| XXI. Twenty-first year.|
1. In his Twenty-first year, in spring, in the king's first month, the duke went to Jin.
2. Shuqi of Zhu came a fugitive to Lu, with [the cities of] Qi and Lüqiu.
3. In summer, the duke arrived from Jin.
4. In autumn, Luan Ying of Jin fled from that State to Chu.
5. In the ninth month, on Gengxu, the first day of the moon, the sun was eclipsed.
6. In winter, in the tenth month, on Gengchen, the first day of the moon, the sun was eclipsed.
7. The earl of Cao came to the court of Lu.
8. The duke had a meeting with the marquises of Jin and Qi, the duke of Song, the marquis of Wey, the earls of Zheng and Cao, and the viscounts of Ju and Zhu, in Shangren.
| 傳二十一年．|| COMMENTARY|
| 春．公如晉拜師．及取邾田也．|| The duke now went to Jin, 'to make his acknowledgments,' says Zuoshi, 'for the expedition [against Qi], and for his receiving the lands of Zhu (xviii. 4; xix. 4).' |
| 邾庶其以漆閭丘來奔．季武子以公姑姊妻之．皆有賜於其從者．於是魯多盜．季孫謂臧武仲曰．子盍詰盜．武仲曰．不可詰也．紇又不能．季孫曰．我有四封．而詰其盜．何故不可．子為司寇．將盜是務去．若之何不能．武仲曰子召外盜而大禮焉．何以止吾盜．子為正卿．而來外盜．使紇去之．將何以能．庶其竊邑於邾以來．子以姬氏妻之．而與之邑．其從者皆有賜焉．若大盜禮焉．以君之姑姊與其大邑．其次皁牧輿馬．其小者衣裳劍帶．是賞盜也．賞而去之．其或難焉．紇也聞之．在上位者洒濯其心．壹以待人．軌度其信．可明徵也．而後可以治人．夫上之所為．民之歸也．上所不為．而民或為之．是以加刑罰焉．而莫敢不懲．若上之所為而民亦為之．乃其所也．又可禁乎．夏書曰．念茲在茲．釋茲在茲．名言茲在茲．允出茲在茲．惟帝念功．將謂由已壹也．信由已壹．而後功可念也．|| 'Shuqi of Zhu having come as a fugitive, and surrendering to Lu his cities of Qi and Lüqiu, Ji Wuzi gave him to wife the [widowed] aunt and sister of the duke, and gave gifts to all his followers. On this Lu became pestered with a multitude of robbers, and [Jisun] Wuzi asked Zang Wuzhong why he did not deal effectually with them. "They cannot be so dealt with," was the reply. "I am not able to do it." Wuzi urged, "We have our four boundaries well defined; how is it that robbers cannot be put down? And you are the minister of Crime. Your chief business should be to remove all such criminals; how is it that you are unable to do so?" Wuzhong said, "You call the robbers of other States, and treat them with the greatest ceremony; how can I in such a case repress our own robbers? You are the principal minister of our State, and you bring into it robbers from abroad, and would have me put them away; how should I be able to do so? Shuqi stole from Zhu its cities, and came here with them, and you have given him to wife ladies of our ducal House, and have conferred on him [those] cities. To all his followers you have given gifts. Now, since to the great robber you have shown such ceremony, giving him our ruler's aunt and sister, and those great cities; and to the robbers of the next degree you have given runners, herdsmen, carriage-men and grooms, the least gifts being robes, swords, and girdles;—you thus reward robbers. To reward them, and at the same time put them away, should be a difficult thing, I think. I have heard this, that when men in high positions cleanse their hearts, treating others with an uniform consistency, and regulating their good faith by such laws that it is clearly demonstrated, then men can be properly ruled by them. For the way which their superiors take is that to which men [naturally] turn. When they do that which their superiors do not do, there are pains and penalties for them, which we may not presume not to inflict. If the people, however, do that which their superiors do as well, it is what is to be expected, and cannot be prevented. It is said in one of the Books of Xia, (Shu, II. ii. 10). ', Think whether this thing can be laid on this man. If you would put it away from this man, it depends on [putting] the thing [away from yourself]. When you name or speak of this thing, [let it be fit] for this man. Your sincerity must proceed from this, and be in this. Think, O! Emperor, of the work thus to be achieved." This tells how the result must come from one's own uniform endeavour. Let one's sincerity be uniform and undivided, and then successful results may be anticipated."|
| 庶其非卿也．以地來．雖賤必書．重地也．|| 'Shuqi was not a minister, [though he is here named]. But coming with territory, of low rank as he was, it was necessary to record the thing as in the text, from the importance belonging to the territory.'|
| 齊侯使慶佐為大夫．復討公子牙之黨．執公子買于句瀆之丘．公子鉏來奔．叔孫還奔燕．|| 'The marquis of 'Qi appointed Qing Zuo a great officer, and proceeded to further (see on xix. 8) measures against the partizans of his brother Ya. He seized the Gongzi Mai on the mound of Goudou. The Gongzi Chu fled to Lu, and Shushun Huan to Yan.'|
| 夏．楚子庚卒．楚子使薳子馮為令尹．訪於申叔豫．叔豫曰．國多寵而王弱．國不可為也．遂以疾辭．方暑．闕地下冰而床焉．重繭衣裘．鮮食而寢．楚子使醫視之．復曰．瘠則甚矣．而血氣未動．乃使子南為令尹．|| 'In summer, Zigeng of Chu died, and the viscount wished to appoint Wei Ziping to his office of chief minister. Wei consulted Shen Shuyu. who said, "There are many favourites in the State, and the ruler is young. The administration will be impracticable." On this he declined the appointment, alleging that he was ill. The season being warm, he dug a hole in the ground, filled it with ice, and placed his bed over it; and there he lay, with two coverings stuffed with silk, and in a robe of fur, taking very little food. The viscount sent his physician to see him, who reported that he was very thin, but that there was yet no [irregular] motion of his pulse. Zinan (the Gongzi Zhuishu) was then made chief minister.']|
| 欒桓子娶於范宣子．生懷子．范鞅以其亡也．怨欒氏．故與欒盈為公族大夫．而不相能．桓子卒．欒祁與其老州賓通．幾亡室矣．懷子患之．祁懼其討也．愬諸宣子曰．盈將為亂．以范氏為死桓主而專政矣．曰．吾父逐鞅也．不怒．而以寵報之．又與吾同官而專之．吾父死而益富．死吾父而專於國．有死而已．吾蔑從之矣．其謀如是．懼害於主．吾不敢不言．范鞅為之徵．|| 'Luan Huanzi (Luan Yan, 欒黡) had married a daughter of Fan Xuanzi (Fan or Shi Gai, 士匄), who bore him Huaizi (the Ying of the text). Fan Yang (Xuanzi's son), because of his banishment [to Qin], had a grudge against the Luan family; and though he and Luan Ying were both great officers of the ducal kindred, they could not bear each other (see the Zhuan on xiv. 3). After the death of Huanzi, Luan Qi (his wife, Xuanzi's daughter) had an intrigue with the old [steward of the family], Zhou Bin, which had almost led to the ruin of the House. Huaizi was distressed about it; and his mother, afraid of his taking severe measures, accused him to Xuanzi, saying, "Ying is about to raise an insurrection on the ground that, since the death of his father Huan, the Fan family is monopolizing the government. 'My father,' he says, 'drove out Yang, but [Xuanzi], instead of being angry [with his son], rewards him with [additional] favour. He has also given him a similar office to mine, and throws the power into his hands. Since my father's death, [the family] is more wealthy. By that death they have got the monopoly of the government. I will die sooner than follow them.' Such are his designs; and afraid of his injuring you, my father, I dare not but tell them to you." Fan Yang confirmed what she said by his own testimony.|
| 懷子好施．士多歸之．宣子畏其多士也．信之．懷子為下卿．宣子使城著而遂逐之．秋．欒盈出奔楚．宣子殺箕遺．黃淵．嘉父．司空靖．邴豫．董叔．邴師．申書．羊舌虎．叔羆．囚伯華．叔向．籍偃．人謂叔向曰．子離於罪．其為不知乎．叔向曰．與其死亡若何．|| 'Huaizi was fond of showing his liberality, and had thereby attached to himself many officers,—so many, that Xuanzi was afraid of them; and though he believed what was told him, [he hesitated to take action]. Huaizi, [moreover], was the [assistant-]commander of the 3d army. [At last], Xuanzi sent him to fortify Zhu, and thereby took occasion to drive him from the State, so that in the autumn he fled from it to Chu. Xuanzi then put to death Ji Yi, Huang Yuan, Jia Fu, Sikong Jing, Bing Yu, Dong Shu, Bing Shi, Shen Shu, Yangshe Hu, and Shuxiong; and imprisoned Bohua, Shuxiang, and Ji Yan. People said to Shuxiang, "Was it from want of wisdom that you let yourself be involved in this affair?" He replied, "Is this imprisonment not better than death? The ode says (Shi, II. vii. ode VIII. 5; but the quotation is doubtful),|
| 詩曰．優哉游哉．聊以卒歲．知也．樂王鮒見叔向曰．吾為子請．叔向弗應．出不拜．其人皆咎叔向．叔向曰．必祁大夫．室老聞之曰．樂王鮒言於君．無不行．求赦吾子．吾子不許．祁大夫所不能也．而曰必由之．何也．叔向曰．樂王鮒．從君者也．何能行．祁大夫外舉不棄讎．內舉不失親．其獨遺我乎．詩曰．|| 'How easily, how happily, They complete their years!' Here is my wisdom." Yue Wangfu had an interview with Shuxiang, and said to him, "I will intercede for you;" but the prisoner gave him no answer, nor did he make him any acknowledgment when he went out. His friends all blamed Shuxiang for this; but he said "[My liberation] must be effected by the great officer Qi." When the steward of his house heard this, he said to him, "Whatever Yue Wangfu tells him, our ruler is sure to do. He offered to ask for your pardon, and you would not allow him to do so. It was more than the great officer Qi could accomplish, and yet you say that your liberation must come from him;—what is your meaning?" Shuxiang replied, "Yue Wangfu is but a parasite of our ruler;—what could he do? The great officer Qi recommended to office one not of his own family, though he was his enemy, nor did he fail to recommend his relative to it, though he was his own son (sec the Zhuan after iii. 4);—shall I alone be forgotten by him? The ode says (Shi, III. iii. ode II. 2),|
| 覺德行．四國順之．夫子覺者也．|| 'To an evident virtuous conduct All in the State render their obedient homage.' Such a manifestly virtuous man is Qi."|
| 有晉侯問叔向之罪於樂王鮒．對曰．不棄其親．其有焉．於是祁奚老矣．聞之．乘馹而見宣子曰．詩曰．|| 'The marquis of Jin asked about the guilt of Shuxiang from Yue Wangfu, who replied, "He would not abandon his relatives, and probably shares in their guilt." At this time Qi Xi was old, [and living in retirement]; but when he heard what was going on, he came, posting from stage to stage, to see Xuanzi, and said to him, "The ode says (Shi, IV. i. [i.] ode IV.),|
| 惠我無疆．子孫保之．書曰．聖有暮勳．明徵定保．夫謀而鮮過．惠訓不倦者．叔向有焉．社稷之固也．猶將十世宥之．以勸能者．今壹不免其身．其棄社稷．不亦惑乎．鯀殛而禹興．伊尹放大甲而相之．卒無怨色．管蔡為戮．周公右王．若之何其以虎也棄社稷．子為善．誰敢不勉．多殺何為．宣子說．與之乘以言諸公而免之．不見叔向而歸．叔向亦不告免焉而朝．|| 'Your favours to me are unbounded, And my posterity shall preserve [our inheritance].' The Shu says (III. iv. 2), 'The sage, with their counsels and merit, ought clearly to be established and preserved.' Now in Shuxiang we have one whose counsels have seldom been in error, and whose kindly lessons have been unwearied. He is a strength to our altars. His posterity for ten generations should be pardoned [if they did wrong], for the encouragement of men of ability; and now for one offence [of his brother] he is not to get off with his life. It is an abandoning of our altars;—is there not a mistake in the matter? When Gun was put to death, Yu was raised to office. Yi Yin kept Taijia in confinement, and acted as minister to him; but in the end [the sovereign] had not a resentful look. Guan and Cai were put to death by the duke of Zhou, but he himself was the king's helper. Why are you now, on account of Hu (Shuxiang's brother), forgetting your duty to our altars? Do that which is good, and who is there that will not feel stimulated? But what is the use of putting many to death?" Xuanzi was pleased, and they went in the same carriage to speak with the marquis, so that Shuxiang was pardoned. Qi Xi then went home without seeing Shuxiang, who, on his part, sent no word to him of his being liberated, but went to court.|
| 初．叔向之母妒叔虎之母美而不使．其子皆諫其母．其母曰．深山大澤．實生龍蛇．彼美．余懼其生龍蛇以禍女．女敝族也．國多大寵．不仁人間之．不亦難乎．余何愛焉．使往視寢．生叔虎．美而有勇力．欒懷子嬖之．故羊舌氏之族及於難．|| 'At an earlier period, Shuxiang's mother, being jealous of the beauty of Shuhu's mother, did not allow her to be with their husband. Her sons all remonstrated with her, when she said, "Deep hills and great marshes produce the dragon and the serpent. Because of her beauty, I am afraid she may bring forth a dragon or a serpent that will bring calamity upon you. You are but a feeble clan, and in the State there are many great nobles. If unfriendly persons were setting them against you, would not your case be hard? On what [other] ground should I grudge her our husband's favours?" She then sent the lady to her husband's couch; and the result was the birth of Shuhu. He was remarkable for his beauty, courage, and strength, and became a favourite with Huaizi, and thus it was that the Yangshe clan became involved in [the present] difficulties.|
| 欒盈過於周．周西鄙掠之．辭於行人曰．天子陪臣盈．得罪於王之守臣．將逃罪．罪重於郊甸．無所伏竄．敢布其死．昔陪臣書能輸力於王室．王施惠焉．其子黶不能保任其父之勞．大君若不棄書之力．亡臣猶有所逃．若棄書之力．而思黶之罪．臣戮餘也．將歸死於尉氏．不敢還矣．敢布四體．惟大君命焉．王曰．尤而效之．其又甚焉．使司徒禁掠欒氏者．歸所取焉．使候出諸轘轅．|| 'When Luan Ying was passing by Zhou, the people in its western borders plundered him, on which he complained to a messenger [from the king], saying, "I, Ying, a servant of the son of Heaven, belonging to another State, offended the king's servant, who is its guardian. Trying to escape from the consequences of my guilt, I have trespassed again in your borders. No where can I hide; nowhere can I fly; let me venture to set forth the question of my death. Formerly, Your Majesty's servant, [my grand- father], Shu, was able to contribute his strength to the royal House, and the king bestowed favours on him. His son Yan was not able to preserve and continue the services of Shu; and now, O great ruler, if you have not forgotten the zealous duty of Shu, then there will be a way of escape for me. If you have forgotten that, and think of the guilt of Yan, I am but the fragment of a doomed man. I will go [to the capital] and die under the hand of the officer Wei; I dare not go back. I have presumed to declare every thing;—it is for you, O great ruler, to issue your command." The king said, "To go on thus to wrong him as [Jin] has done would be acting worse than Jin." He then made the minister of Instruction prohibit all plundering of Luan Ying, and require the people to return what they had taken away. He also made the officer of escort conduct him through the Huanyuan pass."|
| 冬．曹武公來朝．始見也． ||In winter, the earl of Cao came to the court of Lu to have a first interview with the duke.|
| 會於商任．錮欒氏也．齊侯．衛侯．不敬．叔向曰．二君者必不免．會．朝禮之經也．禮．政之輿也．政．身之守也．怠禮失政．失政不立．是以亂也．知起．|| 'The meeting at Shangren was to prevent Luan [Ying] from being harboured anywhere. The marquises of Qi and Wey behaved disrespectfully at it, which made Shuxiang say, "These two princess are sure not to escape an evil end. These meetings and visits at courts are standard ceremonies; such ceremonies are the vehicles of government; it is through government that men's persons are guarded. When the ceremonies are dishonoured, government is lost; and when government is not firmly established, disorder must ensue."|
| 中行喜．州綽．邢蒯．出奔齊．皆欒氏之黨也．樂王鮒謂范宣子曰．盍反州綽．邢蒯．勇士也．宣子曰．彼欒氏之勇也．余何獲焉．王鮒曰．子為彼欒氏．乃亦子之勇也．|| 'Zhi Qi, Zhonghang Xi, Zhou Chuo, and Xing Kuai, all fled [from Jin] to Qi, being partizans of the Luan family. Yue Wangfu said to Fan Xuanzi, "Why not bring back Zhou Chuo and Xing Kuai who are men of daring courage?" "They are braves of the Luan family," replied Xuanzi. "What should I gain?" Wangfu said "Be to them what the Luan was, and they will also be your braves."|
| 齊莊公朝指殖綽．郭最．曰．是寡人之雄也．州綽曰．君以為雄．誰敢不雄．然臣不敏．平陰之役．先二子鳴．莊公為勇爵．殖綽．郭最．欲與焉．州綽曰．東閭之役．臣左驂迫．還於門中．識其枚數．其可以與於此乎．公曰．子為晉臣也．對曰．臣為隸新．然二子者．譬於禽獸．臣食其肉．而寢處其皮矣．|| 'Duke Zhuang of Qi, at his audience [one day], pointed to Zhi Chuo and Guo Zui, and said, "These are my heroes." Zhou Chuo said, "If your lordship thinks them heroes, who may not presume to be reckoned a hero? But unworthy as I am, after the service at Pingyin, (See on xviii.4), I crowed before them both." Duke Zhuang having instituted an order of bravery, Zhi Chuo and Guo Zui wished to belong to it. Zhou Chuo said, "In the attack on the eastern gate, my outside horse on the left turned wildly round in the gate, and I know the number of the boards in it;—can I be allowed for this to belong to the order?" The duke said, "You were acting for the ruler of Jin." "But I am newly become your servant," replied the other. "As to those two, they are like beasts, whose flesh I will eat, and then sleep upon their skins.'"|