XIV. Fourteenth year.

 襄公十四年
經十有四年.
  1. 春.王正月.季孫宿叔老會晉士匄.齊人.宋人.衛人.鄭公孫蠆.曹人.莒人.邾人.滕人.薛人.杞人.小邾人.會吳于向.
  2. 二月.乙未朔.日有食之.
  3. 夏.四月.叔孫豹會晉荀偃.齊人.宋人.衛北宮括.鄭公孫蠆.曹人.莒人.邾人.滕人.薛人.杞人.小邾人.伐秦.
  4. 己未.衛侯出奔齊.
  5. 莒人侵我東鄙.
  6. 秋.楚公子貞帥師伐吳.
  7. 冬.季孫宿會晉士匄.宋華閱.衛孫林父.鄭公孫蠆.莒人.邾人.于戚.
 XIV. Fourteenth year.
1. In the [duke's] fourteenth year, in spring, in the king's first month, Jisun Su, and Shu Lao, along with Shi Gai of Jin, officers of Qi, Song, and Wey, the Gongsun Chai of Zheng, and officers of Cao, Ju, Zhu, Teng, Xue, Qi, and Little Zhu, had a meeting with Wu in Xiang.
2. In the second month, on Yiwei, the first day of the moon, the sun was eclipsed.
3. In summer, in the fourth month, Shusun Bao joined Xun Yan of Jin, officers of Qi and Song, Beigong Kuo of Wey, the Gongsun Chai of Zheng, and officers of Cao, Ju, Zhu, Teng, Xue, Qi, and Little Zhu, in invading Qin.
4. On Jiwei, the marquis of Wey left his State, and fled to Qi.
5. A body of men from Ju made a raid upon our eastern borders.
6. In autumn, the Gongzi Zhen of Chu led a force and invaded Wu.
7. In winter, Jisun Su had a meeting with Shi Gai of Jin, Hua Yue of Song, Sun Linfu of Wey, the Gongsun Chai of Zheng, and officers of Ju and Zhu, in Qi.
 傳十四年. COMMENTARY
 春.吳告敗于晉.會于向.為吳謀楚故也.'This spring, Wu announced to Jin the defeat [which it had sustained from Chu], and a meeting was held at Xiang, to consult about measures against Chu; in the interest of Wu.
 范宣子數吳之不德也.以退吳人.執莒公子務婁.以其通楚使也.將執戎子駒支.范宣子親數諸朝.曰.來.姜戎氏.昔秦人迫逐乃祖吾離于瓜州.乃祖吾離被苫蓋.蒙荊棘.以來歸我先君.我先君惠公有不腆之田.與女剖分而食之.今諸侯之事我寡君.不如昔者.蓋言語漏洩.則職女之由.詰朝之事.爾無與焉.與將執女.對曰.昔秦人負恃其眾.貪于土地.逐我諸戎.惠公蠲其大德.謂我諸戎.是四獄之裔冑也.毋是翦棄.賜我南鄙之田.狐狸所居.豺狼所嗥.我諸戎除翦其荊棘.驅其狐狸豺狼.以為先君不侵不叛之臣.至于今不貳.昔文公與秦伐鄭.秦人竊與鄭盟.而舍戍焉.於是乎有殽之師.晉禦其上.戎亢其下.秦師不復.我諸戎實然.譬如捕鹿.晉人角之.諸戎掎之.與晉踣之.戎何以不免.自是以來.晉之百役.與我諸戎.相繼于時.以從執政.猶殽志也.豈敢離逖.今官之師旅.無乃實有所闕.以攜諸侯.而罪我諸戎.我諸戎飲食衣服.不與華同.贄幣不通.言語不達.何惡之能為.不與於會.亦無瞢焉.賦青蠅而退.宣子辭焉.使即事於會.成愷悌也.  Fan Xuanzi, however, pointed out Wu's act of misconduct, and sent away its representative. He [also] caused the Gongzi Wulou of Ju to be seized, because of Ju's interchanging communications with Chu. He wished [further] to seize Juzhi, viscount of the Rong, and accused him, himself, in the court [which had been established in Xiang], saying, "Come, you chief of the Jiang Rong! Formerly, the people of Qin drove Wuli, one of your ancestors, to Guazhou, when he came, clothed with rushes and forcing his way through briars and thorns, and threw himself on our ruler duke Hui, who cut off from Jin some poor lands, and gave them to you to afford you a subsistence. The States do not now yield to our ruler the service which they formerly did, because of reports leaking [out from Jin].—all through you. You must not be present at the business of tomorrow morning; if you are, I will cause you to be seized." The viscount replied, 'Formerly, the people of Qin, relying on their multitudes, and covetous of territory, drove out us Rong. Then [your] duke Hui displayed his great kindness; and considering that we Rong were the descendants of the [chief of the] four mountains (see the Shu, 1.11), and were not to be entirely cut off and abandoned, he gave us the lands on his southern border. The territory was one where jackals dwelt and wolves howled, but we Rong extirpated the briars and thorns from it, drove away the jackals and wolves, and considered ourselves his subjects, who should not make inroads on his State, nor rebel. Nor to the present day have we swerved from our allegiance. Formerly, when duke Wen and Qin invaded Zheng (see V. xxxv.), the people of Qin stealthily made a covenant with Zheng, and left some troops as a guard in its territory, which led to the battle of Yao (V. xxxiii. 3). There Jin met the enemy in front, and we Rong withstood him in the rear. That the army of Qin did not return to their State was owing to our services. As in the pursuit of a stag, the people of Jin took Qin by the horns, and we took it by the feet, and along with Jin, we laid it prostrate on the ground;—might we not expect to escape [such a charge as you bring against us]? From that time to the present, in all the expeditions of Jin we Rong have taken part, one after another, as they occurred, following its leaders, without ever daring to keep ourselves apart from them. And now when the troops of your officers have indeed committed some errors which are separating the States from you, you try to throw the blame on us. Our drink, our food, our clothes are all different from those of the Flowery States; we do not interchange silks or other articles of introduction with their courts; their language and ours do not admit of intercourse between us and them:—what evil is it possible for us to have done? Not to be present at the meeting will not be a grief to me." He then sang the Qing ying (Shi, II. vii. ode VI.), and withdrew. Xuanzi acknowledged his error, made the viscount be present at the business of the meeting, and proved himself "the gentle and harmonious superior" [of that ode].
 於是子叔齊子為季武子介以會.自是晉人輕魯幣.而益敬其使. 'At this time Zishu Qizi (Shu Lao) was the assistant of Ji Wuzi and attended the meeting. From this time Jin made the contributions of Lu lighter, and gave more respect to its messengers.'
 吳子諸樊既除喪.將立季札.季札辭曰.曹宣公之卒也.諸侯與曹人不義曹君.將立子臧.子臧去之.遂弗為也.以成曹君.君子曰.能守節.君義嗣也.誰敢奸君.有國非吾節也.札雖不才.願附於子臧.以無失節.固立之.棄其室而耕.乃舍之. 'Zhufan, viscount of Wu, when the mourning [for his father] was [so far] completed (see the death of the former viscount, xii. 4), wished to raise his younger brother Zha to be lord of the State; but Zha declined the dignity, saying, 'When duke Xuan of Cao died (see VIII. xiii. 4, 6), the States and the people of Cao, disapproving of the new ruler, wished to raise Zizang in Xuan's room. Zizang, how ever, left Cao, and would not be [earl of it]. thus establishing the position of the [actual] ruler. Superior men say of him that he could maintain in purity his position. You are the rightful heir; who will dare to be false to you? I cannot possess the State in my position. Devoid as I am of ability, I wish rather to follow the example of Zizang, so as not to lose my purity." When the thing was still pressed upon him, he abandoned his house, and took to ploughing, on which his brother let him alone.'
 夏.諸侯之大夫從晉侯伐秦.以報櫟之役也.晉侯待于竟.使六卿帥諸侯之師以進.及涇不濟.叔向見叔孫穆子.穆子賦匏有苦葉.叔向退而具舟.魯人.莒人.先濟.鄭子蟜見衛北宮懿子曰.與人而不固.取惡莫甚焉.若社稷何.懿子說.二子見諸侯之師.而勸之濟.濟涇而次.秦人毒涇上流.師入多死.鄭司馬子蟜帥鄭師以進.師皆從之.至于棫林. 'In summer, the great officers of the States followed the marquis of Jin to invade Qin, in return for the affair at Li (see on xi. 11). The marquis waited on the borders of the State, and sent his six ministers forward with the forces of the States. When the armies reached the King, they [were unwilling] to cross it; but Shuxiang (Yangshe Xi; the Shuxi of the Zhuan on xi. 8) having seen Shusun Muzi (Bao), the latter sang the "The gourd has its bitter leaves"(Pao you ku ye, Shi, I. iii. ode IX), on which Shuxiang withdrew and prepared boats for crossing the stream. The men of Lu and Ju were the first to cross. Zijiao of Zheng, seeing Beigong Yizi of Wey, said to him, "If we take a side and do not adhere firmly to it, we shall bring on ourselves the greatest evils. What will be the consequences to our altars?" The other was pleased, and they united in advising the forces of the States to cross the Jing. This was done and the army then halted, but the people of Qin had put poison into the stream higher up, in consequence of which many of the soldiers died. Zijiao, minister of War of Zheng, led its forces forward, and was followed by those of the other States to Yulin.
 不獲成焉.荀偃令曰.雞鳴而駕.塞井夷灶.唯余馬首是瞻.欒黶曰.晉國之命.未是有也余馬首欲東.乃歸.下軍從之.左史謂魏莊子曰.不待中行伯乎.莊子曰.夫子命從帥.欒伯吾帥也.吾將從之.從帥所以待夫子也.伯游曰.吾今實過.悔之何及.多遺秦禽.乃命大還.晉人謂之遷延之役. '[When they were there], they still did not succeed in bringing Qin to terms, and Xun Yan issued an order that at cock-crow they should yoke their chariots, fill up the wells, level their furnaces, and look only at his horses heads, [and follow him]." Luan Yan said, "Such an order as this was never given out by the State of Jin. My horses' heads wish to go to the east;" and with this he turned back, followed by the third army. The historiographer of the Left said to Wei Zhuangzi (Wei Jiang), "Will you not wait for Zhonghang Bo (Xun Yan)?" but Zhuangzi said, "He ordered us to follow our leaders. Luan Bo is my leader; I will follow him, and in this way wait for the general." [On learning this], Boyou (Xun Yan) said, "I committed an error, and repentance for it will not now avail. We shall leave many prisoners in the hands of Qin." On this he commanded a great retreat; and the people of Jin called the whole affair "The campaign of changes and delays."
 欒鍼曰.此役也.報櫟之敗也.役又無功.晉之恥也.吾有二位於戎路.敢不恥乎.與士鞅馳秦師死焉.士鞅反.欒黶謂士匄曰.余弟不欲往而子召之.余弟死而子來.是而子殺余之弟也.弗逐.余亦將殺之.士鞅奔秦. 'Luan Zhen said, "This service was to repay the affair of Li, and it proves itself to be a failure;—to the disgrace of Jin. And there are two of us [he was a brother of Luan Yan) in the expedition;—can I but feel the disgrace?" He then dashed with Shi Yang against the army of Qin and was killed, Shi Yang [escaping and] returning. Luan Yan said to Shi Gai, "My brother did not wish to go forward, and your son invited him to do so. My brother died, while your son has returned. He is answerable for my brother's death, and if you do not drive him away, I will kill him." On this Shi Yang fled to Qin.
 於是齊崔杼.宋華閱.仲江.會伐秦.不書.惰也.向之會.亦如之.衛北宮括不書於向.書於伐秦.攝也. 'Cui Shu of Qi, and Hua Yue and Zhong Jiang of Song, were engaged in this expedition, but their names do not appear in the text, because they were remiss. For the same reason they are not mentioned in the account of the meeting at Xiang. Beigong Kuo of Wey does not appear at that meeting, but he is mentioned here, because he was here more attentive to his duty.
 秦伯問於士鞅曰.晉大夫其誰先亡.對曰.其欒氏乎.秦伯曰.以其汰乎.對曰.然.欒黶汰虐已甚.猶可以免.其在盈乎.秦伯曰.何故.對曰.武子之德在民.如周人之思召公焉.愛其甘棠.況其子乎.欒黶死.盈之善未能及人.武子所施沒矣.而黶之怨實章.將於是乎在.秦伯以為知言.為之請於晉而復之. 'The earl of Qin asked Shi Yang which of the great officers of Jin would first go to ruin, and was answered, "Probably the Luan." "Because of their excessive arrogance?" asked the earl. "Yes," was the reply. "The arrogance and violence of Luan Yan are extreme, but still he may escape an evil end. The thing will happen to Ying." "Why so?" pursued the earl. Yang answered, "The good offices of Wuzi (Yan's father) to the people [have made them think of them] as the people of Zhou thought of the duke of Shao. If they loved the sweet pear tree [of the duke] (see the Shi, I. ii. ode v.), how much more must the people now regard the son [of Wuzi]! When Luan Yan dies, and the goodness of Ying does not extend to the people, the favours of Wuzi will be forgotten, and the wrongs done by Yan will be clearly seen, and then the doom will come." The earl was impressed with the wisdom of his remarks, appealed in his behalf to Jin, and got him restored to that State.'
 衛獻公戒孫文子.寧惠子食.皆服而朝.日旰(gàn)不召.而射鴻於囿.二子從之.不釋皮冠而與之言.二子怒.孫文子知戚.孫蒯入使.公飲之酒.使大師歌巧言之卒章.大師辭.師曹請為之.初.公有嬖妾.使師曹誨之琴.師曹鞭之.公怒.鞭師曹三百.故師曹欲歌之.以怒孫子.以報公.公使歌之.遂誦之.蒯懼.告文子.文子曰.君忌我矣.弗先.必死.并帑於戚.而入見蘧伯玉曰.君之暴虐.子所知也.大懼社稷之傾覆.將若之何.對曰.君制其國.臣敢奸之.雖奸之.庸知愈乎.遂行.從近關出. 'Duke Xian of Wey had given an invitation to Sun Wenzi (Sun Linfu) and Ning Huizi (Ning Zhi) to eat with him, and the two officers dressed themselves, and went to court accordingly. The duke, however, had sent them no [subsequent] summons [to the feast], even when the day was getting late, but was shooting wild geese in the park. Thither they followed him, when he spoke to them, without taking off his skin cap. They were offended, and Wenzi repaired to [his city of] Qi, from which he sent [his son] Sun Kuai to the court. The duke called for spirits to drink with Kuai, and ordered the chief music-master to sing the last stanza of the Qiao yan (Shi, II. v. ode IV.). That officer declined to do so, and his subordinate Cao asked leave to sing it. Before this, the duke had employed this Cao to teach a favourite concubine the lute, and he had whipped the lady, which so enranged the duke that he had given the musician 300 blows. It was in consequence of this that Cao wished to sing the stanza, that he might thereby enrage Sunzi, and obtain his own revenge upon the duke. The duke ordered him to sing the words, and further to intimate his meaning in them. Kuai was afraid, and told the whole thing to his father, who said, "The duke suspects me. If I do not take the initiative, I shall die." On this he brought his son also to Qi, and went [to the capital] to see Qu Boyu, and said to him, "You are well aware of the cruel oppressions of our ruler; I am very much afraid lest our altars be overthrown :—what is to be done?" Boyu replied, "The ruler's authority is supreme; who will dare to oppose him? And though we should oppose him, do we know that we should find a better?" And after this interview he left the State by the nearest gate on the borders.
 公使子蟜.子伯.子皮.與孫子盟于丘宮.孫子皆殺之.四月.己未.子展奔齊.公如鄄.使子行於孫子.孫子又殺之.公出奔齊.孫氏追之.敗公徒于河澤.鄄人執之.初.尹公佗學射於庾公差.庾公差學射於公孫丁.二子追公.公孫丁御公.子魚曰.射為背師.不射為戮.射為禮乎.射兩軥而還.尹公佗曰.子為師.我則遠矣.乃反之.公孫丁授公轡而射之.貫臂. 'The duke then sent Zijiao, Zibo, and Zipi to make a covenant in Qiugong with Sunzi, who put them all to death. In the 4th month, on Jiwei, Zizhan fled to Qi; and the duke went to Juan, from which he sent Zihang to Sunzi, who put him also to death. The duke then left the State, and fled towards Qi, pursued by the Sun, who defeated his followers at the marsh of E. The people of Juan also took some of them prisoners. Yingong Tuo and Yugong Chai continued the pursuit of the duke. Tuo had learned archery from Chai, whose own instructor in the art had been the Gongsun Ding. Ding was now driving the duke's chariot, and Ziyu (Yugong Chai) said, "If I shoot, I do violence to my instructor; and if I do not shoot, I shall be killed;—had I not beter shoot in ceremony only?" Accordingly he shot twice, [merely] hitting the yoke over the horses' necks, and returned. [By and by] Yingong Tuo said, "He was your master, but I am farther removed from him," and there on he turned again in pursuit. The Gongsun Ding gave the reins to the duke, and sent an arrow through the upper part of Tuo's arm.
 子鮮從公及竟.公使祝宗告亡.且告無罪.定姜曰.無神何告.若有.不可誣也.有罪若何告無.舍大臣而與小臣謀.一罪也.先君有冢卿以為師保.而蔑之.二罪也.余以巾櫛事先君.而暴妾使余.三罪也.告亡而已.無告無罪. 'Zixian followed the duke, who sent the director of prayers back from the borders of the State to announce his flight [in the ancestral temple], and to announce that he was free from guilt. [His father's proper wife], Ding Jiang said [on this], "If there be no Spirits, what is the use of such an announcement? If there be, they are not to be imposed upon;—guilty as he is, how can he announce that he is free from guilt? He neglected the great officers, and took counsel with his small officers;—that was one act of guilt. He treated with contempt the chief ministers of his father, who had been appointed tutor and guardian to him; that was a second. He was oppressive, as to a concubine, to me, who with towel and comb had served his father; that was a third. He might announce his flight; but nothing more; how could he announce that he was free from guilt?"
 公使厚成叔弔于衛曰.寡君使瘠聞君不撫社稷.而越在他竟.若之何不弔.以同盟之故.使瘠敢私於執事.曰.有君不弔.有臣不敏.君不赦宥.臣亦不帥職.增淫發洩.其若之何.衛人使大叔儀對曰.群臣不佞.得罪於寡君.寡君不以即刑而悼棄之.以為君憂.君不忘先君之好.辱弔群臣.又重恤之.敢拜君命之辱.重拜大貺.厚孫歸復命.語臧武仲曰.衛君其必歸乎.有大叔儀以守.有母弟鱄以出.或撫其內.或營其外.能無歸乎. 'The marquis [of Lu] sent Hou Chengshu on a visit of condolence to Wey, who said, "My ruler has sent me (Ji was Chengshu's name), having heard that your ruler was no longer watching over your altars, but had crossed your borders into another State. In such circumstances, how could he but send his condolences? Considering how he had covenanted with your ruler, he has sent me privately to you, the officers of Wey, to say, 'Your ruler showed no sympathy, and his ministers were not earnest and intelligent. He did not forgive [their offences], and they did not perform their duties. His excesses were increased, and they gave vent to their resentments. What is to be done in such a case?'" The people of Wey appointed Taishu Yi to reply to him, who said, "We officers, in our want of ability, offended our ruler. He did not proceed to punish us, but in grief has left the State, causing sorrow to your ruler. Mindful of the friendship between the former princes of Wey and Lu, your ruler has condescended to send his condolences to us, and to show us his great pity. We venture to acknowledge the condescension of his message; we thank him deeply for his great gift." When Housun returned, and reported the execution of his mission, he said to Zang Wuzhong, "The ruler of Wey will yet return, I apprehend, to his State. There is Taishu Yi to keep guard in it; there is his own brother Zhuan (Zixian), who has left it with him. With the former watching over his interests in the State, and the latter to build him up out of it, is it possible he should not be restored?"
 齊人以郲寄衛侯.及其復也.以郲糧歸.右宰穀從而逃歸.衛人將殺之.辭曰.余不說初矣.余狐裘而羔袖.乃赦之.衛人立公孫剽.孫林父.甯殖.相之.以聽命於諸侯. 'The people of Qi assigned Lai to the marquis as his residence, and when he returned to Wey, he took with him the provisions that were in it. Gu, commandant of the right, had followed the marquis on his flight, but afterwards stole away from him, and returned to Wey, where the people wished to put him to death. He pleaded, however, that he had not gone away at first with a good will, and that he might be compared to a robe of fox-skin with sleeves of lamb's fur. On this they forgave him, and raised Piao, a grandson of duke Mu to the vacant seat. To him Sun Linfu and Ning Zhi acted as chief ministers, awaiting his recognition by the States.
 衛侯在郲.臧紇如齊唁衛侯.與之言虐.退而告其人曰.衛侯其不得入矣.其言糞土也.亡而不變.何以復國.子展.子鮮.聞之.見臧紇與之言道.臧孫說.謂其人曰.衛君必入.夫二子者.或輓之.或推之.欲無入得乎. 'While the marquis of Wey was in Lai, Zang He went to Qi, and paid him a visit of condolence, when he spoke in so violent a way, that, when He retired, he said to his followers that the marquis would not be able to enter the state again "His words," said he, "are dirt. His exile has wrought no change in him. How is it possible that he should return?' Zizhan and Zixian heard this, and visited He, when their discourse was so marked by right principle, that he said to his people, "The ruler of Wey is sure to return to his State. With the one of these officers to pull him forward, and the other to keep him back, though he wished not to enter it, he could not keep from doing so."'
 師歸自伐秦.晉侯舍新軍.禮也.成國不過半天子之軍.周為六軍.諸侯之大者.三軍可也.於是知朔生盈而死.盈生六年而武子卒.彘裘亦幼.皆未可立也.新軍無帥.故舍之. 'When his armies returned from the invasion of Qin, the marquis of Jin disbanded the new army;—which was according to rule. The armies of a large State could only be half those of the Son of Heaven. Zhou had six armies, and the greatest of the States might have three. At this time, Zhi Shuo (知 朔, belonging to a branch of the Xun or Zhonghang clan) had died after the birth of [? his brother] Ying. Wuzi, [their father], also died when Ying was only six years old. Zhi Qiu (彘 裘, a brother of Fan Gai; belonging to the Fan or Shi clan) was also still young. Neither of them was competent for office. There was thus no leader for the new army, and it was given up.'
 師曠侍於晉侯.晉侯曰.衛人出其君.不亦甚乎.對曰.或者其君實甚.良君將賞善而刑淫.養民如子.蓋之如天.容之如地.民奉其君.愛之如父母.仰之如日月.敬之如神明.畏之如雷霆.其可出乎.夫君.神之主也.民之望也.若困民之主.匱神乏祀.百姓絕望.社稷無主.將安用之.弗去何為.天生民而立之君.使司牧之.勿使失性.有君而為之貳.使師保之.勿使過度.是故天子有公.諸侯有卿.卿置側室.大夫有貳.宗士有朋友.庶人工商皂隸牧圉.皆有親暱.以相輔佐也.善則賞之.過則匡之.患則救之.失則革之.自王以下.各有父兄子弟.以補察其政.史為書.瞽為詩.工誦箴諫.大夫規誨.士傳言.庶人謗.商旅于市.百工獻藝.故夏書曰.遒人以木鐸徇于路.官師相規.工執藝事以諫.正月孟春.於是乎有之.諫失常也.天之愛民甚矣.豈其使一人肆於民上.以從其淫.而棄天地之性.必不然矣. 'The music-master Kuang being by the side of the marquis of Jin, the marquis said to him, 'Have not the people of Wey done very wrong in expelling their ruler?" Kuang replied, "Perhaps the ruler had done very wrong. A good ruler will reward the virtuous and punish the vicious; he will nourish his people as his children, overshadowing them as heaven, and supporting them as the earth. Then the people will maintain their ruler, love him as a parent, look up to him as the sun and moon, revere him as they do spiritual Beings, and stand in awe of him as of thunder;—could such a ruler be expelled? Now, the ruler is the host of the spirits, and the hope of the people. If he make the life of the people to be straitened and the spirits to want their sacrifices (Read 若 困 民 之生,匱 神 之 祀), then the hope of the people is cut off, and the altars are without a host;—of what use is he, and what should they do but send him away? Heaven, in giving birth to the people, appointed for them rulers to act as their superintendents and pastors, so that they should not lose their proper nature. For the rulers there are assigned their assistants to act as tutors and guardians to them, so that they should not go beyond their proper limits. Therefore the son of Heaven has his dukes; princes of States have their high ministers; ministers have [the Heads of] their collateral families; great officers have the members of the secondary branches of their families; inferior officers have their friends; and the common people, mechanics, merchants, police runners, shepherds, and grooms, all have their relatives and acquaintances to aid and assist them. These stimulate and honour those [to whom they stand in such a relation], when they are good, and correct them when they do wrong. They rescue them in calamity, and try to put away their errors. From the king downwards, every one has his father, elder brothers, sons and younger brothers, to supply [the defects] and watch over [the character of] his government. The historiographers make their records; the blind make their poems; the musicians recite their satires and remonstrances; the great officers admonish and instruct, and inferior officers report to these what they hear; the common people utter their complaints; the merchants [display their wares] in the market places; the hundred artificers exhibit their skilful contrivances. Hence in one of the Books of Xia (Shu III. iv. 3) it is said, "The herald with his wooden-tongued bell goes along the roads, proclaiming, "Ye officers, able to instruct, be prepared with your admonitions. Ye workmen engaged in mechanical affairs, remonstrate on the subject of your business." In the first month, at the beginning of spring, this was done.' It was done, lest remonstrances should not be regularly presented. Heaven's love for the people is very great;—would it allow the one man to take his will and way over them, so indulging his excessive desires and discarding the [kindly] nature of Heaven and Earth? Such a thing could not be."' 
 秋.楚子為庸浦之役故.子囊師于棠以伐吳.吳不出而還.子囊殿.以吳為不能而弗儆.吳人自皋舟之隘要而擊之.楚人不能相救.吳人敗之.獲楚公子宜穀. In autumn, this attack was ordered by the viscount of Chu, in consequence of Wu's invasion of Chu the previous year, which ended with the battle of Yongpu (see the Zhuan after xiii. 3); Zinang took post with his army at Tang, intending to attack Wu; and when Wu would not come forth, he with drew. He brought up the rear himself, and did not take precautions, thinking Wu could do nothing. A body of men, however, advancing through the defile of Gaozhou, intercepted and fell upon him where the troops of Chu could not help one another. They defeated Zinang, and took the Gongzi Yigu prisoner.'
 王使劉定公賜齊侯.命曰.昔伯舅大公.右我先王.股肱周室.師保萬民.世胙大師.以表東海.王室之不壞.繄伯舅是賴.今余命女環.茲率舅氏之典.纂乃祖考.無忝乃舊.敬之哉.無廢朕命. 'The king sent duke Ding of Liu to deliver the following charge to the marquis of Qi.—Formerly, our great kinsman (duke T'ae was fatherinlaw to king Wu; hence the 舅), [your ancestor], duke Tai, aided our ancient kings, and was as a limb to the House of Zhou, a tutor and guardian to the myriads of the people; and his services as the grand-tutor were recompensed with the distinction conferred on him by the eastern sea, descending to his posterity. That the royal House was not overthrown was owing to him. Now I give charge to you Huan to follow the rules of our [great] kinsman, and to continue the services of your ancestors, bringing no disgrace on them. Be reverent. Do not neglect my charge]!"'
 晉侯問衛故於中行獻子.對曰.不如因而定之.衛有君矣.伐之.未可以得志.而勤諸侯.史佚有言曰.因重而撫之.仲虺有言曰.亡者侮之.亂者取之.推亡固存.國之道也.君其定衛以待時乎. 'The marquis of Jin consulted Zhonghang Xianzi (Xun Yan) about the affairs of Wey, when that minister replied, "Our best plan is to accede to its present circumstances, and settle it accordingly. Wey has a ruler. If we attack it, we may not succeed as we should desire, and we shall be troubling the States. The historiographer Yi said, 'Add stability to the heavy.' Zhonghui said, 'Deal summarily with States that are going to ruin, and take their States from the disorderly. To overthrow the perishing and strengthen what is being preserved, is the way in which to administer a State.' Let your lordship now settle Wey, and wait the time [for a different course]. 
 冬.會于戚.謀定衛也.范宣子假羽毛於齊而弗歸.齊人始貳. In winter a meeting was held at Qi, to consult about the settlement of Wei. Fan Xuanzi borrowed from Qi its [banner with variegated] feathers and ox-tails, and did not return it; in consequence of which the people of Qi began to be disaffected.'
 楚子囊還自伐吳.卒.將死.遺言謂子庚必城郢.君子謂子囊忠.君薨不忘增其名.將死不忘衛社稷.可不謂忠乎.忠.民之望也.詩曰. When Zinang of Chu returned from the invasion of Wu, he died. When he was about to die, he left word that Zigeng should fortify Ying. The superior man will say that Zinang was [indeed a] faithful [minister]. When his ruler died, he did not forget to make him remembered by a good name (see on xiii. 3); when he was about to die himself, he did not forget to defend the altars [of the State]. Ought he not to be pronounced faithful? To the faithful the people look. The words of the ode (Shi, II. viii. ode I. 1),
 行歸于周.萬民所望.忠也. 'If we could now go back to Zhou, These would be admiringly looked to by all the people," have respect to the faithfulness [of the officers spoken of].']

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