XXXI. Thirty-first year.

  1. 春.王正月.
  2. 夏.六月.辛巳.公薨于楚宮.
  3. 秋.九月.癸巳.子野卒.
  4. 己亥.仲孫羯卒.
  5. 冬.十月.滕子來會葬.
  6. 癸酉.葬我君襄公.
  7. 十有一月.莒人弒其君密州.
 XXXI. Thirty-first year. 
1. In the [duke's] thirty-first year, it was spring, the king's first month.
2. In summer, in the sixth month, on Xinsi, the duke died in the Chu palace.
3. In autumn, in the ninth month, on Guisi, the [duke's] son Ye died.
4. On Jihai, Zhongsun Jie died.
5. In winter, in the tenth month, the viscount of Teng came to be present at the [duke's] interment.
6. On Guiyou, we buried our ruler, duke Xiang.
7. In the eleventh month, the people of Ju murdered their ruler, Mizhou.

 'This spring, in the 1st month, when Mushu returned from the meeting [at Chanyuan], he visited Meng Xiaobo, and said to him,"Zhaomeng will [soon] die. His language was irrelevant, not becoming in a lord of the people. And moreover, though his years are not yet 50, he keeps repeating the same thing like a man of 80 or 90:—he cannot endure long. If he die, the government, I apprehend, will fall into the hands of Hanzi. You had better speak to Jisun, so that he may establish a good understanding [with Hanzi], who is a superior man. The ruler of Jin will lose his [control of the] government. If we do not establish such an understanding, so that [Hanzi] may be prepared to act in behalf of Lu, then when the government [of Jin] comes to be with the great officers, and Hanzi turns out to be weak, we shall find those officers very covetous, and their demands upon us will be insatiable. We shall find [also] that neither Qi nor Chu is worth our adhering to it, and Lu will be in a perilous case." Xiaobo observed, "Man's life is not long; who can keep from that irrelevancy? The morning may not be followed by the evening; of what use would it be to establish that good understanding?" Mushu went out from the interview, and said to a friend, "Mengsun will [soon] die. I told him of the irrelevancy of Zhaomeng, and his own language was still more irrelevant." He then spoke [himself] to Jisun about the affairs of Jin, but [that minister] did not follow [his counsel].
 及趙文子卒.晉公室卑.政在侈家.韓宣子為政.不能圖諸侯.魯不堪晉求.讒慝弘多.是以有平丘之會. 'When Zhao Wenzi died, the ducal House of Jin was reduced to a low State. The government was ruled by the ambitious families. Han Xuanzi was chief minister, but could not deal with the cases of the States. Lu was unable to endure the requirements of Jin, and slanderous charges against it multiplied, till [at last] there came the meeting of Pingqiu (See below in the 13th year of duke Zhao).
 齊子尾害閭丘嬰.欲殺之.使帥師以伐陽州.我問師故.夏.五月.子尾殺閭丘嬰以說于我師工僂灑渻灶.孔虺.賈寅.出奔莒.出群公子. 'Ziwei of Qi hated Lüqiu Ying; and, wishing to put him to death, he made him lead a force, and attack Yangzhou. We went to ask the reason of such an expedition; and in summer, in the 5th month, Ziwei put Lüqiu Ying to death, to satisfy our army. Gonglou Sa, Sheng Zao, Kong Hui, and Jia Yin, fled from Qi to Ju. All the sons of the previous dukes were driven out.']
 公作楚宮.穆叔曰.大誓云.民之所欲.天必從之.君欲楚也夫.故作其宮.若不復適楚.必死是宮也.六月.辛巳.公薨于楚宮. 'When the duke built the Chu palace, Mushu said, "We read in the Great Declaration (Shu, V. i. Pt. i. 11), 'What a man desires, Heaven is sure to gratify him in.' Our ruler's desire is for Chu, and therefore he has made this palace. If he do not again go to Chu, he is sure to die here. [Accordingly], in the Chu palace he did die, on Xinsi, in the 6th month.
 叔仲帶竊其拱璧以與御人.納諸其懷.而從取之.由是得罪. 'Shuzhong Dai (The Shuzhong Zhaobo of the Zhuan on vii. 4) stole [on this occasion] the large bi, giving it [first] to his charioteer, who put it in his breast, and afterwards getting it from him again. In consequence of this he was deemed an offender [by the people].'
 立胡女敬歸之子子野.次于季氏.秋.九月.癸巳卒.毀也.己亥.孟孝伯卒.立敬歸之娣齊歸之子公子裯.穆叔不欲.曰.大子死.有母弟則立之.無則長立.年鈞擇賢.義鈞則卜.古之道也.非適嗣.何必娣之子.且是人也.居喪而不哀.在慼而有嘉容.是謂不度.不度之人.鮮不為患.若果立之.必為季氏憂.武子不聽.卒立之.比及葬.三易衰.衰衽如故衰.於是昭公十九年矣.猶有童心.君子是以知其不能終也. '[On the duke's death], Ye, his son by Jing Gui, a lady of the house of Hu, was appointed his successor, and lived in the mansion of Jisun; but in autumn, in the 9th month, on Guisi, having been pining away, he died. Jisun then declared the succession to be in the Gongzi Chou, the duke's son by Qi Gui, the cousin of King Gui, [who had accompanied her to the harem]. Mushu was dissatisfied with the choice, and said, "When the eldest son [by the wife] dies, his own younger brother should have the succession. And if he have no own brother, then the eldest of his father's other sons [by concubines]. When there are two of the same age, the worthier should be chosen; where they do not differ in regard to their righteousness, the tortoise-shell should be consulted:—this was the ancient way. [Ye] was not the heir as being the wife's son, and it was not necessary to appoint the son of his mother's cousin. This man, moreover, has shown no grief in his mourner's place; in the midst of the sorrow he has looked pleased. He is what may be pronounced 'a man without rule', and it is seldom that such an one does not occasion trouble. If indeed he be appointed marquis, he is sure to give sorrow to the family of Ji." Ji Wuzi would not listen to his remonstrance, and the issue was that Chou was appointed. By the time of the burial, he had thrice changed his mourning, and the flaps of his coat looked quite old. At this time, he—duke Zhao—was 19 years old, and he still had a boy's heart, from which a superior man could know that he would not go on well to the end.'
 冬.十月.滕成公來會葬.惰而多涕.子服惠伯曰.滕君將死矣.怠於其位.而哀已甚.兆於死所矣.能無從乎.癸酉.葬襄公. 'Duke Cheng of Teng came to be present at the burial, but he behaved rudely, while at the same time he shed many tears. Zifu Huibo said, 'The ruler of Teng will [soon] die. Rude in his place [of mourning.] and yet showing an excessive grief, here is a premonition in the place of death:—must he not [soon] follow [our duke]?"
 公薨之月.子產相鄭伯以如晉.晉侯以我喪故.未之見也.子產使盡壞其館之垣.而納車馬焉.士文伯讓之曰.敝邑以政刑之不脩.寇盜充斥.無若諸侯之屬.辱在寡君者何.是以令吏人完客所館.高其閈閎(hàn hóng).厚其牆垣.以無憂客使.今吾子壞之.雖從者能戒.其若異客何.以敝邑之為盟主.繕完葺牆.以待賓客.若皆毀之.其何以共命.寡君使匄請命.對曰.以敝邑褊小.介於大國.誅求無時.是以不敢寧居.悉索敝賦.以來會時事.逢執之不間.而未得見.又不獲聞命.未知見時.不敢輸幣.亦不敢暴露.其輸之.則君之府實也.非薦陳之.不敢輸也.其暴露之.則恐燥濕之不時.而朽蠹以重敝邑之罪. 'In the month of duke [Xiang's] funeral, Zichan attended the earl of Zheng on a visit to Jin. The marquis, on the pretence of the death of our duke, did not immediately give the earl an interview, on which Zichan made all the walls about their lodging-house be thrown down, and brought in their carriages and horses. Shi Wenbo went to complain of the proceeding, and said, "Through want of proper attention in our State to the government and the administration of the penal laws, robbers have become quite rife. For the sake, however, of the princes of the States and their retinues, who condescend to come to him, our ruler has made his officers put in good repair the reception-houses for guests, raising high their gates, and making strong the walls around, that they might be free from anxiety [on account of the robbers]. And now you have thrown these down, so that, though your followers may be able to guard you, how will it be in the case of other guests? Our State, as lord of covenants, has to keep the walls of those houses in good repair, with the tops of them safely covered to, be in readiness for its visitors; and if all were to throw them down, how should we be able to respond to the requirements on us? My ruler has sent me to ask what you have to say in the matter." Zichan replied, "Through the smallness of our State, and its position between great States, whose demands upon it come we know not when, we do not dare to dwell at ease, but collect all the contributions due from us, and come to consult about the business of the times. It has happened now that your ministers are not at leisure, and we have not obtained an interview with the marquis, nor have we received any instructions, so that we might know when we should do so. We did not dare, [without a previous interview], to send in our offerings, nor did we dare to leave them exposed. If we should send them in [without that interview], they would be [but the regular] appurtenances of your ruler's treasuries:—without the display of them at it, we dare not send them in. If we should leave them exposed, then we were afraid that, through the sudden occurrence of [excessive] heat or rain, they might decay or be injured by insects, and our State be chargeable with a heavy offence.
 僑聞文公之為盟主也.宮室卑庳.無觀臺榭.以崇大諸侯之館.館如公寢.庫廄繕脩.司空以時平易道路.圬(wū)人以時塓館宮室.諸侯賓至.甸設庭燎.僕人巡宮.車馬有所.賓從有代.巾車脂轄.隸人牧圉.各瞻其事.百官之屬.各展其物.公不留賓.而亦無廢事.憂樂同之.事則巡之.教其不知.而恤其不足.賓至如歸.無寧菑患.不畏寇盜.而亦不患燥濕. "'I have heard that when duke Wen was lord of covenants, his own palace was low and small, and he had no prospect-towers or terraces; —that he might make the reception-houses for the princes the more lofty and large. The chambers were as large as his own, and the repositories and stables belonging to them were kept in good order. The minister of Works saw at the proper seasons that the roads were made in good condition. The plasterers in the same way did their duty on the apartments. Then when the visiting princes arrived, the foresters supplied the torches for the courtyards; the watchmen made their rounds about the buildings; the followers of the guests were relieved of their duties by men supplied for the purpose; there were menials, herdsmen, and grooms, to see what might be required of them to do; and the officers belonging to the various departments had the articles which they had to prepare for the guests ready for supply. The duke did not detain his guests. and yet there was nothing neglected. He shared with them their sorrows and joys. He examined any business [they had to lay before him], teaching them where their knowledge was deficient, and compassionating them where in anything they fell short. Guests [then] came to Jin as if they were going home; —what calamity or distress had they to think of? They did not have to fear robbers, or to be troubled about the heat or the damp.
 今銅鞮之宮數里.而諸侯舍於隸人.門不容車.而不可踰越.盜賊公行.而夭厲不戒.賓見無時.命不可知.若又勿壞.是無所藏幣以重罪也.敢請執事.將何以命之.雖君之有魯喪.亦敝邑之憂也.若獲薦幣.脩垣而行.君之惠也.敢憚勤勞. "'But now the palace of Tongdi extends over several li, and the princes have to occupy what seem the houses of menials. The gates will not admit their carriages, and they cannot be taken over the walls. Robbers move about openly, and there is no defence against the evil influences [of heat and damp]. No time is fixed for the guests to have an interview, and they have no means of knowing when they will be summoned to it. If we are further required not to throw down the walls, we shall have nowhere to deposit our offerings, and may lie open to the charge of a grave offence. Allow me to ask what charge you have to give us. Although your ruler has to mourn the death of [the duke of Lu], that is also an occasion of sorrow to our State. If we shall be permitted to present our offerings, and to depart after repairing the walls, it will be a kindness on the part of your ruler;—shall we presume to shrink from performing the labour diligently?"
 文伯復命.趙文子曰.信我實不德.而以隸人之垣以贏諸侯.是吾罪也.使士文伯謝不敏焉.晉侯見鄭伯.有加禮.厚其宴好而歸之.乃築諸侯之館.叔向曰.辭之不可以已也如是夫.子產有辭.諸侯賴之.若之何其釋辭也.詩曰. 'Wenbo reported the result of his commission, and Zhao Wenzi said, "It is true. We are verily wanting in virtue. That we cause the princes to take up their residences within walls only fit for very inferior officers is our crime." Shi Wenbo was then sent to apologize for the want of attention. The marquis saw the earl, and showed him more than ordinary courtesy. He entertained him liberally, sent him away with proofs of his friendship, and built reception-houses for the princes. Shuxiang said, "Thus indispensable is the gift of speechmaking! Zichan has that gift, and all the States are under obligations to him. On no account may speeches be dispensed with. The words of the ode (Shi, III. ii. ode X. 2),
 辭之輯矣.民之協矣.辭之繹矣.民之莫矣.其知之矣.鄭子皮使印段如楚.以適晉告.禮也. 'Let your words be in harmony with the right,
And the people will agree with them.
Let your words be gentle and kind,
And the people will be settled,'
show that the author knew this."
'Zipi of Zheng sent Yin Duan to Chu, to report how [the earl] had gone to Jin:——which was proper.'
 莒犁比公生去疾.及展輿.既立展輿.又廢之.犁比公虐.國人患之.十一月.展輿因國人以攻莒子.弒之.乃立.去疾奔齊.齊出也.展輿吳出也.書曰.莒人弒其君買朱鉏.言罪之在也. 'Duke Libi of Ju had two sons, Quji and Zhanyu. He first declared that the succession would be in Zhanyu, and then disannulled that arrangement. He was tyrannical, and the people were distressed by their sufferings. In the 11th month, Zhanyu, with the help of the people, attacked and murdered him, and then took his place. Quji fled to Qi, to which State his mother belonged, while Zhanyu was the son of a daughter of the, House of Wu. The text, in saying that the people of Ju murdered their ruler, Maizhuchu, shows that he was a criminal.
 吳子使屈狐庸聘于晉.通路也.趙文子問焉.曰.延州來季子.其果立乎.巢隕諸樊.閽戕戴吳.天似啟之.何如.對曰.不立.是二王之命也.非啟季子也.若天所啟.其在今嗣君乎.甚德而度.德不失民.度不失事.民親而事有序.其天所啟也.有吳國者.必此君之子孫實終之.季子守節者也.雖有國不立. 'The viscount of Wu sent Qu Huyong (The son of Wuchen; see on VII. vii. 5) on a complimentary mission to Jin, to keep the way [between the two States] open. Zhao Wenzi asked him, "Has Jizi of Yan and Zhoulai (Jizha) really become your ruler? At Chao you lost Zhufan (See xxv. 10); a door-keeper killed Daiwu (See xxix.4):—it would seem as if Heaven had been opening [the way] for him. How is it?" The envoy replied, "He has not been appointed our ruler. That was the fate of the two kings, and not any opening [of the way] for Jizi. If you speak of Heaven's opening the way, I should say it was for our present ruler, who has succeeded [to his brother]. He has great virtue, and takes [wise] measures. Virtuous, he does not lose the [attachment of the] people. Taking [wise] measures, he does not err in [the conduct of] affairs. By this attachment of the people, and by his orderly conduct of affairs, Heaven has opened the way for him. The rulers of the State of Wu must be the descendants of this ruler,—yes, to the end. Jizi is one who maintains his purity. Although he might have had the State, he refused to be ruler."'
 十二月.北宮文子相衛襄公以如楚.宋之盟故也.過鄭.印段迋勞于棐林.如聘禮而以勞辭.文子入聘.子羽為行人.馮簡子與子大叔逆客.事畢而出.言於衛侯曰.鄭有禮.其數世之福也.其無大國之討乎.詩曰.誰能執熱.逝不以濯. 'In the 12th month, Beigong Wenzi attended duke Xiang of Wey on a visit to Chu, undertaken in compliance with the covenant of Song; and as they passed by [the capital of] Zheng, Yin Duan went out to comfort them under the toils of the journey, using the ceremonies of a complimentary visit, but the speeches appropriate to such a comforting visit. Wenzi entered the city, to pay a complimentary visit [in return]. Ziyu was the internuncius. Feng Jianzi and Zitaishu met the guest. When the business was over, and [Wenzi] had gone out [again], he said to the marquis of Wey, "Zheng observes the proprieties. This will be a blessing to it for several generations, and save it, I apprehend, from any inflictions from the great States. The ode says (Shi, III. iii. ode III. 5), 'Who can hold anything hot? Must he not dip it [first] in water?'
 禮之於政.如熱之有濯也.濯以救熱.何患之有.子產之從政也.擇能而使之.馮簡子能斷大事.子大叔美秀而文.公孫揮能知四國之為.而辨於其大夫之族姓.班位貴賤能否.而又善為辭令.裨諶(pí chén)能謀.謀於野則獲.謀於邑則否.鄭國將有諸侯之事.子產乃問四國之為於子羽.且使多為辭令.與裨諶乘以適野.使謀可否.而告馮簡子使斷之.事成.乃授子大叔使行之.以應對賓客.是以鮮有敗事.北宮文子所謂有禮也. The rules of propriety are to government what that dipping is to the consequences of the heat. With the dipping to take away the heat, there is no distress." Zichan, in the administration of his government, selected the able and employed them. Feng Jianzi was able to give a decision in the greatest matters. Zitaishu was handsome and accomplished. Gongsun Hui told what was doing in the States round about, and could distinguish all about their great officers, their clans, surnames, order, positions, their rank whether noble or mean, their ability or the reverse; and he was also skilful in composing speeches. Pi Chen was a skilful counsellor;—skilful when he concocted his plans in the open country, but not when he did so in the city. When the State was going to have any business with other States, Zichan asked Ziyu what was doing round about, and caused him to compose a long speech. He then took Pi Chen in his carriage into the open country, and made him consider whether the speech would suit the occasion or not. Next he told Feng Jianzi, and made him give a decision in the case. When all this was done, he put the matter into the hands of Zitaishu to carry it into effect, replying to the visitors [from the other States]. In this way it was seldom that any affair went wrong. This was what Beigong Wenzi meant in saying that Zheng observed the proprieties.' 
 鄭人游于鄉校.以論執政.然明謂子產曰.毀鄉校何如.子產曰.何為.夫人朝夕退而游焉.以議執政之善否.其所善者.吾則行之.其所惡者.吾則改之.是吾師也.若之何毀之.我聞忠善以損怨.不聞作威以防怨.豈不遽止.然猶防川.大決所犯.傷人必多.吾不克救也.不如小決.使道不如.吾聞而藥之也.然明曰.蔑也今而後知吾子之信可事也.小人實不才.若果行此.其鄭國實賴之.豈唯二三臣.仲尼聞是語也.曰.以是觀之.人謂子產不仁.吾不信也. 'A man of Zheng rambled into a village school, and fell discoursing about the conduct of the government.'[In consequence], Ranming proposed to Zichan to destroy [all] the village schools; but that minister said, "Why do so? If people retire morning and evening, and pass their judgment on the conduct of the government, as being good or bad, I will do what they approve of, and I will alter what they condemn;—they are my teachers. On what ground should we destroy [those schools]? I have heard that by loyal conduct and goodness enmity is diminished, but I have not heard that it can be prevented by acts of violence. It may indeed be hastily stayed for a while, but it continues like a stream that has been dammed up. If you make a great opening in the dam, there will be great injury done,—beyond our power to relieve. The best plan is to lead the water off by a small opening. [In this case] our best plan is to hear what is said, and use it as a medicine." Ranming said, "From this time forth I know that you are indeed equal to the administration of affairs. I acknowledge my want of ability. If you indeed do this, all Zheng will be benefited by it, and, not we two or three ministers only." 'When Zhongni heard of these words, he said, "Looking at the matter from this, when men say that Zichan was not benevolent, I do not believe it."
 子皮欲使尹何為邑.子產曰.少.未知可否.子皮曰.愿吾愛之.不吾叛也.使夫往而學焉.夫亦愈知治矣.子產曰.不可.人之愛人.求利之也.今吾子愛人則以政.猶未能操刀而使割也.其傷實多.子之愛人.傷之而已.其誰敢求愛於子.子於鄭國.棟也.棟折榱(cuī)崩.僑將厭焉.敢不盡言.子有美錦.不使人學製焉.大官大邑.身之所庇也.而使學者製焉.其為美錦.不亦多乎.僑聞學而後入政.未聞以政學者也.若果行此.必有所害.譬如田獵.射御貫.則能獲禽.若未嘗登車射御.則敗績厭覆是懼.何暇思獲.子皮曰.善哉.虎不敏.吾聞君子務知大者遠者.小人務知小者近者.我小人也.衣服附在吾身.我知而慎之.大官大邑.所以庇身也.我遠而慢之.微子之言.吾不知也.他日.我曰子為鄭國.我為吾家.以庇焉其可也.今而後知不足.自今請雖吾家聽子而行.子產曰.人心之不同.如其面焉.吾豈敢謂子面如吾面乎.抑心所謂危.亦以告也.子皮以為忠.故委政焉.子產是以能為鄭國 'Zipi wanted to make Yin He commandant of his city. Zichan said, "He is young, and I do not know that he can be so employed." "He is honest and careful," replied Zipi. "I love him. He does not go against me. Let him go and learn, and he will by-and-by know all the better how to rule." Zichan objected, "When a man loves another, he seeks to benefit him; but when you, in your love for [this man], wish to confer a post on him, it is as if you would employ a man to cut before he is able to handle a knife;—the injury done to him must be great. 'If your love for a man only issues in your injuring him, who will venture to seek your love? You are the main support of the State of Zheng. If the main support be broken, the rafters will tumble down. I shall be crushed beneath them, and I must therefore speak out all my mind. If you have a piece of beautiful embroidered silk, you will not employ a [mere] learner to make it up. A great office and a great city are what men depend on for the protection of their persons; and you will employ a [mere] learner to undertake them!—are they not much more important than your beautiful embroidery? I have heard that a man must first learn, and then enter on the conduct of government; I have not heard that one is to learn in the exercise of that conduct. If you do indeed do this, you are sure to do injury. Take the case of hunting:—when a man is accustomed to shoot and to drive, his hunting will be successful. If he have never mounted a chariot nor shot nor driven, he will be utterly unsuccessful; and amid his fear lest he should be overturned, what leisure will he have to think of the game?" Zipi said, 'Good. I have shown myself unintelligent. I have heard that what the superior man makes it a point to know is the great and the remote, while the small man is concerned to know the small and the near. I am a small man. The garment which fits to my body I know and am careful about, but the great office and the great city, on which my body depends for protection, were far off and slighted by me. But for your words, I should not have known [my error]. On a former day I said that if you governed the State and I governed my family, and so preserved myself, it would do. Henceforth I know that I am insufficient even for this, and must be allowed even in the rule of my family to act as I shall be instructed by you." Zichan said, "Men's minds are different just as their faces are. How should I presume to say that your face must be as mine? But if [I see] that which makes my mind, as we say, uneasy, I will tell you of it." Zipi, impressed with his faithfulness, entrusted to him the government, and thus it was that Zichan was able to conduct the affairs of Zheng.'
  衛侯在楚.北宮文子見令尹圍之威儀.言於衛侯曰.令尹似君矣.將有他志.雖獲其志.不能終也.詩云.靡不有初.鮮克有終.終之實難.令尹其將不免.公曰.子何以知之.對曰.詩云.敬慎威儀.惟民之則.令尹無威儀.民無則焉.民所不則.以在民上.不可以終.公曰.善哉.何謂威儀.對曰.有威而可畏.謂之威.有儀而可象.謂之儀.君有君之威儀.其臣畏而愛之.則而象之.故能有其國家.令聞長世.臣有臣之威儀.其下畏而愛之.故能守其官職.保族宜家.順是以下.皆如是.是以上下能相固也.衛詩曰.威儀棣棣.不可選也.言君臣上下.父子兄弟.內外大小.皆有威儀也.周詩曰.朋友攸攝.攝以威儀.言朋友之道.必相教訓.以威儀也.周書數文王之德曰.大國畏其力.小國懷其德.言畏而愛之也.詩云.不識不知.順帝之則.言則而象之也.  'When the marquis of Wey was in Chu, Beigong Wenzi, perceiving the carriage and display of the chief minister Wey, said to the marquis, "The [pomp] of the chief minister is like that of the ruler; he must have his mind set on some other object. But though he may obtain his desire, he will not hold it to the end. The ode (Shi, III. iii. ode I. 1) says,
  'All have their beginning,
But there are few that can secure the end.'
The difficulty is indeed with the end. The chief minister will not escape [an evil death]." The marquis said, "How do you know it?" Wenzi replied, "The ode (Shi, III. iii. ode II. 2) says,
'Let him be reverently careful of his dignified manner,
And he will be the pattern of the people.'
But the chief minister has no dignified manner [such as becomes him], and the people have no pattern in him. Let him, in whom the people find no pattern, be placed above them, yet he cannot continue to the end." "Good!" said the duke. "What do you mean by a dignified manner?" The reply was, "Having majesty that inspires awe, is what we call dignity. Presenting a pattern which induces imitation is what we call manner. When a ruler has the dignified manner of a ruler, his ministers fear and love him, imitate and resemble him, so that he holds [firm] possession of his State, and his fame continues through long ages. When a minister has the dignified manner of a minister, his inferiors fear and love him, so that he can keep [sure] his office, preserve his clan, and rightly order his family. So it is with all classes downwards, and it is by this that high and low are made firm in their relations to one another. An ode of Wey (Shi, I. iii. ode 1.3) says,
'My dignified manner is mixed with ease,
And cannot be made the subject of remark;'
showing that ruler and minister, high and low, father and son, elder and younger brother, at home and abroad, in great things and small, all have a dignified manner [which is proper to them]. An ode of Zhou (Shi, III. ii. ode III.4) says,
'Your friends assisting at the service
Have done so in a dignified manner,'
showing that it is the rule for friends, in their instruction of one another, to exhibit a dignified manner. One of the books of Zhou says, 'The great States feared his strength, and the small States cherished his virtue,' showing the union of awe and love. An ode (Shi, III. i. ode VII. 7) says,
'Unconscious of effort,
He accorded with the example of God;'
showing the union of imitation and resemblance.
'Zhou imprisoned king Wen for 7 years, and then all the princes of the kingdom repaired to the place of his imprisonment, and on this Zhou became afraid, and restored him [to his State]. This may be called an instance of how [king Wen] was loved. When he invaded Chong, on his second expedition, [the lord of that State] surrendered and acknowledged his duty as a subject. All the wild tribes [also] led on one another to submit to him. These may be pronounced instances of the awe which he inspired. All under heaven praised his meritorious services with songs and dances, which may be pronounced an instance of their taking him as a pattern. To the present day, the actions of king Wen are acknowledged as laws, which may be pronounced an instance of his power to make men resemble himself. The secret was his dignified manner. Therefore when the superior man, occupying a high position, inspires awe; and by his beneficence produces love; and his advancing and retiring are according to rule; and all his intercourse with others affords a pattern; and his countenance and steps excite the gaze [of admiration]; and the affairs he conducts serve as laws; and his virtuous actions lead to imitation; and his voice and air diffuse joy; and his movements and doings are elegant; and his words have distinctness and brilliance: —when thus he brings himself near to those below him, he is said to have a dignified manner."'