II. Second year.

 經二年. Text
  1.  春.王二月.壬子.宋華元帥師.及鄭公子歸生帥師.戰于大棘.宋師敗績.獲宋華元.
  2. 秦師伐晉.
  3. 夏. 晉人.宋人.衛人.陳人.侵鄭.
  4. 秋.九月.乙丑.晉趙盾弒其君夷皋.
  5. 冬.十月.乙亥.天王崩.
 1. In the [duke's] second year, in spring, in the king's second month, on Renzi, Hua Yuan of Song, at the head of a force, and duke [Wen's] son, Guisheng of Zheng, [also] at the head of a force, fought at Daji, when the army of Song was shamefully defeated, and Hua Yuan was made prisoner.
2. An army of Qin invaded Jin.
3. In summer, a body of men from Jin, one from Song, one from Wey, and one from Chen, made an incursion into Zheng.
4. In autumn, in the ninth month, on Yichou, Zhao Dun of Jin murdered his ruler, Yigao.
5. In winter, in the tenth month, on Yihai, the king [by] Heaven's [grace] died.
  1. 春.鄭公子歸生受命于楚.伐宋.宋華元.樂呂.御之.二月.壬子.戰于大棘.宋師敗績.囚華元.獲樂呂.及甲車四百六十乘.俘二百五十人.馘百人.狂狡輅鄭人.鄭人入于井.倒戟而出之.獲狂狡.君子曰.失禮違命.宜其為禽也.戎昭果毅以聽之.之謂禮.殺敵為果.致果為毅.易之戮也.
  2. 將戰.華元殺羊食士.其御羊斟不與.及戰.曰.疇昔之羊.子為政.今日之事.我為政.與入鄭師.故敗.君子謂羊斟非人也.以其私憾.敗國殄民.於是刑孰大焉.詩所謂人之無良者.其羊斟之謂乎.殘民以逞.
  3. 宋人以兵車百乘.文馬百駟.以贖華元于鄭.半入.華元逃歸.立于門外.告而入.見叔牂.曰.子之馬然也.對曰.非馬也.其人也.既合而來奔.
  4. 宋城.華元為植.巡功.城者謳曰.睅其目.皤其腹.棄甲而復.于思于思.棄甲復來.使其驂乘.謂之曰.牛則有皮.犀兕尚多.棄甲則那.役人曰.從其有皮.丹漆若何.華元曰.去之.夫其口眾我寡.
  5. 秦師伐晉.以報崇也.遂圍焦.夏.晉趙盾救焦.遂自陰地.及諸侯之師侵鄭.以報大棘之役.楚鬥椒救鄭.曰.能欲諸侯而惡其難乎.遂次于鄭.以待晉師.趙盾曰.彼宗競于楚.殆將斃矣.姑益其疾.乃去之.
  6. 晉靈公不君.厚斂以彫牆.從臺上彈人.而觀其辟丸也.宰夫胹熊蹯不熟.殺之.寘諸畚.使婦人載以過朝.趙盾.士季.見其手.問其故.而患之.將諫.士季曰.諫而不入.則莫之繼也.會請先.不入.則子繼之.三進及溜.而後視之.曰.吾知所過矣.將改之.稽首而對曰.人誰無過.過而能改.善莫大焉.詩曰.
  7. 靡不有初.鮮克有終.夫如是.則能補過者鮮矣.君能有終.則社稷之固也.豈惟群臣賴之.又曰.袞職有闕.惟仲山甫補之.能補過也.君能補過.袞不廢矣.
  8. 猶不改.宣子驟諫.公患之.使鉏麑賊之.晨往.寢門闢矣.盛服將朝.尚早.坐而假寐.麑退.歎而言曰.不忘恭敬.民之主也.賊民之主.不忠.棄君之命.不信.有一於此.不如死也.觸槐而死.
  9. 秋.九月.晉侯飲趙盾酒.伏甲將攻之.其右提彌明知之.趨登曰.臣侍君宴.過三爵.非禮也.遂扶以下.公嗾夫獒焉.明搏而殺之.盾曰.棄人用犬.雖猛何為.鬥且出.提彌明死之.
  10. 初.宣子田於首山.舍于翳桑.見靈輒餓.問其病.曰.不食三日矣.食之.舍其半.問之.曰.宦三年矣.未知母之存否.今近焉.請以遺之.使盡之.而為之簞食與肉.寘諸橐以與之.既而與為公介.倒戟以禦公徒.而免之.問何故.對曰.翳桑之餓人也.問其名居.不告而退.遂自亡也.
  11. 乙丑.趙穿攻靈公於桃園.宣子未出山而復.大史書曰.趙盾弒其君.以示於朝.宣子曰.不然.對曰.子為正卿.亡不越竟.反不討賊.非子而誰.宣子曰.嗚呼.我之懷矣.自詒伊慼.其我之謂矣.
  12. 孔子曰.董狐.古之良史也.書法不隱.趙宣子.古之良大夫也.為法受惡.惜也.越竟乃免.
  13. 宣子使趙穿逆公子黑臀于周.而立之.壬申.朝于武宮.
  14. 初.麗姬之亂.詛無畜群公子.自是晉無公族.及成公即位.乃宦卿之適子.而為之田.以為公族.又宦其餘子.亦為餘子.其庶子為公行.晉於是有公族.餘子.公行.趙盾請以括為公族.曰.君姬氏之愛子也.微君姬氏.則臣狄人也.公許之.
  15. 冬.趙盾為旄車之族.使屏季以其故族為公族大夫.
  1. In the 2d month of this year, Gongzi Guisheng of Zheng received orders from Chu to invade Song. Hua Yuan and Yue Lü of Song met him; and on Renzi of the 2d month they fought at Daji. when the army of Song received a disgraceful defeat, Hua Yuan being made prisoner, and Yue Lü captured. [The army of Zheng also took] 460 chariots of war, 250 men, and the left ears of 100. Kuang Jiao engaged a man of Zheng, who jumped into a well, from which the other brought him out with the end of his spear,—[only] to be captured by him. The superior man will say that Kuang Jiao transgressed the rule of war, and was disobedient to orders, deserving to be taken. What is called the rule of war is to be having ever in the ears that in war there should be the display of boldness and intrepidity. To slay one's enemy is boldness, and to show the utmost boldness is intrepidity; and he who does otherwise deserves death.
  2. When the battle was impending, Hua Yuan slaughtered sheep to feed the soldiers, and did not give any to Yang Zhen, his charioteer. When the battle came on, Zhen said, "In the matter of the sheep yesterday, you were the master; in the business of today, I am the master." With this he drove with him into the army of Zheng, which caused the defeat. The superior man will say that Yang Zhen did very wrong. For his private resentment he brought defeat on his State, and destruction on [many of] the people. No crime could deserve greater punishment. May we not regard the words of the ode, about "people without conscience (Shi, II. vii., ode IX. 4)," as applicable to Yang Zhen? He occasioned the death of many to gratify his own feeling.
  3. The people of Song ransomed Hua Yuan from Zheng with 100 chariots of war and 400 piebald horses. When the half of them had been sent, he made his escape back to Song; and when he arrived at the capital, he stood outside the gate, and announced himself before he entered. When he saw Shuzang [The designation of Yang Zhen], he said to him, "It was the horses that did so;" but the other replied, "It was not the horses; it was myself." Having given this answer, he fled to Lu.
  4. Song was repairing the wall of its capital, and Yuan had the superintendence of the work. As he was going a round of inspection, the builders sang, [as he passed], "With goggle eyes and belly vast, The buff-coats left, he's back at last. The whiskers long, the whiskers long, Are here, but not the buff-coats strong." Yuan made [one of] them ride with him in his carriage, and said to him, "Bulls still have skins; rhinoceroses and wild bulls still are many. The throwing away the buff-coats was not such a great thing." The workman said, "There may be the skins, but what about the red varnish for them?" Hua Yuan said, "Go away. Those men have many mouths, and I am alone."
  5. The army of Qin invaded Jin, in return for the attack of Chong [P.13 of last year], and besieged Jiao. In summer, Zhao Dun of Jin relieved Jiao; and then, going on from Yindi, he proceeded, along with the armies of [several] States, to make an incursion into Zheng, in order to repay the action at Daji. Dou Jiao of Chu [came to] relieve Zheng, saying, "Can we wish to get the adherence of the States, and shrink from the difficulties in the way of doing so?" He halted therefore in Zheng to wait for the army of Jin. Zhao Dun said, 'Jiao's clan is so strong in Chu, that it is likely to come to ruin. Let us for a time [give way, and] increase its malady." He accordingly withdrew before it.
  6. Duke Ling of Jin conducted himself in a way unbecoming a ruler. He levied heavy exactions, to supply him with means for the carving of his walls, and shot at people from the top of a tower to see how they tried to avoid his pellets. Because his cook had not done some bears' paws thoroughly, he put him to death, and made some of his women carry his body past the court in a basket. Zhao Dun and Shi Ji [Hui, of whose return from Qin we have an account in the Zhuan after VI. xiii. 2] saw the man's hands, [appearing through the basket], and asked about the matter, which caused them grief. [Dun] was about to go and remonstrate with the duke, when Shi Ji said to him, "If you remonstrate and are not attended to, no one can come after you. Let me go first; and if my remonstrance does not prevail, you can come after." Accordingly, Hui entered the palace, and advanced, through the first three divisions of it, to the open court before the hall, before he was seen by the duke, who then said, "I know my errors, and will change them." Hui bowed his head to the ground, and replied, "Who is without errors? But there can be no greater excellence than for a man to reform and put them away. There are the words of the ode (Shi, III. iii. ode I. 1.),
  7. 'All have their [good] beginnings, But few are able to carry them out to the end.' From them we see that few are able to mend their errors. If your lordship can carry out your purpose to the end, the stability of the altars will be made sure, and not your ministers only will have reliance on you. Another ode (Shi, III. i. ode VI. 6) says, 'The defects in the king's duties Only Zhong Shanfu can repair.' [showing how that minister] could mend the errors of the king. If your lordship can repair your faults, your robe will never cease to be worn."
  8. Notwithstanding this interview, the marquis made no change in his conduct, and [Zhao] Xuan made repeated remonstrances, till the marquis was so vexed that he employed Ch'u Ni to kill him. This Ni went to Xuan's house very early in the morning, but the door of the bedchamber was open, and there was the minister in all his robes ready to go to court. It being too early to set out, he was sitting in a sort of half sleep. Ni retired, and said, with a sigh, "Thus mindful of the reverence due to his prince, he is indeed the people's lord. To murder the people's lord would be disloyalty, and to cast away from me the marquis's command will be unfaithfulness. With this alternative, before me, I had better die;" and with these words he dashed his head against a cassia tree, and died.
  9. In autumn, in the 9th month, the marquis called Zhao Dun to drink with him, having first concealed soldiers who should attack him. Dun's retainer, who occupied the place on the right in his chariot, Timi Ming, got to know the design, and rushed up to the hall, saying, "It is contrary to rule for a minister in waiting on his ruler at a feast to go beyond three cups." He then supported his master down the steps. The marquis urged on an immense dog which he had after them, but Ming smote the brute and killed him. "He leaves men, and uses dogs!" said Dun. "Fierce as the creature was, what could it do?" [In the meantime, the soldiers who were concealed made their appearance, but] Dun fought his way out, Timi Ming dying for him.
  10. 'Before this, once when Xuan was hunting on mount Shou, he rested under a shady mulberry tree, and noticed one, Ling Zhe, lying near in a famishing condition. Xuan asked what was the matter with him, and he said that he had not eaten for three days. When food was given him, however, he set the half of it apart; and when asked why he did so, he said, "I have been learning abroad for three years, and do not know whether my mother is alive or not. Here I am not far from home, and beg to be allowed to leave this for her." Zhao Dun made him eat the whole, and had a measure of rice and meat put up for him in a bag, which was given to him. This man was now present among the duke's soldiers, but, turning the head of his spear, he resisted the others, and effected the minister's escape. Dun asked him why he thus came to his help, and he replied, "I am the famishing man whom you saw at the shady mulberry tree;" but when further asked his name and village, he made no answer, but withdrew, disappearing afterwards entirely.
  11. 'On Yichou, Zhao Chuan attacked [and killed] duke Ling in the peach garden, and Xuan, who was flying from the State, but had not yet left its hills behind him, returned to the capital. The grand historiographer wrote this entry,—"Zhao Dun murdered his ruler," and showed it in the court. Xuan said to him, "It was not so;" but he replied, "You are the highest minister. Flying from the State, you did not cross its borders; since you returned, you have not punished the villain. If it was not you who murdered the marquis, who was it?" Xuan said, "Ah! the words (? Shi, I. iii. ode VIII. 1), The object of my anxiety Has brought on me this sorrow,' are applicable to me."
  12. Confucius said "Dong Hu was a good historiographer of old time:—his rule for writing was not to conceal. Zhao Xuan was a good great officer of old time:—in accordance with that law he accepted the charge of such wickedness. Alas! if he had crossed the border, he would have escaped it."
  13. Xuan then sent Zhao Chuan to Zhou to meet duke [Wen's] son Heitun, whom he raised to the marquisate. On Renshen, Heitun presented himself in the temple of duke Wu [the first marquis of Jin].'
  14. At the time of the troubles occasioned by Li Ji [See the Zhuan on V.iv. 8, et al.], an oath was taken [in Jin] that they would not maintain in the State any of the sons of their marquises; and from that time they had no families in it which were branches of the ruling house. When duke Cheng [The above Heitun], however, succeeded to the State, he gave offices to the eldest sons by their wives of the high ministers, and assigned them lands, so that they should form the branch-families of his House. He gave offices also to the other sons of the ministers by the same mothers, and recognized them by that designation [as the Heads of their families]. Their sons by concubines were made leaders of the duke's columns [of chariots]. Thus Jin came to have ducal families, other sons, and leaders of the duke's columns. Zhao Dun begged that [his half-brother] Kuo might be made [Head of] their branch of the ducal families, saying, "He was the loved son of our ruler's (duke Wen's) daughter, and but for her I should have been a Di [See the Zhuan at the commencement of V. xxiv.]." The duke granted his request. 
  15. In winter, Dun declared himself head of the flags-men of the chariots, and caused Ji of Ping [The above Kuo], to whom he surrendered all his old adherents, to be made the great officer of their one among the ducal families.]