XII. Twelfth year.





 XII. Twelfth year.
1. In the duke's twelfth year, in spring, there was the burial of duke Ling of Chen.
2. The viscount of Chu laid siege to [the capital of] Zheng.
3. In summer, in the sixth month, on Yimao, Xun Linfu of Jin led a force, and fought with the viscount of Chu at Bi, when the army of Jin was disgracefully defeated.
4. It was autumn, the seventh month.
5. In winter, in the twelfth month, on Wuyin, the viscount of Chu extinguished Xiao.
6. An officer of Jin, one of Song, one of Wey, and one of Cao, made a covenant together at Qingqiu.
7. An army of Song invaded Chen, [but] a body of men from Wey relieved it.
春.楚子圍鄭.旬有七日.鄭人卜行成不吉.卜臨于大宮.且巷出車.吉.國人大臨.守陴者皆哭.楚子退師.鄭人脩城.進復圍之.三月.克之.  In spring, the viscount of Chu had held the capital of Zheng in siege for 17 days, when the people divined whether it would be well for them to accept conditions of peace, but the answer was not favourable. They then divined whether they should weep in the grand temple, and bring forth their chariots into the streets [i.e., probably, to be ready for removing where Chu might direct]; and the reply was favourable. The people of the city then made a great weeping, and the keepers of the parapets all cried aloud, so that the viscount of Chu withdrew his men, till the people repaired the wall. He then advanced and renewed the siege. when the place was reduced at the end of three months. 
 入自皇門.至于逵路.鄭伯肉袒牽羊以逆.曰.孤不天.不能事君.使君懷怒.以及敝邑.孤之罪也.敢不唯命是聽.其俘諸江南.以實海濱.亦唯命.其翦以賜諸侯.使臣妾之.亦唯命.若惠顧前好.徼福於厲.宣.桓.武.不泯其社稷.使改事君.夷於九縣.君之惠也.孤之願也.非所敢望也.敢布腹心.君實圖之.  He entered the city by the Huang gate, and proceeded to the principal street, where he was met by the earl of Zheng, with his flesh exposed, and leading a sheep. "Uncared for by Heaven," said the earl, "I could not serve your lordship, and aroused your anger, till it has been discharged upon my city. The offence is all mine; and I dare do nothing now but wait for your commands. If you carry us away to the south of the Jiang, to occupy the land by the shores of the sea, be it so. If you take the State and give it to some other as its ruler, to whom I shall be as in the position of a handmaid, be it so. If you kindly regard former relations of friendship between our States, and to obtain blessing from [the kings] Li and Xuan, and from [the dukes] Huan and Wu, you do not extinguish our altars, so that I may change my course, and serve your lordship equally with the governors of the nine [new] districts [which you have established], that will be your kindness, and it is my desire, but it is what I do not dare to hope for. I have presumed to disclose to you all my heart; your lordship will take your measures accordingly.'
 左右曰.不可許也.得國無赦.王曰.其君能下人.必能信用其民矣.庸可幾乎.退三十里.而許之平.潘尪入盟.子良出質.  His attendants urged the viscount not to grant [the earl's request], urging that, having got the State, he ought not to forgive him; but the king replied, "Since the ruler of Zheng can humble himself thus, he must be able to secure the faith of his people; how can I hope to obtain the State?" With this he retired 30 li, and granted peace. Pan Wang entered the city and made a covenant; and Ziliang left it to be a hostage [with Chu].'
 夏.六月.晉師救鄭.荀林父將中軍.先縠佐之.士會將上軍.郤克佐之.趙朔將下軍.欒書佐之.趙括.趙嬰齊.為中軍大夫.鞏朔.韓穿.為上軍大夫.荀首.趙同.為下軍大夫.韓厥為司馬。  In summer, in the 6th month, the armies of Jin [marched to] relieve Zheng. Xun Linfu commanded the army of the centre [In place of Xi Que], with Xian Hu as his assistant [In room of Linfu]. Shi Hui commanded the first army, with Xi Ke as his assistant [In room of Zhao Shuo]. Zhao Shuo commanded the 3d army, with Luan Shu as his assistant. Zhao Kuo and Zhao Yingqi were the great officers of the army of the centre; Gong Shuo and Han Chuan, those of the 1st army; and Xun Shou and Zhao Tong, those of the 3d. Han Jue was marshal of the host.
 及河.聞鄭既及楚平.桓子欲還.曰.無及於鄭.而勦民.焉用之.楚歸而動.不後. When they reached the He, they heard that Zheng had made peace with Chu, and Huanzi [Huan was Linfu's posthumous title] wished to return, saying, "We are too late for the relief of Zheng; what will be the use now of perilling the lives of our people? Let us wait till Chu has retired, and then make a movement [against Zheng]."
隨武子曰.善.會聞用師觀釁而動.德.刑.政.事.典禮.不易.不可敵也.不為是征.楚軍討鄭.怒其貳而哀其卑.叛而伐之.服而舍之.德刑成矣.伐叛.刑也.柔服.德也.二者立矣. Wuzi of Sui (Shi Hui) approved of this view, and said, "According to what I have heard, military enterprizes should be undertaken only when there is an opportunity of prosecuting them with advantage. An enemy who cultivates, without changing, kindness in his virtue, justice in his punishments, the ordering of his government, the right regulation of different affairs, and the statutes and rules of his State, is not to be contended with; it is not against such an one that we conduct punitive expeditions. Now when the army of Chu punished Zheng, there was anger because of its double dealing, and compassion when the earl humbled himself. When it revolted from him, [the viscount] invaded it. When it submitted, he forgave it:——his kindness and justice were established. There was the justice of punishment in the attack of revolt; there was the kindness of virtue in the gentle dealing with submission. Both these things were shown.
昔歲入陳.今茲入鄭.民不罷勞.君無怨讟.政有經矣.荊尸而舉.商農工賈.不敗其業.而卒乘輯睦.事不奸矣 [Again], last year Chu entered the capital of Chen, and this year it entered that of Zheng; but its people have not complained of the fatigue and toil, nor murmured against their ruler: —showing how well its government is ordered. [Then], throughout Chu, when its forces are called out according to its system, its travelling merchants, husbandmen, mechanics, and stationary traders, have not their several occupations injuriously interfered with, and the footmen and chariotmen act in harmony with one another: —showing how collision is avoided in its ordering of affairs.
 [Further], when Wei Ao became chief minister, he selected the best statutes of Chu. When the army is marching, the [footmen of the] right keep on either side of the chariot, and those of the left go in quest of grass and rushes. The bearers of the standards of the mao keep in advance, looking out anxiously that nothing occur for which there is not preparation. The troops in the centre are ready to act as occasion may require, while behind them is the strength of the army. The different officers move according to the signals displayed, and the ordering of the army is ready for any emergency, without special orders for it being given. Thus is Chu able to carry out its statutes.
 其君之舉也.內姓選於親.外姓選於舊.舉不失德.賞不失勞.老有加惠.旅有施舍.君子小人.物有服章.貴有常尊.賤有等威.禮不逆矣. [Lastly], When the viscount of Chu raises individuals to office, they are of the same surname with himself, chosen from among his relatives, and of other surnames, chosen from the old servants of the State. But offices are given with due respect to the necessary qualifications, and rewards are conferred according to the service performed, while at the same time additional kindness is shown to the aged. Strangers receive gifts, and enjoy various exemptions. Officers and the common people have different dresses to distinguish them. The noble have a defined standard of honour; the mean have to comport themselves according to different degrees. Thus are the rules of propriety observed in Chu.
 Now why should we enter on a struggle with a State which thus manifests kindness, carries out justice, perfects its government, times its undertakings, follows its statutes, and observes so admirably the rules of propriety? To advance when you see advance is possible, and withdraw in face of difficulties, is a good way of moving an army; to absorb weak States, and attack those that are wilfully blind, is a good rule of war. Do you for the present order your army accordingly, and follow that maxim. There are other States that are weak and wilfully blind; why must you deal with Chu, [as if it were so]? There are the words of Zhong Hui [Shu, IV. ii. 7], 'Take their States from the disorderly, deal summarily with those that are going to ruin, absorb the weak.' The Zhuo ode (Shi, IV. i. [iii.] VIII.) [also] says,
'Oh! powerful was the royal army, But he nourished it in obedience to circumstances, while the time was yet dark;—the king's object was to deal with the blind. [Again], in the Wu (She, IV. i. [i] IX.) it is said, 'Irresistible was his ardour.' If you soothe [for a time] the weak, and bring on the wilful blindness, aiming at ardour [like that of Wu], you will pursue the proper course."
彘子曰.不可.晉所以霸.師武臣力也.今失諸侯.不可謂力.有敵而不從.不可謂武.由我失霸.不如死.且成師以出.聞敵彊而退.非夫也.命有軍師.而卒以非夫.唯群子能.我弗為也.以中軍佐濟.Zhizi (Xian Hu) then said, "This counsel is not good. Jin obtained the leadership of the States by the prowess of its armies and the strength of its leaders. But now it is losing the States, and its strength cannot be spoken of. If, when the enemy is before us, we do not follow him, we cannot be said to have prowess. If we are to lose our chief place among the States, the best thing we can do is to die. Moreover, we marched out with our armies in array; if, because the enemy is strong, we retire, we shall not be men. To begin with our ruler's charge to a command in the army, and to end with not being a man:—you all may play that part, but I will not do so." Upon this with [the portion of] the army of the centre [under his command], he crossed the He.
 知莊子曰.此師殆哉.周易有之.在師之臨曰.師出以律.否臧凶.執事順成為臧.逆為否.眾散為弱.川壅為澤.有律以如己也.故曰.律否臧.且律竭也.盈而以竭.夭且不整.所以凶也.不行謂之臨.有帥而不從.臨孰甚焉.此之謂矣.果遇必敗.彘子尸之.雖免而歸.必有大咎. Zhuangzi of Zhi (Xun Shou) said, "This army is in great peril. The case is that indicated in the change of the diagram Shi (師) into Lin (臨). (On Shi) it is said, 'A host must be led forth according to the rules of service. If these be not good, there will be evil.' When the commanders all observe their proper harmony, the rules are good; if they oppose one another, they are not. [The change of ☵ into ☱ indicates] the separation of the host producing weakness; it is the stopping up of a stream so as to form a marsh. The rules of service are turned into each one's taking his own way. Hence the words,—'the rules become not good;'—they are as it were dried up. The full stream is dried up; it is stopped and cannot have its course:—consequently evil must ensue. Lin [moreover] is the name for what does not proceed. When a commander does not follow the orders of his leader, what greater want of ongoing could there be? and it is the case we now have. If we do meet the enemy we are sure to be defeated; and the calamity will be owing to Zhizi. Though he should now escape, yet, on his return to Jin, great evil will await him."
 韓獻子謂桓子曰.彘子以偏師陷.子罪大矣.子為元帥.師不用命.誰之罪也.失屬亡師.為罪已重.不如進也.事之不捷.惡有所分.與其專罪.六人同之.不猶愈乎. Han Xianzi (Han Jue) said to Huanzi, 'Zhizi with his portion of the army has committed a grave offence. But you are commander-in-chief;—whose offence is it that the generals do not obey your orders? You have lost our subject State (Zheng); and if you lose that army, your offence will indeed be heavy;—you had better advance. If the affair do not prove successful, there will be others to share the blame. Will it not be better for you to bear the blame as one of six than to bear it alone?"
 師遂濟.楚子北師次於郔.沈尹將中軍.子重將左.子反將右.將飲馬於河而歸.聞晉師既濟.王欲還.嬖人伍參欲戰.令尹孫叔敖弗欲.曰.昔歲入陳.今茲入鄭.不無事矣.戰而不捷.參之肉.其足食乎.參曰.若事之捷.孫叔為無謀矣.不捷.參之肉.將在晉軍.可得食乎. The whole army then crossed the He. The viscount of Chu was halting, with his army looking northwards, at Yan. The governor of Shen commanded the centre; Zichong, the left; and Zifan, the right. The viscount meant to water their horses at the He, and then return to Chu. When he heard that the army of Jin had crossed, he wanted to withdraw before it; but his favourite, Wu Can, wished to fight. Sunshu Ao, the chief minister of Chu, did not wish [to fight], and said, "Last year we entered Chen, and this year we have entered Zheng;—it cannot be said that we have accomplished nothing. If we fight and do not succeed, will the eating Can's flesh be sufficient to atone for the result?" Can replied, "If the battle be gained, you will be proved to have been incapable of planning. If it be lost, my flesh will be in the army of Jin, and you will not get it to eat."
令尹南轅反旆.伍參言於王曰.晉之從政者新.未能行令.其佐先縠.剛愎不仁.未肯用命.其三帥者.專行不獲.聽而無上.眾誰適從.此行也.晉師必敗.且君而逃臣.若社稷何.王病之.告令尹.改乘轅而北之.次于管以待之.晉師在敖鄗之間. The chief minister then turned his chariot to the south, and ordered the great standard to be carried back. But Wu Can said to the king, "Jin's chief minister is new, and cannot make his commands obeyed. His assistant commander, Xian Hu, is violent and headstrong, without any benevolence, and unwilling to obey the other's commands. The generals of the three armies would each take the chief control, but not one of them can do so. In council there is no supreme Head; whom can the multitudes follow? In this expedition Jin cannot fail to be defeated. Moreover, if your majesty flee before a subject of Jin, what becomes of the honour of our altars?" The king felt powerfully these representations, and told the chief minister to change the course of the chariots, and proceed northwards. He then halted at Guan to await the army of Jin, which was between Ao and Qiao.
 鄭皇戌使如晉師曰.鄭之從楚.社稷之故也.未有貳心.楚師驟勝而驕.其師老矣.而不設備.子擊之.鄭師為承.楚師必敗.彘子曰.敗楚服鄭.於此在矣.必許之.欒武子曰.楚自克庸以來.其君無日不討國人而訓之.于民生之不易.禍至之無日.戒懼之不可以怠.在軍.無日不討軍實而申儆之.于勝之不可保.紂之百克.而卒無後.訓之以若敖.蚡冒.篳路藍縷.以啟山林.箴之曰.民生在勤.勤則不匱.不可謂驕.先大夫子犯有言曰.師直為壯.曲為老.我則不德.而徼怨于楚.我曲楚直.不可謂老.其君之戎.分為二廣.廣有一卒.卒偏之兩.右廣初駕.數及日中.左則受之.以至于昏.內官序當其夜.以待不虞.不可謂無備.子良.鄭之良也.師叔.楚之崇也.師叔入盟.子良在楚.楚鄭親矣.來勸我戰.我克則來.不克遂往.以我卜也.鄭不可從.[In the meantime], Huang Xu of Zheng came on a mission to the army of Jin, saying, "Zheng has submitted to Chu only to preserve its altars, and does not waver in its preference for your State. The army of Chu is proud with repeated victories, and weary with the length of its service. Nor does it make preparations for an engagement. If you attack it, the army of Zheng will second you; and Chu is sure to be defeated." Zhizi said, "The defeat of Chu, and the securing the adherence of Zheng, both depend on this action. We must agree to the envoy's proposal." Luan Wuzi (Luan Shu), however, urged," Since the time when Chu subdued Yong [See VI.xvi.6], its ruler has let no day pass without training and instructing his people, saying, 'Ah! the people's welfare is not easily secured. Calamity may come without a day's warning. You must be cautious and apprehensive, never giving way to idleness.' In the army [also], he has not been a day without looking after the weapons, and admonishing the men, saying, 'Ah! victory cannot be made sure of. There was Zhou, who, after a hundred conquests, yet left none to succeed him.' He has also inculcated on them the examples of Ruo'ao and Fenmao, who laboured in wooden carts and tattered hempen clothes to bring the hills and forests under cultivation. He made this proverb for them also, 'People's weal depends on diligence; with diligence there is no want.' His army cannot be said to be elated. A former great officer [of our State], Zifan, said, 'When an army has right on its side, it is strong; when the expedition is wrong, the army is weary and weak.' In this case we cannot plead our virtue, but are bent on a quarrel with Chu. We are in the wrong, and Chu is in the right;—its army cannot be said to be weary and weak. Its ruler's own chariots are divided into two bodies of 15 each. To each of them are attached 100 men, and an additional complement of 25 men. The body on the right is harnessed early, and kept on duty till mid-day, when that on the left takes its place till dusk. The officers in immediate attendance on the ruler keep watch by turns during the night. Thus provision is made against any surprise, and the army cannot be said to be without preparation. Ziliang is the best man of Zheng and Shishu [Pan Wang] is highly honoured in Chu. Shishu entered [the capital of Zheng] and made a covenant; and Ziliang is [a hostage] with Chu. Chu and Zheng are in friendly relations; and Zheng advises us to fight! If we conquer, it will come to us; if we do not conquer, it will draw off. According as I should divine, the counsel of Zheng is not to be followed."
趙括.趙同.曰.率師以來.唯敵是求.克敵得屬.又何俟.必從彘子.知季曰.原屏.咎之徒也.趙莊子曰.欒伯.善哉.實其言.必長晉國. Zhao Kuo and Zhao Tong said, "We have led our host thus far, seeking for the enemy. We have to conquer the enemy, and recover our subject State;—what more do we wait for? We must follow Zhizi.'
'Ji of Zhi [Zhuangzi; Xun Shou] said, "Yuan [Zhao Tong] and Ping [Zhao Kuo are partizans of our evil counsellor [Zhizi]." Zhao Zhuangzi [Chao Shuo] said, "Luan Bo [Wuzi; Luan Shu] has spoken well! Let him make his words good, and he will take the chief command in Jin."
 楚少宰如晉師.曰.寡君少遭閔凶.不能文.聞二先君之出入此行也.將鄭是訓定.豈敢求罪于晉.二三子無淹久.隨季對曰.昔平王命我先君文侯曰.與鄭夾輔周室.毋廢王命.今鄭不率.寡君使群臣問諸鄭.豈敢辱候人.敢拜君命之辱.彘子以為諂.使趙括從而更之曰.行人失辭.寡君使群臣遷大國之跡於鄭.曰.無辟敵.群臣無所逃命. [After these discordant counsels], the sub-administrator of Chu went to the army of Jin, and said, 'Our ruler, when young, met with sorrowful bereavement, and was not able to cultivate the accomplishments of learning. But he has heard that his two predecessors [the kings Cheng and Mu] went backwards and forwards by this path. His only aim has been to instruct and settle Zheng, without seeking to give offence to Jin. You, the officers of Jin, should not remain here long." Ji of Sui (Shi Hui) replied, "Long ago king Ping gave charge to our former ruler, the marquis Wen, saying, 'Along with Zheng support the House of Zhou, and do not disregard the king's charge.' Now Zheng is showing no regard for it, and our ruler sent us to ask it the reason; we do not presume to inflict any disgrace on you who have met us. Let me acknowledge the condescension of your ruler in this message." Zhizi thought this reply was fawning, and sent Zhao Kuo to follow the envoy with a different one, saying, "Our messenger gave you a wrong reply. Our ruler sent his servants to remove from Zheng every foot-print of your great State, telling us not to evade any enemy. We will not slink away from any commands you may lay on us."
 楚子又使求成于晉.晉人許之.盟有日矣. The viscount of Chu, however, sent another message to ask for peace with Jin, which was agreed to on the part of Jin; and a day was set for a covenant.
 楚許伯御樂伯.攝叔為右.以致晉師.許伯曰.吾聞致師者.御靡旌.摩壘而還.樂伯曰.吾聞致師者.左射以菆.代御執轡.御下兩馬.掉鞅而還.攝叔曰.吾聞致師者.右入壘.折馘.執俘而還.皆行其所聞而復.晉人逐之.左右角之.樂伯左射馬而右射人.角不能進.矢一而已.麋興於前.射麋麗龜晉鮑癸當其後.使攝叔奉麋獻焉.曰.以歲之非時.獻禽之未至.敢膳諸從者.鮑癸止之曰.其左善射.其右有辭.君子也.既免. [In the meantime], Xu Bo of Chu drove Yue Bo, with She Shu on the right of the chariot, to flout and provoke the army of Jin. Xu Po said, "I have heard that when an army is flouted, the driver urges his chariot, with the flag shaking, close to the entrenchments, and then returns." Yue Bo said, "I have heard that the archer on the left discharges a strong arrow, and then takes the reins, while the charioteer descends, dusts the horses, and adjusts the martingales, and then they return." She Shu said, "I have heard that the spearman on the right enters the entrenchments, cuts off an ear, takes another man prisoner, and returns." They all three did as they had heard, and were returning, pursued by the men of Jin, who came after them like two horns, from the left, and the right. Yue Bo shot the horses on the left, and the men on the right, so that the pursuers could not advance. He had but one arrow left, when a stag rose up before the chariot, which he shot right in the hump. Bao Gui of Jin was right behind him, when he made She Shu take the stag, and present it to the pursuer, saying, "It is not the season of the year for such a thing, the time for presenting animals has not arrived, but I venture to offer this to feast your followers." Bao Gui stopped the pursuit, saying, "He on the left shoots well; he on the right speaks well;—they are superior men." So they got off. 
 晉魏錡求公族未得而怒.欲敗晉師.請致師.弗許.請使.許之.遂往請戰而還.楚潘黨逐之.及熒澤.見六麋.射一麋以顧獻.曰.子有軍事.獸人無乃不給於鮮.敢獻於從者.叔黨命去之.Wei Yi [A son of Wei Chou; see the Zhuan on V. xxvii., p. 4 and xxviii., p. 4] of Jin had asked to be appointed among the ducal clans [See the Zhuan at the end of the 2d year], and been refused. In his resentment he wished to bring on the defeat of the army, and now asked [the commander-in-chief] to allow him to flout the army [of Chu]. This was refused; but his further request to be sent with a message to it was granted; so he went, challenged Chu to battle, and was returning. Pan Dang of Chu pursued him; but when Yi had got to the marsh of Ying, he saw six stags, and shot one of them. Then turning round, he presented it to Dang, saying, "Amid the business of the army, your hunters may have failed to supply you with fresh meat, and I venture to present this for your followers." On this Shudang gave orders to leave off the pursuit.
 趙旃求卿未得.且怒於失楚之致師者.請挑戰.弗許.請召盟.許之.與魏錡皆命而往. Zhao Zhan [a son of Zhao Chuan] had asked to be made a minister [in Jin], and been refused. He was angry, moreover, at the escape of the party of Chu which had flouted the army, and begged to be allowed to go and provoke a battle. This was refused, but he was allowed to go and call Chu to a covenant. So he and Wei Yi both went to the army of Chu on their several missions.
 郤獻子曰.二憾往矣.弗備必敗.彘子曰.鄭人勸戰.弗敢從也.楚人求成.弗能好也.師無成命.多備何為.士季曰.備之善.若二子怒楚.楚人乘我.喪師無日矣.不如備之.楚之無惡.除備而盟.何損於好.若以惡來.有備不敗.且雖諸侯相見.軍衛不徹.警也. Xi Xianzi [Xi Ke] said, "These two dissatisfied spirits are gone. If we do not make preparations, we are sure to be defeated." Zhizi said, "The people of Zheng advised us to fight, and we do not dare to follow their counsel. Chu asked for peace, and we are not able to come to terms with it. There is no acknowledged authority in the army;—what can many preparations do?" Shi Ji [Shi Hui] said, "It is well to be prepared. If those two enrage Chu, and its army come suddenly upon us, we shall lose our army in no time. Our best plan is to make preparations [for a battle]. If Chu do not make an attempt upon us, we can remove our preparations, and make a covenant, without there being any injury to a good understanding. If it do make an attempt, being prepared for it, we shall not be defeated. Even in the case of an interview between two princes, they take the precaution not to dispense with a guard of troops."
 彘子不可.士季使鞏朔.韓穿.帥七覆于敖前.故上軍不敗.趙嬰齊使其徒先具舟于河.故敗而先濟. Zhizi [still] refused to agree to this proposal, and Shi Ji sent Gong Shuo and Han Chuan to place 7 ambushments in front of Ao. By this means the 1st army was saved from the defeat [which ensued]. Zhao Yingqi sent a party to prepare boats at the He; and in this way, though he shared in the defeat, he and his men were the first to cross the river.
When Pan Dang had driven away Wei Yi, Zhao Zhan came that same night to the army of Chu; and having spread his mat outside the gate of the camp, he sent his followers in. There were the two bodies of the viscount's own chariots, drawn up on the right and left. Those on the left had stood with the horses yoked from daybreak till midday; and those on the left had then been similarly harnessed until sundown. Xu Yan was charioteer to the king in the body on the right, with Yang Youji as spearman; while Peng Ming performed the same duty on the left, with Qu Dang as spearman.
 乙卯.王乘左廣.以逐趙旃.趙旃棄車而走林.屈蕩搏之.得其甲裳.晉人懼二子之怒楚師也.使軘車逆之.潘黨望其塵.使騁而告曰.晉師至矣.楚人亦懼王之入晉軍也.遂出陳.孫叔曰.進之.寧我薄人.無人薄我.詩云. On Yimao, the king at the head of the chariots of the left, drove out to pursue Zhao Zhan, who abandoned his chariot, and ran into a wood, pursued by Qu Dang, who got his buff-coat and lower garment. [Meanwhile], being afraid in the camp of Jin that the two officers would enrage the army of Chu, they had sent some large chariots to meet them. Pan Dang, seeing at a distance the dust raised by these, sent a horseman with all speed to tell the king that the army of Jin was advancing. The men of Chu, [on their side], were also afraid lest the king should enter the army of Jin, and issued from their camp in order of battle. Sun Shu said, "Let us advance. It is better that we set upon them than let them set upon us. The ode says (Shi, II. iii. ode III., 4),
元戎十乘.以先啟行.先人也.軍志曰.先人有奪人之心.薄之也.遂疾進師.車馳卒奔.乘晉軍.桓子不知所為.鼓於軍中.曰.先濟者有賞.中軍下軍爭舟.舟中之指可掬也.晉師右移.上軍未動.工尹齊.將右拒卒.以逐下軍.楚子使唐狡.與蔡鳩居.告唐惠侯.曰.不穀不德而貪.以遇大敵.不穀之罪也.然楚不克.君之羞也.敢藉君靈.以濟楚師.使潘黨率游闕四十乘.從唐侯以為左拒 .以從上軍.駒伯曰.待諸乎.隨季曰.楚師方壯.若萃於我.吾師必盡.不如收而去之.分謗生民.不亦可乎.殿其卒而退.不敗.'Ten large war chariots Led the van;'—the object was to be beforehand with the enemy. The 'Art of War' [also] says, 'Anticipate your enemy, and you take away his heart.' Let us press on them." Accordingly he hurried on the army. The carriages dashed along, and the footmen seemed to fly; and so they fell on the army of Jin. Huanzi did not know what he was doing, but ordered the drums to be beaten in the army, crying out, "A reward to those who first recross the river!" The army of the centre and the 3d army struggled for the boats, till the fingers [of those trying to get in, and that were cut off by those who had already got possession] could be taken up with both hands at once. The other armies moved to the right of the 1st, which alone held its place without moving. Qi, minister of Works [in Chu], led the troops which had occupied the left front to pursue the 3d army [At the same time], the viscount sent Tang Jiao and Cai Jiuju with a message to the marquis Hui of Tang, saying, "All unworthy I am, and in my ambitious desires I have encountered a great enemy. I acknowledge my offence; but if Chu do not conquer, it will be your lordship's disgrace. I venture to depend on your powerful influence to complete the victory of my army." While sending this message, he ordered Pan Dang, with 40 of the chariots of reserve, to follow the marquis of Tang, and to act on the left by following the 1st army [of Jin]. Ju Bo, (Xi Ke) said, "Shall we await their onset?" Ji of Sui replied, "The army of Chu is in the flush of its might. If it now collect around us, we are sure to be destroyed. Our best plan is to gather in our troops, and retreat. We shall share the reproach of the other armies, but we shall save the lives of the people." He then placed his own troops in the rear of the retreating forces, and retired without being defeated.
王見右廣.將從之乘.屈蕩尸之曰.君以此始.亦必以終.自是楚之乘.廣先左.The king, seeing his own chariots of the right, wished to continue the pursuit in one of them; but Qu Dang stopped him, saying, "You began with this, and you must end with this." From this time in Chu the chariots of the left got the precedence.
晉人或以廣隊.不能進.楚人惎之脫扃.少進.馬還.又惎之拔旆投衡.乃出.顧曰.吾不如大國之數奔也.[In the flight], a chariot belonging to Jin sank in a rut, and could not proceed. A man of Chu told its occupant to take out the frame for weapons. After this, it advanced a little, and then the horses wanted to turn. The same man advised to take out the large flag-staff, and lay it crosswise. When this was done, the carriage got out of the hole, when its occupant turned round and said to his helper, "We are not so accustomed to fly as the soldiers of your great State!"
趙旃以其良馬二.濟其兄與叔父.以他馬反.遇敵不能去.棄車而走林.逢大夫與其二子乘.謂其二子無顧.顧曰.趙傁在後.怒之.使下.指木曰.尸女於是.授趙旃綏以免.明日以表尸之.皆重獲在木下.Zhao Zhan gave his two best horses to assist his elder brother and his uncle, and was going back with the others, when he met the enemy, and was unable to escape them. He abandoned his chariot therefore, and ran into a wood. The great officer Feng was driving past with his two sons, and [catching sight of Zhan], he told them not to look round. They did so, however, and said, "The old great officer Zhao is behind us." He was angry with them, and made them dismount, pointing to a tree, and saying, "Let me find your bodies there." He then gave the reins to Zhao Zhan, who thus made his escape. The other, next day, found his sons' bodies at the spot which he had marked.
楚熊負羈囚知罃.知莊子以其族反之.廚武子御.下軍之士多從之.每射.抽矢菆.納諸廚子之房.廚子怒曰.非子之求.而蒲之愛.董澤之蒲.可勝既乎.知季曰.不以人子.吾子其可得乎.吾不可以苟射故也.射連尹襄老.獲之.遂載其尸.射公子穀臣.囚之.以二者還.及昏.楚師軍於邲.晉之餘師不能軍.宵濟.亦終夜有聲. Xiong Fuji of Chu took Ying of Zhi prisoner; and when [Ying's father], Zhuangzi knew it, he returned to the battle-field with the soldiers of his own clan, Wuzi of Chu [Wei Yi] acting as his charioteer, and many soldiers of the 3d army following him. Whenever he drew out an arrow, though it seemed to be strong, he placed it in the quiver of Wuzi, till the latter was angry, and said, "Are you not looking for your son? And do you grudge your arrows? Will it be possible to exhaust the willows of the Dong marsh?" Zhuangzi replied, "If I do not get some one's son, shall I be able to recover mine? I must not shoot an arrow that I cannot be sure of." He then shot the Lianyin, Xiang Lao, killed him, and took the body into the carriage. Another arrow hit the Gongzi Guchen, whom he made prisoner; and these two trophies obtained, he returned to the army of Jin. When it was dusk, the army of Chu encamped in Bi, while what remained of that of Jin could not encamp anywhere, but kept crossing the He all the night, the noise of its movements never ceasing.
 丙辰.楚重至於邲.遂次于衡雍.潘黨曰.君盍築武軍.而收晉尸以為京觀.臣聞克敵.必示子孫.以無忘武功.楚子曰.非爾所知也.夫文.止戈為武.武王克商.作頌曰. On Bingchen, the heavy waggons of Chu were brought to Bi, and the viscount went on to Hengyong. Pan Dang said to him, 'Why should your lordship not signalize your triumph by making a mound, and collect in it the bodies of the Jinites so as to form a grand monument? I have heard that succeessful battles should be shown to posterity, so that the prowess of them may not be forgotten." The viscount said, "You do not know what you are talking about. The character for 'prowess' is formed by those for 'to stay' and 'a spear' (武=止 and 戈). When king Wu had subdued Shang, he made the ode, which says (Shi, IV.i. [i.] VIII.),
 載戢干戈.載櫜弓矢.我求懿德.肆于時夏.允王保之.又作武.其卒章曰.耆定爾功.其三曰.鋪時繹思.我徂維求定.其六曰.綏萬邦.屢豐年.夫武.禁暴.戢兵.保大.定功.安民.和眾.豐財者也.故使子孫無忘其章.今我使二國暴骨.暴矣.觀兵以威諸侯.兵不戢矣.暴而不戢.安能保大.猶有晉在.焉得定功.所違民欲猶多.民何安焉.無德而強爭諸侯.何以和眾.利人之幾.而安人之亂.以為己榮.何以豐財.武有七德.我無一焉.何以示子孫.其為先君宮.告成事而已.武非吾功也. He has called in shields and spears; He has returned to their cases bows and arrows. I will seek true virtue, And display it throughout the great land, That as king I may indeed preserve our appointment.' He also made the Wu (武; Shi, IV. i. [ii.] X.), of which the last stanza says,
'So he firmly established his merit.' The 3d stanza says (see Shi, IV. i. [iii.] X. This is not now a part of the Wu song),
'We wish to develope the purposes [of king Wen], And go to seek the settlement of the kingdom.' The 6th stanza says (Shi, IV. i. [iii.] IX.),
'He gave repose to all the States, And there ensued several years of plenty.' Thus military prowess is seen in the repression of cruelty, the calling in of the weapons of war, the preservation of the great appointment, the firm establishment of one's merit, the giving repose to the people, the harmonizing all [the States], and the enlargement of the general wealth; and king Wu took care by those stanzas that his posterity should not forget this. Now I have caused the bones of the soldiers of two States to lie bleaching on the earth:—an act of cruelty; I display my weapons of war to awe the States:—thus unable to call them in. Cruel and not calling in the weapons of war, how can I preserve the great appointment? And while still the State of Jin remains, how can I firmly establish my merit? There are many things by which I oppose what the people desire, and how can they get repose from me? Without the practice of virtue, striving by force for supremacy among the States, how can I produce harmony among them? I have made my gain from the perils of others, and found my safety in their disorders;—these things are my glory, but what enlargement of the general wealth is there in them? Not one of the seven virtues belonging to military prowess attaches to me;—what have I to display to my posterity? Let us simply make here a temple for the tablets of my predecessors, and announce to them our success. The merit of military prowess does not belong to me.
 古者明王.伐不敬.取其鯨鯢而封之.以為大戮.於是乎有京觀.以懲淫慝.今罪無所.而民皆盡忠.以死君命.又何以為京觀乎. [Moreover], in ancient times, when the intelligent kings punished disrespectful and disobedient States, they took the greatest criminals among them, and buried them under a mound as the greatest punishment. Thus it was that grand monuments were made for the warning of the unruly and bad. But now when it is not certain to whom the guilt can positively be ascribed, and the people have all with the utmost loyalty died in fulfilling their ruler's commands, what grounds are there for rearing a grand monument?"
 祀于河作先君宮.告成事而還. After this the viscount offered sacrifice at the He, reared a temple for the tablets of his predecessors, announced to them the successful accomplishment of his enterprise, and returned to Chu.
 是役也.鄭石制.實入楚師.將以分鄭.而立公子魚臣.辛未.鄭殺僕叔及子服.君子曰.史佚所謂毋怙亂者.謂是類也.詩曰.亂離瘼矣.爰其適歸.歸於怙亂者也夫. At this time, Shi Zhi of Zheng entered the army of Chu, and proposed to divide Zheng into two States, and appoint the Gongzi Yuchen over one of them. On Xinwei, Zheng put to death Pushu (Yuchen) and Zifu (Shi Zhi). The superior man may say that what the historiographer Yi remarked about not taking advantage of people's troubles was applicable to such parties. The ode says (Shi, II. v. ode X. 2),
'In such distress of disorder and separation, Whither can I betake myself?' They betook themselves to those who would have taken advantage of the trouble and disorder!'
 鄭伯.許男.如楚. The earl of Zheng and the baron of Xu went to Chu.

'In autumn, the army of Jin returned, and Huanzi (Xun Linfu) requested that he might be put to death. The marquis was about to accede to the request, when Shi Zhenzi [A member of the Shi clan. His name was 渥濁, Wozhuo] said, "Do not do so. After the battle of Chengpu [In the 28th year of duke Xi], the army of Jin fed for 3 days on the grain [of the enemy], but there was still sorrow on the countenance of duke Wen. His attendants said to him, "On an occasion of such joy you are still sorrowful; would you be joyful in a time of sorrow?" The duke replied, "While Dechen is still alive, my sorrow cannot cease. A wild beast in the toils will still fight; how much more the chief minister of a State!" When Chu put Ziyu [Dechen] to death, the joy of the duke could then be seen by all. He said, "There is now none to embitter my peace." In fact [the death of Dechen] was a second victory to Jin, and a second defeat to Chu; and through the time of two rulers Chu could not again show itself strong. Now Heaven has, it may be, given a great warning to Jin; but if you now proceed to put to death Linfu, thereby giving a second victory to Chu, will not Jin be reduced for a long time to a state of weakness? Linfu's service of his ruler has been of this character, that, in an advance, his thought has been how to display his loyalty, and, when obliged to withdraw, his thought has been how to retrieve his errors;—he is a bulwark to the altars of Jin, and on what ground can you put him to death? His defeat is like an eclipse of the sun or moon; what injury does an eclipse do to those bodies?" On this, the marquis of Jin ordered Huanzi to resume his office.
 冬.楚子伐蕭.宋華椒以蔡人救蕭.蕭人囚熊相宜僚.及公子丙.王曰.勿殺.吾退.蕭人殺之.王怒.遂圍蕭.蕭潰.申公巫臣曰.師人多寒.王巡三軍.拊而勉之.三軍之士.皆如挾纊.遂傅於蕭.還無社與司馬卯言.號申叔展.叔展曰.有麥麴乎.曰.無.有山鞠窮乎.曰.無.河魚腹疾奈何.曰.目於眢井而拯之.若為茅絰.哭井則已. In winter the viscount of Chu invaded Xiao, which Hua Jiao of Song, with a body of men from Cai, endeavoured to relieve. The people of Xiao held as prisoners Xiongxiang Yiliao and the Gongzi Bing. The king said, "Do not put them to death, and I will retire." They put them to death, however, which enraged the king, so that he laid siege to their city; when the people dispersed. Wuchen, duke of Shen, said to the king, "Many of the soldiers are suffering from the cold;" on which the king went round all the host, comforting the soldiers and encouraging them, which made them feel as if they were clad in quilted garments. They then approached Xiao, when Xuan Wushe spoke with the marshal Mao, and asked him to call Shuzhan of Shen to him. Shuzhan said, "Have you any wheaten cakes made with leaven?" "No," said the other. "Have you any spirits made from the hill grass?" "No," was the reply again. "What then will you do when your belly is pained with the fish from the river?" asked Shuzhan. The other replied, "Look into a dry well, and save me out of it." "If you place a band of rushes on it," [said Shuzhan, "I will know it]. And when you hear the sound of weeping near the well, it will be I."
 明日.蕭潰.申叔視其井.則茅絰存焉.號而出之. Next day, the people of Xiao dispersed. Shu of Shen looked for the well, and there was the rushband at it. He then wept, and brought out [his friend] Wushe.
 晉原縠.宋華椒.衛孔達.曹人.同盟于清丘.曰.恤病討貳.於是卿不書.不實其言也.Hu of Yuan (Xian Hu), Hua Jiao of Song, Da of Wey, and an officer of Cao, covenanted together at Qingqiu, to the effect that they would compassionate States which were in distress, and punish those that were disaffected. The names of the ministers are not recorded, because they did not make their words good.
 宋為盟故.伐陳.衛人救之.孔達曰.先君有約言焉.若大國討.我則死之 In accordance with the covenant, Song invaded Chen, but the people of Wey went to its help. Kong Da said, "Our former ruler had a treaty with Chen; if the great State [of Jin] come to punish us [for helping it], I will die on account of the affair.