XI. Eleventh year.



 XI. Eleventh year.
1. In the [duke's] eleventh year, in spring, in the king's first month, we formed three armies.
2. In summer, in the fourth month, we divined a fourth time about the border sacrifice. The result was unfavourable, and the sacrifice was not offered.
3. The Gongsun Shezhi of Zheng led a force, and made an incursion into Song.
4. The duke joined the marquis of Jin, the duke of Song, the marquis of Wey, the earl of Cao, Guang, heir-son of Qi, the viscounts of Ju, Zhu, and Teng, the earls of Xue and Qi, and the viscount of Little Zhu, in invading Zheng.
5. In autumn, in the seventh month, on Jiwei, [the above princes] made a covenant together on the north of Bocheng.
6. The duke arrived from the invasion of Zheng.
7. The viscount of Chu and the earl of Zheng invaded Song.
8. The duke joined the marquis of Jin, the duke of Song, the marquis of Wey, the earl of Cao, Guang, heir-son of Qi, the viscounts of Ju, Zhu, and Teng, the earls of Xue and Qi, and the viscount of Little Zhu, in invading Zheng. There was a meeting in Xiaoyu.
9. The duke arrived from the meeting.
10. The people of Chu seized and held Liang Xiao, the messenger of Zheng.
11. In winter, a body of men from Qin invaded Jin.

 春.季武子將作三軍.告叔孫穆子曰.請為三軍.各征其軍.穆子曰.政將及子.子必不能.武子固請之.穆子曰.然則盟諸.乃盟諸僖閎.詛諸五父之衢. 'This spring, Ji Wuzi wished to form 3 armies, and told Shusun Muzi (Bao) of his purpose, saying, "Let us make three armies, and each of us collect the revenue for the support of his army." Muzi replied, "When the demands [of Jin] come upon you, [according to this increased establishment], you will not be able [to meet them]." Wuzi, however, persisted in his request, till Muzi said, "Well, let us make a covenant." They covenanted accordingly at the gate of [duke] Xi's temple, the imprecatory sentences being repeated in the street of Wufu."
 正月.作三軍.三分公室.而各有其一.三子各毀其乘.季氏使其乘之人.以其役邑入者無征.不入者倍征.孟氏使半為臣.若子若弟.叔孫氏使盡為臣.不然不舍.  In the 1st month they proceeded to the formation of the 3 armies, [the three clans] dividing the ducal prerogative [as it were] into three, and each of them taking one part to itself. The three chiefs broke up their own [establishments of] chariots. The Ji appointed that those who brought their followers and the amount of the military contribution of their families to him, should pay nothing more [to the State], and those who did not so enter his ranks should pay a double contribution. The Meng employed one half the sons and younger brothers in his service. The Shusun employed all the sons and younger brothers. [They had said that], unless they acted thus, they would not alter the old arrangements.'
 鄭人患晉楚之故.諸大夫曰.不從晉.國幾亡.楚弱於晉.晉不吾疾也.晉疾.楚將辟之.何為而使晉師致死於我.楚弗敢敵.而後可固與也.子展曰.與宋為惡.諸侯必至.吾從之盟.楚師至.吾又從之.則晉怒甚矣.晉能驟來楚將不能.吾乃固與晉.大夫說之.使疆場之司.惡於宋.宋向戌侵鄭.大獲.子展曰.師而伐宋可矣.若我伐宋.諸侯之伐我必疾.吾乃聽命焉.且告於楚.楚師至.吾乃與之盟.而重賂晉師.乃免矣.夏.鄭子展侵宋.  The people of Zheng were troubled about [their relations with] Jin and Chu, and all the great officers said, "Through our not following Jin, the State is nearly ruined. Chu is weaker than Jin, but Jin shows no eagerness in our behalf. If Jin were eager in our behalf, Chu would avoid it. What shall we do to make the army of Jin ready to encounter death for us? In that case Chu will not venture to oppose it, and we can firmly adhere to it." Zizhan said, "Let us commence hostilities against Song; the States are sure to come [to its help], when we will submit to them, and make a covenant. The army of Chu will then come, and we shall do the same with it. This will make Jin very angry. If it can then come quickly and resolutely [into the field], Chu will not be able to do anything against it, and we shall firmly adhere to Jin." The others were pleased with this proposal, and they made the officers of the borders commence a quarrel with Song, Xiang Xu of which retaliated with an incursion into Zheng, in which he took great spoil. Zizhan said, "We may now invade Song with an army. If we attack Song, the States are sure to attack us immediately. We will then hearken to their commands, and at the same time send notice to Chu. When its forces come, we shall further make a covenant with it; and by heavy bribes to the army of Jin, we shall escape [the vengeance of them both]." Accordingly, in summer, Zizhan (Shezhi) made an incursion into Song.
 四月.諸侯伐鄭.己亥.齊太子光.宋向戌.先至于鄭.門于東門.其莫.晉荀罃至于西郊.東侵舊許.衛孫林父侵其北鄙.六月.諸侯會于北林.師于向右.還次于瑣.圍鄭.觀兵于南門.西濟于濟隧. In the fourth month, the States invaded Zheng. On Jihai, Guang, eldest son of [the marquis of] Qi, and Xiang Xu of Song, came first to its capital, and attacked the east gate. In the evening of that day, Xun Ying of Jin arrived in the western suburbs, from which he made an incursion to the old [capital of] Xu (see on VIII. xv. 11). Sun Linfu of Wey made an incursion on the northern borders of the State. In the 6th month, the States assembled at Beilin, and encamped in Xiang. Thence they took a circuit, and halted at Suo, after which they invested the capital, and made a [grand] display of their forces outside the south gate, and on the west crossed over the Jisui.'
 The people of Zheng [now] became afraid, and sought terms of accommodation. In autumn, in the 7th month, they made a covenant together in Bo. Fan Xuanzi said, "If we be not careful, we shall lose the States. Wearied as they have been by marching, and not [really] accomplishing anything, can they be but disaffected?" Accordingly, when they covenanted, the words were:——"All we who covenant together agree not to hoard up the produce of good years, not to shut one another out from advantages [that we possess], not to protect traitors, not to shelter criminals. We agree to aid one another in disasters and calamities, to have compassion on one another in seasons of misfortune and disorder, to cherish the same likings and dislikings, to support and encourage the royal House. Should any prince break these engagements, may He who watches over men's sincerity and He who watches over covenants, [the Spirits of] the famous hills and [of] the famous streams, the kings and dukes our predecessors, the whole host of Spirits, and all who are sacrificed to, the ancestors of our 12 (? 13) States with their 7 surnames:—may all these intelligent Spirits destroy him, so that he shall lose his people, his appointment pass from him, his family perish, and his State be utterly overthrown!'"
 楚子囊乞旅于秦.秦右大夫詹帥師從楚子.將以伐鄭.鄭伯逆之.丙子.伐宋. Zinang of Chu had asked the assistance of troops from Qin; and Zhan, Qin's great officer of the right, led a force to follow the viscount of Chu, intending to invade Zheng. [In the meantime], the earl of Zheng met [the army of Chu], [made his submission], and on Bingzi invaded Song [along with it].
 'In the 9th month, the States, with all their armies, again invaded Zheng. They showed their forces outside the east gate of the city, on which the people of Zheng made the king's son, Bopian, offer their submission. On Jiaxu, Zhao Wu of Jin entered the city, and made a covenant with the earl; and in winter, in the 10th month, on Dinghai, Zizhan came out, and made a covenant with the marquis of Jin.
  In the 12th month, on Wuyin, there was a meeting in Xiaoyu. On Gengchen, [the marquis of Jin] released his Zheng prisoners, treated them all courteously, and sent them back. He [also] called in his scouting parties, and forbade raids and pillaging. [At the same time], he sent Shuxi to inform the [other] princes of these proceedings. The duke made Zangsun He return the following reply, "All we who have covenanted together [are here], because your great State found it necessary to punish a small one which had offended. Having obtained sufficient ground for your present course, you are ready to exercise forgiveness. My ruler has received your commands."
 'The people of Zheng presented to the marquis of Jin the music-masters, Kui, Chu, and Juan; fifteen, each, of wide chariots and guard chariots with the buff-coats and weapons for them complete, and other war-chariots amounting altogether to a hundred; two sets of musical bells, with the large bells and musical stones belonging to them; and sixteen female musicians. The marquis gave one half [of these two last gifts] to Wei Jiang, saying, "It was you who taught me to harmonize the Rong and the Di, so as secure the adherence of the great States (see the long Zhuan at the end of the 4th year). In the space of 8 years, I have nine times assembled the States, and a harmony has prevailed among them like that of music. I beg to share the pleasure of these things with you." Wei Jiang declined the gifts, saying, "The harmonizing of the Rong and Di was the happy destiny of the State. The assembling of the States nine times within the space of eight years, and the princes all virtuously adhering, is to be ascribed to your lordship's powerful influence, and the labours of your various servants. What did I contribute to those results? What your servant wishes is that your lordship may enjoy your present pleasure and think about the future. The ode (Shi, II. vii. ode VIII. 4) says,
 樂只君子.殿天子之邦.樂只君子.福祿攸同.便蕃左右.亦是帥從.夫樂以安德.義以處之.禮以行之.信以守之.仁以厲之.而後可以殿邦國.同福祿.來遠人.所謂樂也.書曰.居安思危.思則有備.有備無患.敢以此規.公曰.子之教.敢不承命.抑微子.寡人無以待戎.不能濟河.夫賞.國之典也.藏在盟府.不可廢也.子其受之.魏絳於是乎始有金石之樂.禮也. 'To be delighted in are those princes, The guardians of the country of the Son of Heaven! To be delighted in are those princes; Around them all blessings collect. Discriminating and able are their attendants, Who also have followed them hither!' Now music helps the repose in virtue; righteousness is seen in the manner of occupying one's position; the rules of propriety are seen in one's practice; good faith maintains consistency; and benevolence makes one powerful in influencing others. When a prince has these qualities, then indeed he may be the guardian of the country, share in all blessings and emoluments, and attract people from a distance:——this is called music indeed. The Shu says (probably V. xv. 19 is intended), 'In a position of security, think of peril.' If you think thus, you will make preparation against the danger, and with the preparation there will be no calamity. I venture to offer you these admonitions." The marquis said, "Dare I but receive your commands in these instructions? But for you, however, I should not have known how to treat the Rong; I should not have been able to cross the He. To reward is a statute of the State, preserved in the repository of covenants; it may not be disused. Do you receive those things." It was thus that Wei Jiang first had bells and musical stones;—and it was right he should thus receive them.'
 秦庶長鮑.庶長武.帥師伐晉.以救鄭.鮑先入晉地.士魴禦之.少秦師而弗設備.壬午.武濟自輔氏.與鮑交伐晉師.己丑.秦晉戰于櫟.晉師敗績.易秦故也. 'Two dignitaries of Qin, Bao and Wu, led a force and invaded Jin, in order to succour Zheng. Bao first entered the territory of Jin, and was met by Shi Fang, who slighted the forces of Qin, and did not make preparation against them. On Renwu, Wu crossed [the He] from Fushi, and, joining Bao, went on with him into Jin. On Jichou the armies of the two States fought at Li, when that of Jin received a great defeat;—in consequence of making light of Qin.'
 鄭人使良霄.大宰石蓖.如楚.告將服于晉.曰.孤以社稷之故.不能懷君.君若能以玉帛綏晉.不然.則武震以攝威之.孤之願也.楚人執之.書曰行人.言使人也. 'The people of Zheng had sent Liang Xiao, and the grand-superintendent Shi Chuo, to Chu, to give notice of their intended submission to Jin in the words, [as from the earl], "Out of regard to my altars, I am not able to cherish your lordship [as my superior]. If your lordship with gems and silks will come to a good understanding with Jin, or if by a display of prowess you will overawe it, this would be what I desire." The people of Chu seized and held the two officers. The text speaks of "the messenger," intimating that [Liang Xiao] was an ambassador.'