XXVI. Twenty-sixth year.


  1. 春.王二月.辛卯.衛甯喜弒其君剽.衛孫林父入于戚以叛.甲午.衛侯衎復歸于衛.
  2. 夏.晉侯使荀吳來聘.公會晉人.鄭良霄.宋人.曹人.于澶淵.
  3. 秋.宋公殺其世子痤.晉人執衛甯喜.
  4. 八月.壬午.許男甯卒于楚.
  5. 冬.楚子.蔡侯.陳侯.伐鄭.葬許靈公.
 XXVI. Twenty-sixth year.
1. In the [duke's] twenty-sixth year, in spring, in the king's second month, on Xinmao, Ning Xi of Wey murdered his ruler Piao.
2. Sun Linfu of Wey entered Qi, and held it in revolt.
3. On Jiawu, Kan, marquis of Wey, returned to his dignity in that State.
4. In summer, the marquis of Jin sent Xun Wu to Lu on a mission of friendly inquiries.
5. The duke had a meeting with an officer of Jin, Liang Xiao of Zheng, an officer of Song, and an officer of Cao, in Chanyuan.
6. In autumn, the duke of Song put to death his heir-son Cuo.
7. The people of Jin seized and held prisoner Ning Xi of Wey.
8. In the eighth month, on Renwu, Ning, baron of Xu, died in Chu.
9. In winter, the viscount of Chu, the marquis of Cai, and the marquis of Chen, invaded Zheng.
10. There was the burial of duke Ling of Xu.
 春.秦伯之弟鍼如晉脩成.叔向命召行人子員.行人子朱曰.朱也當御.三云.叔向不應.子朱怒曰.班爵同.何以黜朱於朝.撫劍從之.叔向曰.秦晉不和久矣.今日之事.幸而集.晉國賴之.不集.三軍暴骨.子員道二國之言無私.子常易子.姦以事君者.吾所能御也.拂衣從之.人救之.平公曰.晉其庶乎.吾臣之所爭者大.師曠曰.公室懼卑.臣不心競而力爭.不務德而爭善.私欲已侈.能無卑乎. 'This spring, Qian, a younger brother of the earl of Qin, went to Jin, to cultivate the good relations [into which the States had recently entered] (See the 4th narrative at the end of last year). Shuxiang gave orders to call the internuncius Ziyuan, when another, Zizhu, said, "I ought to go in [this time]." Thrice he said so, but Shuxiang gave him no answer, on which he became angry, and said, "His order and rank are the same as mine. Why do you [thus] degrade me in the court?" He then with his hand on his sword followed Shuxiang, who said to him, "Qin and Jin have been in unfriendly relations for a long time. If today's affair be successfully concluded, it will be a matter of relief for the State. Should it not be so, the bones of our soldiers will lie on the field. Ziyuan gives the words of the two States without any private admixture of his own, while you are continually changing them. Those who serve our ruler treacherously, I have power to keep back." And with this he shook his robe and followed him, till some parties came and separated them. Duke Ping said, "Jin cannot be far from being well governed! That about which my ministers quarrel is great." The music-master Kuang said, "I am afraid the duke's House will be reduced low. The ministers do not contend together with their minds, but quarrel with their strength; they do not make virtue their object, but strive to be [thought] excellent. When such selfish desires are rampant, can it escape being reduced low?" '
 衛獻公使子鮮為復.辭.敬姒強命之.對曰.君無信.臣懼不免.敬姒曰.雖然.以吾故也.許諾.初.獻公使與甯喜言.甯喜曰.必子鮮在.不然.必敗.故公使子鮮.子鮮不獲命於敬姒.以公命與甯喜言曰.苟反.政由甯氏.祭則寡人.甯喜告蘧伯玉.伯玉曰.瑗不得聞君之出.敢聞其入.遂行.從近關出. 'Duke Xian of Wey wanted to send ["his brother] Zixian [to the capital] on the subject of his restoration, but Zixian declined the mission; and when [their mother], Jing Si, tried to force him to go, he replied, "The ruler will not keep his word. I am afraid I shall not escape the consequences." She said, "It may be so, but go on my account;" and he then agreed to go. Before this, the duke had opened a communication with Ning Xi, who said, "Zixian must come here. If he do not do so, the attempt is sure to be defeated." It was on this account that the duke [now] sent Zixian, who, not having succeeded in getting a [contrary] command from Jing Si, [went and] told Ning Xi the duke's message, "If I return, the government shall be in your hands, and the sacrifices in mine." Ning informed Qu Boyu [of the negotiation], and that officer said, "I would not listen to the matter of the ruler's expulsion (See the Zhuan on xiv. 4); dare I listen to his entrance again?" and he immediately went away, and left the State by the nearest gate upon the borders.
 告右宰穀.右宰穀曰.不可.獲罪於兩君.天下誰畜之.悼子曰.吾受命於先人.不可以貳.穀曰.我請使焉而觀之.遂見公於夷儀.反曰.君淹恤在外.十二年矣.而無憂色.亦無寬言.猶夫人也.若不已.死無日矣.悼子曰.子鮮在.右宰穀曰.子鮮在何益.多而能亡.於我何為.悼子曰.雖然.不可以已. 'Ning then told Gu, the administrator of the Right, who said, "Do not. You [Nings] will have been criminals in the case of two rulers. Who under heaven will bear you?" But Daozi (Xi) replied, "I received a charge [to do this] from my father (See the Zhuan at the end of the 20th year), and I cannot swerve from it." Gu then said, "Let me go [first] to Yiyi and see the duke." He accordingly did so, had an interview, and told Xi on his return, "The ruler has been long in sorrow abroad, even for 12 years; but there is no sadness in his looks, nor generosity in his speech. He is the same man that he was. If you do not abandon the enterprize, the day of your death is not distant." Daozi urged, "There is Zixian." "And what will be the advantage of Zixian?" replied Gu. "At the most he will have to go into exile;—what can he do for us?" Daozi replied, "Notwithstanding that, I cannot abandon the thing."
 孫文子在戚.孫嘉聘於齊.孫襄居守.二月‧庚寅.甯喜右宰穀伐孫氏.不克.伯國傷.甯子出舍於郊.伯國死.孫氏夜哭國人召甯子.甯子復攻孫氏.克之.辛卯.殺子叔及大子角. '[At this time], Sun Wenzi was in Qi; and [his son] Sun Jia was on a friendly mission to Qi, leaving [only] Sun Xiang in charge [at the capital]. In the 2d month, on Gengyin, Ning Xi and Gu, administrator of the Right, made an unsuccessful attack on [the house of] the Suns, but wounded Boguo (Xiang). Ningzi left the city and lodged [with his family] in the suburbs (To be ready for flight), but Boguo died [of his wound]; and while they were lamenting during the night in his house, the people called for Ning Xi, when he and Gu again attacked it, and took it. On Xinmao, [Xi] put to death Zishu (Piao; the marquis de facto), and his eldest son Jiao.
 書曰.甯喜弒其君剽.言罪之在甯氏也. 'The words of the text, "Ning Xi murdered his ruler Piao," show how the crime belonged to Ning Xi.'
 孫林父以戚如晉書曰.入于戚以叛.罪孫氏也.臣之祿.君實有之.義則進.否則奉身而退.專祿以周旋.戮也. 'Sun Linfu [now] went [over] to Jin with Qi. The words of the text, "entered into Qi to revolt" are condemnatory of his crime. The emolument of a minister (In this case derived from the revenues of Qi) really belongs to the ruler. When righteous relations obtain between them, the minister comes forward and discharges his duties. When such relations do not obtain, he should retire with his single person. If he assert a right to his emolument in order to meet his necessities, he deserves death.'
 甲午.衛侯入.書曰.復歸國.納之也.大夫逆於竟者.執其手而與之言道.逆者自車揖之.逆於門者頷之而已.公至.使讓大叔.文子曰.寡人淹恤在外.二三子皆使寡人.朝夕聞衛國之言.吾子獨不在寡人.古人有言曰非所怨勿怨寡人怨矣.對曰.臣知罪矣.臣不佞.不能負羈絏以從扞牧圉.臣之罪一也.有出者.有居者.臣不能貳.通外內之言以事君.臣之罪二也.有二罪.敢忘其死.乃行.從近關出.公使止之. 'On Jiawu, the marquis of Wey entered the capital. The words, "returned to his dignity," intimate that it was the State which restored him (?). Of the great officers who met him at the borders, he took the hands, and spoke with them. To those who met him [afterwards] on the road, he bowed, [saluting them with his hands]. To those [who were waiting] at the gate, he only nodded. When he arrived, he sent to reprove Taishu Wenzi, saying, "While I have been [thus] long in sorrow outside, one and another officer let me hear, morning and evening, what was passing in Wey. It was only you who were not for me. The ancients had a saying, 'Do not be angry where you ought not to be angry.' I have reason to be angry [with you]." Wenzi replied, "I know my offences. In my incompetency I was not able to carry a halter and tether, and follow you to play the part of a herd and a groom;—this is my first offence. There were you who had left the State, and there was he who was in it; I was not able to play a double part, and keep up a communication between the outside and inside of the State;—this is my second offence. With these two offences, I dare not forget my duty to die." He was then leaving the State by the nearest barrier-gate, when the duke sent and stopped him.
 衛人侵戚東鄙.孫氏愬于晉.晉戍茅氏.殖綽伐茅氏.殺晉戍三百人.孫蒯追之.弗敢擊.文子曰.厲之不如.遂從衛師.敗之圉雍鉏.獲殖綽.復愬于晉.  'The people of Wey made an incursion into the eastern borders of Qi, when Sun Linfu complained of them to Jin, which sent a garrison to Maoshi. Zhi Chuo (He had fled from Qi to Wey) attacked the place, and killed 300 of the garrison. Sun Kuai pursued him, but did not dare to attack him, on which [his father] Wenzi said to him, "You are not equal to that devil." In consequence of this [Kuai] resumed the pursuit, and defeated the enemy at Yu, Yong Chu capturing Zhi Chuo. [Sunzi] again sent a complaint to Jin.'
 鄭伯賞入陳之功.三月.甲寅.朔.享子展.賜之先路三命之服.先八邑.賜子產次路再命之服.先六邑.子產辭邑.曰.自上以下.隆殺.以兩.禮也.臣之位在四.且子展之功也.臣不敢及賞禮.請辭邑.公固予之.乃受三邑.公孫揮曰.子產其將知政矣.讓不失禮. 'The earl of Zheng was rewarding the good service done in entering the capital of Chen, and in the third month, on Jiayin, he feasted Zizhan, and gave him a first [-class] carriage, and the robes of a minister of three degrees, along with 8 cities. He [also] gave Zichan a second [-class] carriage, and the robes of a minister of two degrees, along with 6 towns. Zichan declined the towns, saying, "The rule is that from the highest rank downwards the amount of gifts conferred should diminish by two each rank; and my place is only the 4th. The merit, moreover, belonged to Zizhan. I dare not assume that I ought to be rewarded. Allow me to decline the towns." The earl, however, pressed them upon him, and he accepted three. Gongsun Hui said, "Zichan will yet administer the government [of Zheng]; while declining [the earls's favours], he did not fail in courtesy
 晉人為孫氏故.召諸侯.將以討衛也.夏.中行穆子來聘.召公也. 'The people of Jin, in consequence of [the complaints of] Sun Linfu, called out the States, intending to punish Wey. This summer, Zhonghang Muzi came to Lu on a friendly mission, and called the duke [to the meeting].
 楚子.秦人.侵吳.及雩婁.聞吳有備而還.遂侵鄭. 'The viscount of Chu, and an officer of Qin, made an incursion into Wu, as far as Yulou; but hearing that Wu was prepared for them, they returned, and proceeded to make an incursion into Zheng. 
 五月.至于城麇.鄭皇頡戍之.出與楚師戰.敗.穿封戌囚皇頡.公子圍與之爭之.正於伯州犁.伯州犁曰.請問於囚.乃立囚.伯州犁曰.所爭.君子也.其何不知.上其手曰.夫子為王子圍.寡君之貴介弟也.下其手曰.此子為穿封戌.方城外之縣尹也.誰獲子.囚曰.頡遇王子弱焉.戌怒.抽戈逐王子圍.弗及.楚人以皇頡歸.印堇父與皇頡戍城麇.楚人囚之.以獻於秦. In the 5th month they arrived at Chengjun, the garrison of which was commanded by Huang Jie, who went out and fought with the army of Chu. He was defeated, and taken prisoner, by Chuanfeng Xu, with whom, however, king [Gong's] son Wei disputed the right of his possession. They referred their claims to Bo Zhouli, who said. "Let us ask the prisoner." Accordingly he set Huang Jie [before them], and said to him, "These disputants are both men of high degree; you must know which of them [is in the right]." Then holding up his hand, he said, "That gentleman is Wei, a son of our king [Gong], and the honourable brother of our ruler." Holding it down, he said, " This gentleman is Chuanfeng Xu, director of the district outside our wall of defence. Which of them took you?" The prisoner said, "It was when I met with the king's son that I became weak." Xu was enraged at this, took his spear, and pursued Wei, but could not overtake him. The people of Chu then took Huang Jie back with them. They had also made prisoner Yin Jinfu, who had been associated with Huang Jie in guarding of the city, and him they presented to Qin.
 鄭人取貨於印氏以請之.子大叔為令正.以為請.子產曰.不獲.受楚之功.而取貨於鄭.不可謂國.秦不其然.若曰拜君之勤鄭國.微君之惠.楚師其猶在敝邑之城下.其可.弗從.遂行.秦人不予.更幣.從子產.而後獲之. 'The people of Zheng received property from Yin's family, with which to ask that he might be restored to them; and Zitaishu who had the superintendence of the government-manifestoes, agreed to make application for them [to Qin]. Zichan said to him, "You will not get him. [Qin] received him as a trophy of Chu, and if it should take property for him from Zheng, it would not deserve to be called a State. It will not do so. If you say, 'We acknowledge your lordship's diligent service for the State of Zheng. If it had not been for your lordship's kindness, the army of Chu would still have been at the foot of the wall of our capital;—that will succeed.'" The other did not take his counsel, and a messenger proceeded to Qin, but there they would not give up [their prisoner]. Zitaishu then changed the money into offerings of silk, took the counsel of Zichan, and obtained [Jinfu's release].'
 六月.公會晉趙武.宋向戌.鄭良霄.曹人.于澶淵.以討衛.疆戚田.取衛西鄙懿氏六十.以與孫氏.趙武不書.尊公也.向戌不書.後也.鄭先宋.不失所也. 'In the 6th month, the duke had a meeting with Zhao Wu of Jin, Xiang Xu of Song, Liang Xiao of Zheng, and an officer of Cao, in Chanyuan,—to [arrange for] the punishment of Wey. They defined the boundaries of the lands of Qi, and took 60 [towns] belonging to Yishi in the western borders of Wey, and gave them to the Sun. Zhao Wu is not mentioned in the text,—out of honour to the duke (?); nor is Xiang Xu,—because he arrived late. [The representative of Zheng] arrived before that of Song, and so has a place before him in the list.
 於是衛侯會之.晉人執寧喜.北宮遺.使女齊以先歸.衛侯如晉.晉人執而囚之.於士弱氏.秋.七月.齊侯.鄭伯.為衛侯故如晉.晉侯兼享之.晉侯賦嘉樂.國景子相齊侯.賦蓼蕭.子展相鄭伯.賦緇衣.叔向命晉侯拜二君.曰.寡君敢拜齊君之安.我先君之宗祧也.敢拜鄭君之不貳也. 'At this meeting the marquis of Wey [also] made his appearance, [but he was not admitted to it]. The people of Jin seized Ning Xi and Beigong Yi, and sent Ru Qi back with them to [Jin], before doing anything else about them. The marquis of Wey then went to Jin, where he was seized, and given in charge to Shi Ruo as a prisoner. In autumn, in the 7th month, the marquis of Qi and the earl of Zheng went to Jin in the interest of the marquis of Wey. The marquis entertained them at the same time, and sang the Jia le (Shi, III. ii. ode V.). Guo Jingzi was in attendance on the marquis of Qi, and sang the Lu xiao (Shi, II. ii. ode IX.). Zizhan was in attendance on the earl of Zheng, and sang the Ziyi (Shi, I. vii. ode I.). Shuxiang instructed the marquis to acknowledge [the compliment paid by] the two princes, and then said, "My ruler ventures to thank the ruler of Qi for the rest which he secures to the ancestral tablets of our former princes. He ventures also to thank the ruler of Zheng for his unswerving adherence."
 國子使晏平仲私於叔向.曰.晉君宣其明德於諸侯.恤其患而補其闕.正其違而治其煩.所以為盟主也.今為臣執君.若之何.叔向告趙文子.文子以告晉侯.晉侯言衛侯之罪.使叔向告二君.國子賦轡之柔矣.子展賦將仲子兮.晉侯乃許歸衛侯.叔向曰.鄭七穆.罕氏其後亡者也.子展儉而壹. 'Guozi made Yan Pingzhong say privately to Shuxiang, "The ruler of Jin displays his brilliant virtue to the States, compassionating their distresses, repairing their defects, correcting their errors, and relieving their troubles. In this way he is the lord of covenants; but how is it that he has now in the behalf of a subject seized the ruler?" Shuxiang told this to Zhao Wenzi, who reported it to the marquis. The marquis explained to him the offence of the marquis of Wey (The slaughter of the garrison of Maoshi; see the first narrative appended to par. 3), and made Shuxiang inform the two princes of it. Guozi on this sang the Pei zhi rou (A lost ode), and Zizhan sang the Jiang Zhongzi xi (Shi, I. vii. ode II.). After this the marquis granted the return of the marquis of Wey. Shuxiang said, "Of the [descendants of the] seven sons of duke Mu of Zheng, the Han will be the last to perish. Zizhan is moderate and single-hearted."'
 初.宋芮司徒生女子.赤而毛.棄諸堤下.共姬之妾.取以入.名之曰棄.長而美.平公入夕.共姬與之食.公見棄也而視之尤.姬納諸御.嬖.生佐.惡而婉.大子痤美而很.合左師畏而惡之.寺人惠牆伊戾.為大子內師.而無寵. 'Before this, Rui, minister of Instruction in Song, had a daughter born to him, who was so red and hairy, that he made her be thrown away under a bank. A concubine belonging to the harem of Gong Ji (The duke of Song's mother) found her, and took her to the palace, where she was named Qi (Castaway). As she grew up, she became beautiful; and one evening, when duke Ping paid the customary visit to his mother, and was detained by her to supper, he saw the young lady, and looked at her intently. His mother in consequence introduced her to his bed. She became a favourite with him, and bore a son called Zuo (左; not the Zuo in the text), who was ugly but winning. [The duke's] eldest son, Cuo, was beautiful, but quarrelsome. [Xiang Xu) of He, the master of the Left, was afraid of him, and hated him. The head of the eunuchs, Huiqiang Yili, was his master in the palace, but had no favour with him.
 秋.楚客聘於晉.過宋.大子知之.請野享之.公使往.伊戾請從之.公曰.夫不惡女乎.對曰.小人之事君子也.惡之不敢遠.好之不敢近.敬以待命.敢有貳心乎.縱有共其外.莫共其內.臣請往也.遣之.至則欿用牲.加書徵之.而騁告公曰.大子將為亂.既與楚客盟矣.公曰.為我子.又何求.對曰.欲速.公使視之.則信有焉.問諸夫人與左師.則皆曰固聞之.公囚大子.大子曰.唯佐也能免我.召而使請.曰日中不來.吾知死矣.左師聞之.聒而與之語.過期.乃縊而死.佐為大子.公徐聞其無罪也.乃亨伊戾. 'This autumn, a visitor from Chu, who was going on a friendly mission to Jin, passed by [the capital of] Song, and as the prince knew him, he asked leave to go out and give him an entertainment in the country. The duke commissioned him to go, when Yili asked leave to follow him. "Does he not hate you?" asked the duke. The eunuch replied, "When a small man like me serves a superior man like him, though hated, he does not presume to keep far from him, and though loved he does not presume to keep too near him. I will respectfully wait for his commands;—dare I have a double mind? There may be people to supply his outer wants, but there are none to supply his inner. Please allow me to go." The duke sent him after the prince. But when he arrived at the place, he took the blood of an animal as if for a covenant, placed a writing [on the vessel containing it], to attest what he meant to say, and then hurried away and told the duke that the prince was going to raise an insurrection, and had made a covenant with the visitor from Chu. "He is my [eldest] son," said the duke; "what more does he want?" "He wishes your speedy [death]," was the reply. The duke sent to see [the place], and certainly there was [the prearranged evidence]. He then asked his wife, and the master of the Left, who both declared that they had heard of the thing. On this he imprisoned the prince, who said, "None but Zuo can get me off." He called his brother, and sent him to intercede for him, saying, "If you do not come by midday, I shall know that I must die." The master of the Left heard of the arrangement, and kept up a [ceaseless] talk with the brother, till it was past time, and the prince strangled himself, after which his brother was declared successor to his father. By-and-by the duke ascertained that the prince had not been guilty, and boiled Yili.
 左師見夫人之步馬者問之.對曰.君夫人氏也.左師曰.誰為君夫人.余胡弗知.圉人歸以告夫人.夫人使饋之錦與馬.先之以玉.曰.君之妾棄.使某獻.左師改命曰.君夫人.而後再拜稽首受之. '[One day], the master of the Left saw a man exercising the horses of [the duke's] lady, and asked him [whose they were]. "They belong," said the man, "to the duchess." "Who is the duchess?" asked the other; "how is it that I do not know?" The groom went home and told the lady, who thereupon sent to the master a piece of jade, followed by some embroidered silk, and a horse. The messenger said, "The ruler's concubine Qi has sent me to present these things." The master of the Left made him say "The duchess" instead, then bowed twice with his head to the ground, and received the gifts.'
 鄭伯歸自晉.使子西如晉聘.辭曰.寡君來煩執事.懼不免於戾.使夏謝不敏.君子曰.善事大國. 'When the earl of Zheng returned from Jin, he sent Zixi to that State on a mission of friendly inquiries, and to make the following speech:——"My ruler came and troubled your ministers, so that he is afraid he must have incurred the charge of offending you, and has sent me to apologize for his want of intelligence,' The superior man will say that he knew well how to serve a great State.'
 楚伍參與蔡太師子朝友.其子伍舉與聲子相善也.伍舉娶於王子牟.王子牟為申公而亡.楚人曰.伍舉實送之.伍舉奔鄭.將遂奔晉.聲子將如晉.遇之於鄭郊.班荊相與食.而言復故.聲子曰.子行也.吾必復子. 'Before this, Wu Can of Chu and Zizhao, the grand-master of Cai, were friends, and Can's son Wu Ju was [also] attached to [Zizhao's son], Shengzi. Wu Ju married [? a daughter of] king [Gong's son, Mou, who was duke of Shen, and obliged to flee from the State. The people of Chu said that he had been escorted away by Wu Ju, who then fled to Zheng, intending to continue his flight from thence to Jin. Shengzi was going at the time on a mission to Jin, and met him in the suburbs of Zheng. They spread some jing branches on the ground, ate together, and talked about [whether Ju could] return [to Chu]. Shengzi said, "Go your way now. I will be sure to procure your return."
 及宋向戌將平晉楚.聲子通使於晉.還如楚.令尹子木與之語.問晉故焉.且曰.晉大夫與楚孰賢.對曰.晉卿不如楚.其大夫則賢.皆卿材也.如杞梓皮革.自楚往也.雖楚有材.晉實用之.子木曰.夫獨無族姻乎.對曰.雖有.而用楚材實多.歸生聞之.善為國者.賞不僭(jiàn)而刑不濫.賞僭則懼及淫人.刑濫則懼及善人.若不幸而過.寧僭無濫.與其失善.寧其利淫.無善人.則國從之.詩曰. 'When Xiang Xu of Song was trying to reconcile Jin and Chu, Shengzi was sent to communicate with Jin; and on his return, he went to Chu. The chief minister, Zimu, talked with him, and asked about things in Jin. He asked him also whether the great officers of Jin or those of Chu were the superior. "The high ministers of Jin," replied Shengzi, "are not equal to those of Chu, but the great officers are superior. Every one of them has the abilities of a minister. And like the wood of the qi and the zi, like skins and leather, they go from Chu. The materials are Chu's, but the using of them is Jin's." "And is Jin alone," asked the minister, "without its clans [connected with its ruling House], and its families in the relation of affinity?" "It has these," the other replied, "but it makes much use of the materials supplied to it by Chu. I (His name was Guisheng, 歸 生) have heard this, that the skilful administration of a State is seen in rewarding without error and punishing without excess. If rewards be conferred beyond what is proper, there is a danger of some reaching bad men; and if punishments be inflicted in excess, there is a danger of some reaching good men. If unfortunately mistakes cannot be avoided, it is better to err in the matter of rewards than of punishments. It is better that a bad man get an advantage than that a good man be lost. If there be not good men, the State will follow them [to ruin]. The words of the ode (Shi, III. iii. ode X. 5),
 人之云亡.邦國殄瘁.無善人之謂也.故夏書曰.與其殺不辜.寧失不經.懼失善也.商頌有之曰. 'Men there are not, And the kingdom is sure to go to ruin,' are descriptive of the consequences of there being no good men. And so in one of the Books of Xia it is said, 'Rather than put to death an innocent person, you run the risk of irregularity;' indicating the fear that should be entertained of losing the good. In the sacrificial odes of Xia [Shang] (Shi, IV. iii. V. 4) it is said,
 不僭不濫.不敢怠皇.命于下國.封建厥福.此湯所以獲天福也.古之治民者.勸賞而畏刑.恤民不倦.賞以春夏.刑以秋冬.是以將賞為之加膳.加膳則飫(yù)賜.此以知其勸賞也.將刑為之不舉.不舉則徹樂.此以知其畏刑也.夙興夜寐.朝夕臨政.此以知其恤民也.三者禮之大節也.有禮無敗. 'He erred not in rewarding or punishing; He dared not to be idle. So was his appointment established over the States, And his happiness was made grandly secure.' '"It was thus that Tang obtained the blessing of Heaven. The ancient rulers of the people encouraged themselves in rewarding, and stood in awe of punishing, and their compassion for the people was untiring. They rewarded in spring and summer; they punished in autumn and winter. Thus it was that when they were going to reward, they increased the number of their dishes, and in doing so they gave abundantly [to their ministers]:—showing us by this how they rejoiced in rewarding. But when they were going to punish, they would not take a full meal, and at the same time silenced their music:——showing us by this how they shrank from punishing. Early they rose and went to sleep late; morning and evening they were occupied with the government:—showing us how anxious they were for [the welfare of the people. These three things are the great points of propriety [in a government]; and where there is such propriety, there will be no such thing as overthrow.
 今楚多淫刑.其大夫逃死於四方.而為之謀主.以害楚國.不可救療.所謂不能也.子儀之亂.析公奔晉.晉人寘諸戎車之殿.以為謀主.繞角之役.晉將遁矣.析公曰.楚師輕窕.易震蕩也.若多鼓鈞聲以夜軍之.楚師必遁晉人從之.楚師宵潰.晉遂侵蔡襲沈.獲其君.敗申息之師於桑隧.獲申麗而還.鄭於是不敢南面.楚失華夏.則析公之為也. '"Now in Chu there are many wrongful punishments, through which its great officers fly from it, and die everywhere in the other States, to which they become counsellors to the injury of Chu; and this error cannot be cured:—this is what I mean by saying that [Chu] cannot use its materials. In the insurrection raised by Ziyi (See the Zhuan after V. xiv. 7), the duke of Xi fled to Jin, the people of which placed him in the rear of their chariots, and employed him to direct their counsels. In the campaign of Raojiao (See the Zhuan on VIII. vi. 11), Jin was going to retreat, when he said, 'The army of Chu is excitable, and may be easily dispersed. If you beat many drums all at once, and attack it by night, it will be sure to retire.' The commanders of Jin took his advice, and the army of Chu dispersed in the night. [The army of] Jin in consequence made an incursion into Cai, surprised Shen, and took its ruler captive (See the Zhuan on VIII. viii. 2), defeated the armies of Shen and Xi at Sangsui, captured Shen Li, and returned to its own State. On this Zheng no [longer] ventured to turn its face to the south, and Chu lost [its influence with] the States [of the north]:—all was the doing of the duke of Xi.
 雍子之父兄譖雍子.君與大夫不善是也.雍子奔晉.晉人與之鄐.以為謀主.彭城之役.晉楚遇於靡角之谷.晉將遁矣.雍子發命於軍曰.歸老幼.反孤疾.二人役歸一人.簡兵蒐乘.秣馬蓐食.師陳焚次.明日將戰.行歸者.而逸楚囚.楚師宵潰.晉降彭城.而歸諸宋.以魚石歸.楚失東夷.子辛死之.則雍子之為也. '"The uncle and brother of Yongzi slandered him, and your ruler and the great officers did not accept his explanations. On this he fled to Jin, where they gave him [the city of] Chu, and employed him to direct their counsels. In the campaign of Pengcheng (See VIII. xviii. 5), Chu and Jin met in the valley of Mijiao; and the army of Jin was about to fly, when Yongzi sent orders through it, saying, 'Let the old and the young return home. Send back single sons and the sick. Where there are two soldiers of one family, let one of them return. Select your weapons, and examine your carriages. Feed your horses, and take a good meal. When the army has been marshalled, burn your resting places. Tomorrow we shall fight.' [Immediately after], they sent off those who were to return, and let loose their Chu prisoners. [In consequence], the army of Chu disappeared in the night; Jin obliged Pengcheng to surrender and restored it to Song; and carried Yu Shi, back with its army to Jin. That Chu lost the Yi States of the east, and the death of Zixin (See v. 6), were both the doing of Yongzi.
 子反與子靈爭夏姬.而雍害其事.子靈奔晉.晉人與之邢.以為謀主.扞禦北狄.通吳於晉.教吳叛楚.教之乘車.射御.驅侵.使其子狐庸.為吳行人焉.吳於是伐巢.取駕.克棘.入州來.楚罷於奔命.至今為患.則子靈之為也. '"Zifan had a contention with Ziling about Xia Ji (See the 1st narrative in the Zhuan after VIII. ii. 6), and injuriously defeated his intentions, so that Ziling fled to Jin, where they gave him [the city of] Xing, and employed him to direct their counsels. He made head for them against the Di of the north, brought about a communication between Wu and Jin, and made Wu revolt from Chu. He taught its people how to use carriages, to shoot, to drive, to make headlong charges, and to make incursions. He placed his son Hu Yong in Wu to direct its communications with other States. Wu then invaded Chao, took Jia, subdued Ji, and took Zhoulai. Chu was wearied with flying about at the instance of the various States, and still suffers the distress of it;—all through the doing of Ziling.
 若敖之亂.伯賁之子賁皇奔晉.晉人與之苗.以為謀主.鄢陵之役.楚晨壓晉軍而陳.晉將遁矣.苗賁皇曰.楚師之良在其中軍王族而已.若塞井夷灶.成陳以當之.欒范易行以誘之.中行二郤.必克二穆.吾乃四萃於其王族.必大敗之.晉人從之.楚師大敗.王夷師熸(jiān).子反死之.鄭叛吳興.楚失諸侯.則苗賁皇之為也.子木曰.是皆然矣.聲子曰.今又有甚於此.椒舉於申公子牟.子牟得戾而亡.君大夫謂椒舉.女實遣之.懼而奔鄭.引領南望曰.庶幾赦余.亦弗圖也.今在晉矣.晉人將與之縣.以比叔向.彼若謀害楚國.豈不為患.子木懼.言諸王.益其祿爵而復之.聲子使椒鳴逆之. '"In the insurrection of the Ruo'ao (See the Zhuan at the end of VII. iv.) Fenhuang, the son of Bofen fled to Jin, where they gave him Miao, and employed him to direct their counsels. In the campaign of Yanling (VIII. xvi, 6), Chu came close up in battle array to the army of Jin, which was about to flee. Then Fenhuang of Miao said, 'The best troops of Chu are in their centre army, which contains only the royal clans. If we close up the wells, and level the cooking places, we can marshal our host to meet the enemy. Let Luan and Fan change their ranks in order to deceive them, and then Zhonghang, with the two Xi, will be sure to vanquish the two Mu. Collecting then on every side of them, and attacking the royal clans, we shall give them a great defeat.' The people of Jin followed his counsel, and the army of Chu was severely defeated. The king was wounded, and the army suffered as from a conflagration. Zifan died in consequence of the defeat (See VIII. xvi. 7). Zheng revolted, Wu put itself in motion, and Chu lost all the States;—through the doing of Miao Fenhuang." "This is all correct," said Zimu. "And there is now something worse than this," rejoined Shengzi, "Jiao Ju (? Ju of Jiao) married a daughter of Zimou, duke of Shen; and when Zimou was driven into exile for some offence, the great officers of your ruler said that Ju had sent him away. Ju became frightened and fled to Zheng, but kept looking with outstretched neck to the south, thinking that perhaps he might be forgiven. But you have not given him a thought, and now he is in Jin. There they mean to give him a district, considering that he is equal to Shuxiang. If he give them counsel to the injury of Chu, will it not be a matter of sorrow?" Zimu was afraid, and spoke on the subject to the king, who increased Ju's revenue and rank, and brought him back, Shengzi sending Jiao Ming to meet him.'
 許靈公如楚.請伐鄭.曰.師不興.孤不歸矣.八月.卒于楚. Duke Ling of Xu went to Chu, and begged that it would invade Zheng, saying that he would not return [to Xu] till the army was in motion; and in the 8th month, he died in Chu.
 楚子曰.不伐鄭.何以求諸侯.冬.十月.楚子伐鄭.鄭人將禦之.子產曰.晉楚將平.諸侯將和.楚王是故昧於一來.不如使逞而歸.乃易成也.夫小人之性.釁於勇.嗇於禍.以足其性.而求名焉者.非國家之利也.若何從之.子展說.不禦寇. 'The viscount of Chu said, "If I do not invade Zheng, on what ground can I seek [the submission of] the States?" [Accordingly], in winter, in the 10th month, he invaded that State. The people of Zheng wished to resist him, but Zichan said, "Jin and Chu are about to become friends, and the States will be in harmony. The king of Chu has blindly erred therefore in this attack on us. Our best plan is to let him have his way and return. Things will then be easily settled. As to those small men whose nature it is to be moved to deeds of daring, and to like times of confusion, thereby gratifying their nature and seeking for fame, [their schemes] will not be for the advantage of the State;—why should we follow them?" Zizhan was pleased, and did not resist the enemy. 
 十二月.乙酉.入南里.墮其城.涉於樂氏.門于師之梁.縣門發.獲九人焉.涉于氾而歸.而後葬許靈公. In the 12th month, on Yiyou, [the troops of Chu] entered Nanli, and threw down the wall of it. They then crossed at [the ford of] Yueshi, and attacked the gate Shizhiliang, when nine men were captured by letting the port-cullis down. They [finally] crossed the Fan, and returned to Chu, after which [the viscount] buried duke Ling of Xu.'
 衛人歸衛姬于晉.乃釋衛侯.君子是以知平公之失政也. 'The people of Wey presented a daughter of their house to [the marquis of] Jin, on which he liberated the marquis of Wey. The superior man knows from this what a failure the government of duke Ping was.'
 晉韓宣子聘于周.王使請事對曰.晉士起將歸時事於宰旅.無他事矣.王聞之曰.韓氏其昌阜於晉乎.辭不失舊. 'Han Xuanzi went on a friendly mission to Zhou. The king sent to ask his business, when he said, "A [humble] officer of Jin, I wish to present the dues of the season to the subordinates of the prime minister. I have no other business." When the king heard his reply, he said, 'This Han will flourish and be great in Jin. In his speeches he does not fail to observe the old rules."'
 齊人城郟之歲.其夏.齊烏餘以廩丘奔晉.襲衛羊角取之.遂襲我高魚.有大雨自其竇入.介于其庫.以登其城.克而取之.又取邑于宋.於是范宣子卒.諸侯弗能治也.及趙文子為政.乃卒治之.文子言於晉侯曰.晉為盟主.諸侯或相侵也.則討而使歸其地.今烏餘之邑.皆討類也.而貪之.是無以為盟主也.請歸之.公曰.諾.孰可使也.對曰.胥梁帶能無用師.晉侯使往. 'In the summer of the year that the people of Qi walled Jia (In the 24th year), Wu Yu of Qi fled to Jin, making over to it [the city of] Linqiu. [Afterwards], he surprised Yangjiao of Wey, and took it, and then took by surprise our Gaoyu. There was then a great rain, and he managed to enter by the drains, plundered the military store, mounted the wall, his men having armed themselves from the store, conquered and took the city. He also took a city from Song. At this time Fan Xuanzi was dead, and the States were not able to deal [with this marauder]; but when the government came into the hands of Zhao Wenzi, he was dealt with at last. Wenzi said to the marquis, "Jin is lord of covenants. If any of the States encroach on one another, we punish them, and make them restore the lands they have taken. Now all the cities of Wu Yu are of the kind for which punishment should in this way be inflicted. If we covet them, we are not fit to be lords of covenants. Let them be returned." The duke agreed and said, "Who is proper to be sent on such a mission?" Wenzi said, 'Xu Liangdai can execute it without any military force." The duke sent him on the duty.'