| 襄公十九年 |
| XIX. Nineteenth year.|
1. In the [duke's] nineteenth year, in spring, in the king's first month, the princes made a covenant in Zhuke.
2. The people of Jin seized and held the viscount of Zhu.
3. The duke arrived from the invasion of Qi.
4. We took the lands of Zhu as far as from the Kuo water.
5. Jisun Su went to Jin.
6. There was the burial of duke Cheng of Cao.
7. In summer, Sun Linfu of Wey led a force and invaded Qi.
8. In autumn, in the seventh month, on Xinmao, Huan, marquis of Qi, died.
9. Shi Gai of Jin led a force to make an invasion into Qi, and had arrived at Gu, when he heard of the death of the marquis, on which he returned.
10. In the eighth month, on Bingchen, Zhongsun Mie died.
11. Qi put to death its great officer, Gao Hou.
12. Zheng put to death its great officer, the Gongzi Jia.
13. In winter there was the burial of duke Ling of Qi.
14. We walled round our western suburbs.
15. Shusun Bao had a meeting with Shi Gai of Jin in Ke.
16. We walled Wucheng.
| 傳十九年．|| COMMENTARY|
| 春．諸侯還自沂上．盟于督揚曰．大毋侵小．|| 'The princes returned from the country about the Yi (see the Zhuan on xviii. 4, at the end), and made a covenant in Duyang, to the effect that the great States should make no raids on the small.|
| 執邾悼公．以其伐我故．|| 'They seized duke Dao of Zhu, because he had invaded us (see xvii. 8).' |
| 遂次于泗上．疆我田．取邾田．自漷水．歸之于我．晉侯先歸．公享晉六卿于蒲圃．賜之三命之服．軍尉．司馬．司空．輿尉．候奄．皆受一命之服．賄荀偃東錦．加璧乘馬．先吳壽夢之鼎．|| 'They then halted near the Si, and defined the boundary of our lands, taking those of Zhu from the Kuo water, and giving them (歸之) back to us. The marquis of Jin then returned before (his army) to his capital, and the duke gave an entertainment to the six generals of Jin in the Pu orchard, giving to each of them the robes of a minister of three degrees; while to the controller of the army, the marshal, the superintendent of entrenchments, the master of carriages, and the scoutmaster, he gave the robes of an officer of one degree (see the Zhuan after VIII ii. 4). On Xun Yan he further conferred a bundle of silks, a bi, and 4 horses, followed by the tripod which Lu had received from Shoumeng of Wu.|
| 荀偃癉疽．生瘍於頭．濟河．及著雍．病．目出．大夫先歸者皆反．士匄請見．弗內．請後．曰鄭甥可．|| 'Xun Yan was now suffering from an ulcer, which grew upon his head; and after crossing the He as far as Zhuyong, he was quite ill, and his eyes protruded. The great officers who had returned before him all came back, and Shi Gai begged an interview with him which he did not grant. He then begged to know who should be his successor, and Yan said, "My son by the daughter of Zheng." |
| 二月．甲寅．卒．而視．不可含．宣子盥而撫之曰．事吳敢不如事主．猶視．欒懷子曰．其為未卒事於齊故也乎．乃復撫之曰．主苟終．所不嗣事于齊者．有如河．乃瞑受含．宣子出曰．吾淺之為丈夫也．|| In the 2d month, on Jiayin, he died with his eyes protruding, and his teeth firmly closed. Xuanzi (Shi Gai), washed [his face], and stroked it, saying, "Shall I not serve Wu (Yan's son) as I have served you?" but still he stared. Luan Huaizi (Ying) said, "Is it because he did not complete his undertaking against Qi?" And he also stroked [his face], saying, "If you are indeed dead, let the He witness if I do not carry on your undertaking against Qi!" The eyes of the corpse then closed, and the [customary] gem was put between the teeth. When Xuanzi left the apartment, he said, "I am but a shallow creature (with reference to what he had said to the corpse)."|
| 晉欒魴帥師從衛孫文子伐齊．季武子如晉拜師．晉侯享之．范宣子為政．賦黍苗．季武子興．再拜稽首曰．小國之仰大國也．如百穀之仰膏雨焉．若常膏之．其天下輯睦．豈唯敝邑．賦六月．|| 'Ji Wuzi went to Jin, to give thanks for the expedition [against Qi], when the marquis entertained him. Fan Xuanzi, who was [now] principal minister, sang the Shu miao (Shi, II. viii. ode III.). Ji Wuzi rose up, bowed twice with his head to the ground, and said, "The small States depend on your great State as all the kinds of grain depend on the fattening rains. If you will always dispense such a cherishing influence, the whole kingdom will harmoniously unite under you, and not our poor State only!" He then sang the Liu Yue (Shi, II. iii. ode III.).'|
| || 'Luan Fang of Jin led a force, and followed Sun Wenzi in an incursion into Qi.' Luan Fang was sent on this expedition, it is supposed, through the influence of Luan Ying, to fulfil the oath which he had sworn to the corpse of Xun Yan.|
| 季武子以所得於齊之兵．作林鍾．而銘魯功焉．臧武仲謂季孫曰．非禮也．夫銘．天子令德．諸侯言時計功．大夫稱伐．今稱伐．則下等也．計功．則借人也．言時．則妨民多矣．何以為銘．且夫大伐小．取其所得以作彝器．銘其功烈．以示子孫．昭明德而懲無禮也．今將借人之力．以救其死．若之何銘之．小國幸於大國．而昭所獲焉．以怒之．亡之道也．|| 'Ji Wuzi had a bell, toned to the second note of the chromatic scale, cast from the weapons which he had acquired in Qi, and had the services performed by Lu engraved upon it. Zang Wuzhong said to him, "This is contrary to rule. What should be engraved [on such articles] is—for the son of Heaven, his admirable virtue; for the prince of a State, a record of his services estimated according to the season in which they have been performed; for a great officer, his deeds worthy of being mentioned. And such deeds are the lowest degree [of merit so commemorated]. If we speak of the time [of this expedition], it very much interfered with [the husbandry of] the people;—what was there in it worthy of being engraved? Moreover, when a great State attacks a small one, and takes the spoils to make an article, the regular furniture [of the ancestral temple], it engraves on it its successful achievement to show them to posterity, at once to manifest its own bright virtue, and to hold up to condemnation the offences of the other. But how should anything be made of our getting the help of others to save ourselves from death? A small State, we were fortunate against a great one; but to display our spoils in this manner, so as to excite its rage, is the way to ruin.'|
| 齊侯娶于魯．曰顏懿姬．無子．其姪鬷聲姬生光．以為大子．諸子．仲子．戎子．戎子嬖．仲子生牙．屬諸戎子．戎子請以為大子．許之．仲子曰．不可．廢常不祥．間諸侯難．光之立也．列於諸侯矣．今無故而廢之．是專黜諸侯．而以難犯不祥也．君必悔之．公曰．在我而已．遂東大子光．使高厚傅牙以為大子．夙沙衛為少傅．|| 'The marquis of Qi had married Yanyi, a daughter of Lu, but she bore him no son. Her niece, Zongsheng, however, bore him Guang, who was declared his eldest son and successor. Among his concubines were two daughters of Song, Zhong Zi and Rong Zi. The latter was his favourite, and when Zhong Zi bore a son Ya, the child was given to Rong Zi, who begged that he might be made successor to his father. The marquis agreed to this; but the child's mother objected, saying, "To abrogate in his favour the regular order [of succession] will be inauspicious. It is hard, moreover, to interfere with the other princes. Since Guang was declared your successor, he has been numbered among them; and now to displace him without any cause is to take it on yourself to degrade a prince. Your lordship will be sure to repent of incurring, in such a difficult matter, the charge of doing what is inauspicious." The marquis replied that the thing rested entirely with himself, and sent Guang away to the east. At the same time he appointed Gao Hou grand-tutor to Ya, whom he declared to be his successor, with Susha Wei as assistant-tutor.|
| 齊侯疾．崔杼微逆光．疾病而立之．光殺戎子．尸諸朝．非禮也．婦人無刑．雖有刑．不在朝市．|| 'When the marquis was ill, Cui Shu privately brought Guang back to the capital; and when the marquis became very ill, Zhu raised Guang to be his successor. Guang then put Rong Zi to death, and exposed her body in the court,—which was contrary to rule. A wife should not be subjected to the [ordinary] punishments; and if it be necessary to punish her, the thing should not be done in the court or the market place.|
| 夏．五月．壬辰．晦．齊靈公卒．莊公即位．執公子牙於句瀆之丘．以夙沙衛易已．衛奔高唐以叛．|| 'In summer, in the 5th month, on Renchen, the last day of the moon, duke Ling of Qi died. Duke Zhuang (Guang) took his place, and seized Ya on the mound of Goudou. As he held that the substitution of him in his own place had been owing to Susha Wei, Wei fled to Gaotang, and held it in revolt.'|
| 晉士匄侵齊及穀．聞喪而還．禮也．|| 'Shi Gai of Jin was making an incursion into Qi, and had got as far as Gu, when he heard of the death of the marquis and returned;—which was according to rule.' |
| 於四月．丁未．鄭公孫蠆卒．赴於晉．大夫范宣子言於晉侯．以其善於伐秦也．六月．晉侯請於王．王追賜之大路．使以行禮也．|| 'In the 4th month, on Dingwei, the Gongsun Chai of Zheng died, and the news of his death was sent to the great officers of Jin. Fan Xuanzi (Shi Gai) spoke to the marquis about how well Chai had behaved in the invasion of Qin, on which the marquis made a request to the king, and obtained for him the posthumous gift of a carriage, which was used at the performance of his [funeral] rites.'|
| 秋．八月．齊崔杼殺高厚於灑藍．而兼其室．書曰．齊殺其大夫．從君於昏也．|| 'In autumn, in the 8th month, Cui Shu of Qi killed Gao Hou in Salan, and took to himself all his property. The text, in ascribing his death to the State, intimates that he had followed his ruler in his abandoned blindness to what was right.'|
| 鄭子孔之為政也專．國人患之．乃討西宮之難．與純門之師．子孔當罪．以其甲及子革．子良氏之甲守．甲辰．子展．子西．率國人伐之．殺子孔而分其室．書曰．鄭殺其大夫．專也．子然．子孔．宋子之子也．士子孔．圭媯之子也．圭媯之班．亞宋子而相親也．士子孔．亦相親也．僖之四年．子然卒．簡之元年．士子孔卒．司徒孔實相子革．子良之室．三室如一．故及於難．子革．子良出奔楚．子革為右尹．鄭人使子展當國．子西聽政．立子產為卿．|| 'Zikong of Zheng, in his government of the State, acted on his own exclusive authority, to the distress of the people. At the punishment of the troubles in the western palace (see on x.8), and in the attempt [of Chu] on the Chun gate (in the year before this), he had acted criminally; but he guarded himself with his own men-at-arms, and with those of the families of Zige and Ziliang. On Jiachen, Zizhan and Zixi attacked him at the head of the people, put him to death, and divided his property between themselves. The text ascribes his death to the State because of the exclusive authority which he had arrogated. Ziran and Zikong were sons [of duke Mu] by [a daughter of Song],—Song Zi; and Shi Zikong was his son by [a daughter of Ch'in], Gui Gui. Gui Gui's rank was inferior to Song Zi's, but they were fond of each other. Shi Zikong was also on friendly terms with them. Ziran died in the 4th year of Xi (the 6th year of duke Xiang of Lu), and Shi Zikong in Jian's (duke Muh's) first year, (Xiang's 8th year); and the minister of Instruction Kong looked after the households of Zige and Ziliang. The three families indeed were as one, and hence they came together to trouble. Zige and Ziliang fled to Chu, where the former became director of the Left. The people of Zheng made Zizhan manager of the State, with Zixi as administrator of the government, and Zichan a high minister.'|
| 齊慶封圍高唐弗克．冬．十一月．齊侯圍之．見衛在城上．號之乃下．問守備焉．以無備告．揖之．乃登．聞師將傅．食高唐也．殖綽．工僂．會．夜縋納師．醢衛于軍．|| 'Qing Feng of Qi laid siege to Gaotang, but could not reduce it. In winter, in the 11th month, the marquis joined the siege; and seeing [Susha] Wei on the top of the wall, he called out to him. Wei came down, and the marquis asked him if he was well prepared for defence. He replied that he was not, and the marquis bowed to him, when he ascended the wall again. Hearing that the army [of the marquis] was coming [to the siege, Wei] gave out food to the men of Gaotang; but [two officers of Qi], Zhi Chuo and Gonglou [Hui?], agreed to bring the soldiers by night up the wall by means of cords (the text here is probably defective). Wei was made pickle of in the army.'|
| 城西郛．懼齊也．||We walled round our western suburbs through fear of Qi.|
| 齊及晉平．盟于大隧．故穆叔會范宣子于柯．穆叔見叔向．賦載馳之四章．叔向曰．肸敢不承命．|| Qi and Jin concluded a peace, and made a covenant in Dasui. In consequence, Mushu had a meeting with Fan Xuanzi in Ke. Having an interview with Shuxiang, he sang the 4th stanza of the Zai chi (Shi, I. iv. ode X.). Shuxiang said, "I dare not but receive your command."|
| 穆叔曰．齊猶未也．不可以不懼．乃城武城．|| 'On his return to Lu, Mushu said, 'Qi is not yet [reconciled to us]; we must not dismiss our apprehensions." Accordingly we fortified Wucheng.'|
| 衛石共子卒．悼子不哀．孔成子曰．是謂蹙其本．必不有其宗．|| 'On the death of Shi Gongzi (Shi Mai) of Wey, [his son], Daozi manifested no grief. Kong Chengzi said, "Here is a case of the falling tree tearing up its roots. Daozi will certainly not long possess his ancestral temple."|