子弗順.將誅之.子產止之.請為之焚書.子孔不可.曰.為書以定國.眾怒而焚之.是眾為政也.國不亦難乎.子產曰.眾怒難犯.專欲難成.合二難以安國.危之道也.不如焚書以安眾.子得所欲.眾亦得安.不亦可乎.專欲無成.犯眾興禍.子必從之.乃焚書於倉門之外.眾而後定.  'Zikong (the Gongzi Jia) then took charge of the State, and made a covenant requiring that all in the various degrees of rank should receive the rules enacted by himself. The great officers, ministers, and younger members of the great families refusing obedience to this, he wished to take them off; but Zichan stopped him, and begged that for their sakes he would burn the covenant. He objected to do so, saying, "I wrote what I did for the settlement of the State. If I burn it because they all are dissatisfied, then the government is in their hands;—will it not be difficult to administer the affairs of the State?" Zichan replied, "It is difficult to go against the anger of them all; and it is difficult to secure the exclusive authority to yourself. If you insist on both these difficulties in order to quiet the State, it is the very way to endanger it. It is better to burn the writing, and so quiet all their minds. You will get what you wish, and they also will feel at ease;—will not this be well? By insisting on your exclusive authority, you will find it difficult to succeed; by going against the wishes of all, you will excite calamity:—you must follow my advice." On this Zikong, burned the writing of the covenant outside the Cang gate, after which the minds of all the others became composed.'
 諸侯之師.城虎牢而戍之.晉師城梧及制.士魴.魏絳.戍之.書曰.戍鄭虎牢.非鄭地也.言將歸焉.鄭及晉平.  The armies of the States fortified [afresh] Hulao, and guarded the country about. The army of Jin fortified Wu and Zhi; and Shi Fang and Wei Jiang guarded them. The text speaks of Hulao of Zheng, though it was not [now] Zheng's, indicating that it was to be restored to it. Zheng [now] made peace with Jin.'
 楚子囊救鄭.十一月.諸侯之師還鄭而南.至於陽陵.楚師不退.知武子欲退.曰.今我逃楚.楚必驕.驕則可與戰矣.欒黶曰.逃楚.晉之恥也.合諸侯以益恥.不如死.我將獨進.師遂進.己亥.與楚師夾潁而軍.子蟜曰.諸侯既有成行.必不戰矣.從之將退.不從亦退.退楚必圍我.猶將退也.不如從楚.亦以退之.霄涉潁.與楚人盟.欒黶欲伐鄭師.荀罃不可.曰.我實不能禦楚.又不能庀鄭.鄭何罪.不如致怨焉而還.今伐其師.楚必救之.戰而不克.為諸侯笑 .克不可命.不如還也.丁未.諸侯之師還.侵鄭北鄙而歸.楚人亦還.

 'Zinang of Chu came to succour Zheng. In the 11th month, the armies of the States made a circuit round Zheng, and proceeded south to Yangling. Still the army of Chu did not retire, [seeing which], Zhi Wuzi proposed that the confederates should withdraw, saying, "If we now make our escape from Chu, it will become arrogant, and can be fought with when in that mood. Luan Yan, said, "To evade Chu will be a disgrace to Jin. Our having assembled the States will increase the disgrace. We had better die. I will advance alone." On this the [whole] army advanced, and on Jihai it and the army of Chu were opposed to each other with [only] the Ying between them. Zijiao [of Zheng] said. "The [armies of the] States are prepared to march. and are sure not to fight. If we follow Jin, they will retire; if we do not follow it, they will retire. Chu is sure to besiege our city when they retire; but they will still do so. We had better follow Chu, and get its army to retire also." That night he crossed through the Ying, and made a covenant with Chu. Luan Yan wished to attack the army of Zheng, but Xun Ying said, "No. We cannot keep back Chu, neither can we protect Zheng. Of what offence is Zheng guilty? Our best plan is to leave a grudge against it, and withdraw. If we now attack its army, Chu will come to its help. If we fight, and do not conquer, the States will laugh at us. Victory cannot be commanded. We had better withdraw." Accordingly, on Dingwei the armies of the States withdrew, made an incursion into the northern borders of Zheng, and returned. The forces of Chu also withdrew.
 王叔陳生與伯輿爭政.王右伯輿.王叔陳生怒而出奔.及河.王復之.殺史狡以說焉.不入.遂處之.晉侯使士匄平王室.王叔與伯輿訟焉.王叔之宰.與伯輿之大夫瑕禽.坐獄於王庭.士匄聽之.王叔之宰曰.篳門閨竇之人.而皆陵其上.其難為上矣.瑕禽曰.昔平王東遷.吾七姓從王.牲用備具.王賴之.而賜之騂旄之盟.曰.世世無失職.若篳門閨竇.其能來東底乎.且王何賴焉.今自王叔之相也.政以賄成.而刑放於寵.官之師旅.不勝其富.吾能無篳門閨竇乎.唯大國圖之.下而無直.則何謂正矣.范宣子曰.天子所右.寡君亦右之.所左亦左之.使王叔氏與伯輿合要.王叔氏不能舉其契.王叔奔晉.不書.不告也.單靖公為卿士.以相王室.  'Wangshu Chensheng and Bo Yu had a quarrel about the govt. The king favoured, Bo Yu, when the other fled from the capital in a rage. The king recalled him when he had got to the He, and put the historiographer Jiao to death to please him. He would not enter [the capital]. however, and was allowed to remain [near the He]. The marquis of Jin sent Shi Gai to pacify the royal House, when Wangshu and Bo Yu maintained each his cause. The steward of Wangshu, and Xia Qin, the great officer of Bo Yu; pleaded in the court of the king, while Shi Gai listened to them. Wangshu's steward said, "When people who live in hovels, with wicker doors fitted to holes in the wall, insult their superiors, it is hard to be a man of superior rank." Xia Qin said, "When king Ping removed here to the east, there were seven families of us, who followed him, and on whom he was dependent for the victims which he used. He made a covenant with them over [the flesh of] a red bull, saying that from generation to generation they should hold their offices. If we had been people of such hovels, how could they have come to the east? and how could the king have been dependent on them? Now since Wangshu became chief minister, the govt. has been carried on by means of bribes, and punishments have been in the hands of his favourites. His officers have become enormously rich, and it is not to be wondered at if we are reduced to such hovels. Let your great State consider the case. If the low cannot obtain right, where is what we call justice?" Fan Xuanzi said, "Whom the son of Heaven favours, my ruler also favours; whom he disapproves, my ruler also disapproves." He then made Wangshu and Bo Yu prepare a summary of their case; but Wangshu could bring forward no evidence, and fled to Jin. There is no record of this in the text, because no announcement of it was made to Lu. Duke Jing of Shan then became high minister, to act as director for the royal House.