| IX. Ninth year.|
1. In the [duke's] ninth year, in spring, in the king's first month, the earl of Qi came to Lu, to meet the coffin of duke Wen's third daughter, and took it back with him to Qi.
2. The duke had a meeting with the marquis of Jin, the marquis of Qi, the duke of Song, the marquis of Wey, the earl of Zheng, the earl of Cao, the viscount of Ju, and the earl of Qi, when they made a covenant together in Pu.
3. The duke arrived from the meeting.
4. In the second month, duke [Xuan's] eldest daughter went to her home in Song.
5. In summer, Jisun Hangfu went to Song, to celebrate the completion of the above lady's union with the duke of Song.
6. An officer came from Jin with ladies of that State to go to the harem [of Son].
7. In autumn, in the seventh month, on Bingzi, Wuye, marquis of Qi, died.
8. The people of Jin seized and held the earl of Zheng, and Luan Shu of Jin led a force and invaded Zheng.
9. In winter, in the eleventh month, there was the burial of duke Qing of Qi.
10. The Gongzi Yingqi of Chu led a force and invaded Ju. On Gengshen the people of Ju dispersed, and the troops of Chu entered Yun.
11. A body of men from Qin and the white Di invaded Jin.
12. A body of men from Zheng laid siege to [the capital of] Xu.
13. We walled Zhongcheng.
| 傳九年．|| COMMENTARY|
| 春．杞桓公來逆叔姬之喪．請之也．杞叔姬卒．為杞故也．逆叔姬．為我也．|| In spring, the earl of Qi came thus to meet the coffin, because we had asked him to do so. The record that "Shu Ji of Qi died" is because of [the relation the lady had sustained in] Qi; this record of the earl's meeting her [coffin], is because of [the relation she had sustained to] us.|
| 為歸汶陽之田．故諸侯貳於晉．晉人懼．會於蒲．以尋馬陵之盟．季文子謂范文子曰．德則不競．尋盟何為．范文子曰．勤以撫之．寬以待之．堅疆以御之．明神以要之．柔服而伐貳．德之次也．是行也．將始會吳．吳人不至．|| Because of the restoration of the lands of Wenyang [See p. 1 of last year], all the States became disaffected to Jin. The people of Jin were afraid, and called a meeting at Pu to renew the covenant of Maling [See VII.5]. Ji Wenzi said to Fan Wenzi, "Since your virtue is not strong, of what use is the renewal of covenants?" The other replied, "By diligence in encouraging [the States], by generosity in our treatment of them, by firm strength in withstanding [our enemies], by appealing to the intelligent Spirits to bind [our agreements], by gently dealing with those who submit, and by punishing the disaffected, we exhibit an influence only second to that of virtue." At this meeting it was intended that Wu should for the first time meet [with the other States]; but no officer from Wu came to it.|
| 二月．伯姬歸于宋．|| In the second month, duke [Xuan's] eldest daughter went to her home in Song.|
| 楚人以重賂求鄭．鄭伯會楚公子成于鄧．|| The people of Chu sought by bribes to recover the adherence of Zheng, and the earl of Zheng had a meeting with the Gongzi Cheng of Chu in Deng.|
| 夏‧季文子如宋致女．復命．公享之．賦韓奕之五章．穆姜出于房．再拜曰．大夫勤辱．不忘先君．以及嗣君．施及未亡人．先君猶有望也．敢拜大夫之重勤．又賦綠衣之卒章而入．|| When Ji Wenzi returned to Lu [Song] and reported the execution of his commission, the duke entertained him, and the minister sang the 5th stanza of the Hanyi (Shi, III. iii. ode VII.). Mu Jiang [The bride's mother, the widow of duke Xuan] then came out from her chamber, and bowed twice to him, saying, "This laborious journey you undertook mindful of our late marquis, and of his son and heir, and of me, his relict:—this was what he even still would expect from you. Let me thank you for your very toilsome service." She then sang the last stanza of the Lüyi (Shi, I. iii. II.), and went in.|
| 晉人來媵．禮也．|| |
| || |
| 秋．鄭伯如晉．晉人討其貳於楚也．執諸銅鞮．欒書伐鄭．鄭人使伯蠲行成．晉人殺之．非禮也．兵交．使在其間可也．楚子重侵陳以救鄭．|| In autumn, the earl of Zheng went to Jin, the people of which, to punish him for his disaffection, and inclining to Chu [See the Zhuan after p. 4], seized him in Tongti. Luan Shu then invaded Zheng, which sent Bojuan to go and obtain peace. The people of Jin, however, put him to death, which was contrary to rule;—during hostilities messengers may go and come between the parties. Zichong of Chu made an incursion into Chen, in order to relieve Zheng.|
| 晉侯觀于軍府．見鍾儀．問之曰．南冠而縶者．誰也．有司對曰．鄭人所獻楚囚也．使稅之．召而弔之．再拜稽首．問其族．對曰．泠人也．公曰．能樂乎．對曰．先父之職官也．敢有二事．使與之琴．操南音．公曰．君王何如．對曰．非小人之所得知也．固問之．對曰．其為大子也．師保奉之．以朝于嬰齊．而夕于側也．不知其他．公語范文子．文子曰．楚囚．君子也．言稱先職．不背本也．樂操土風．不忘舊也．稱大子．抑無私也．名其二卿．尊君也．不背本．仁也．不忘舊．信也．無私．忠也．尊君．敏也．仁以接事．信以守之．忠以成之．敏以行之．事雖大必濟．君盍歸之．使合晉楚之成．公從之．重為之禮．使歸求成．|| The marquis of Jin was surveying the arsenal, when he observed Zhongyi [See the Zhuan on VII. 5], and asked about him saying, 'Who is that bound there, and wearing a southern cap?" The officer in charge said, "It is the Chu prisoner, whom the people of Zheng delivered to us." The marquis made them loose his bonds, called him, and spoke comfortingly to him. The man bowed twice before him, with his head to the ground, and the marquis asked him about his family. "We are musicians," said he, "Can you play?" "Music," said he, "was the profession of my father. Dared I learn any other?" The marquis made a lute be given to him, which he began to touch to an air of the south. He was then asked about the character of the king of Chu, but he answered that that was beyond the knowledge of a small man like himself. The marquis urging him, he replied, "When he was prince, his tutor and his guardian trained him; and in the morning he was to be seen with Yingqi, and in the evening with Ce. I do not know anything else about him."|
The duke repeated this conversation to Fan Wenzi, who said, "That prisoner of Chu is a superior man. He told you of the office of his father, showing that he is not ashamed of his origin. He played an air of his country, showing that he has not forgotten his old associations. He spoke of his king when he was prince, showing his own freedom from mercenariness. He mentioned the two ministers by name, doing honour to your lordship. His not being ashamed of his origin shows the man's virtue; his not forgetting his old associations, his good faith; his freedom from mercenariness, his loyalty; and his honouring your lordship, his intelligence. With virtue to undertake the management of affairs, good faith to keep it, and loyalty to complete it, he is sure to be competent to the successful conduct of a great business. Why should not your lordship send him back to Chu, and make him unite Jin and Chu in bonds of peace?" The marquis followed this counsel, treated Zhongyi with great ceremony, and sent him back to Chu to ask that there might be peace between it and Jin.
| 冬．十一月．楚子重自陳伐莒．圍渠丘．渠丘城惡．眾潰．奔莒．戊申．楚入渠丘．莒人囚楚公子平．楚人曰．勿殺．吾歸而俘．莒人殺之．楚師圍莒．莒城亦惡．庚申．莒潰．楚遂入鄆．莒無備故也．君子曰．恃陋而不備．罪之大者也．備豫不虞．善之大者也．莒恃其陋．而不脩城郭．浹辰之間．而楚克其三都．無備也夫．詩曰．雖有絲麻．無棄菅蒯．雖有姬姜．無棄蕉萃．凡百君子．莫不代匱．言備之不可以已也．|| 'In winter, in the 11th month, Zichong of Chu went on from Chen, and invaded Ju. He laid siege to Quqiu, the walls of which were so badly built, that the people all dispersed, and fled to Ju, the troops of Chu entering Quqiu on Wushen. The people of Ju made the Gongzi Ping of Chu a prisoner, and put him to death, notwithstanding that the enemy begged them not to do so, and promised, if they would spare him, to restore their captives. The army of Chu then laid siege to the city of Ju, whose walls were in the same condition as those of Quqiu; and on Gengshen the people dispersed. Chu went on to enter Yun, for Ju had made no preparations against an enemy. A superior man will say, "To trust to one's insignificance and make no preparations against danger is the greatest of offences; while to prepare beforehand against what may not be foreseen is the greatest of excellences. Ju trusted to its insignificance, and did not repair its walls, so that in the course of twelve days, Chu subdued its three chief cities. This result was all from the want of preparation.' The ode [It is now lost] says,|
'Though you have silk and hemp, Do not throw away your grass and rushes. Though your wife be a Ji or a Jiang, Do not slight your sons of toil. All men Have their vicissitudes of want.' This shows that preparation ought never to be intermitted."
| 秦人白狄伐晉．諸侯貳故也．||A body of men from Qin and the white Di invaded Jin, because of the general disaffection of the States to Jin.|
| 鄭人圍許．示晉不急君也．是則公孫申謀之曰．我出師以圍許．為將改立君者．而紓晉使．晉必歸君．|| The people of Zheng laid siege to Xu, to show Jin that they were not urgent about their earl, [whom it was keeping a prisoner]. The plan proceeded from Gongsun Shen, who said, "If we send out a force to besiege Xu, and make as if we would appoint another ruler, taking our time to send a messenger to Jin, that State is sure to send back our ruler."|
| 城中城．書時也．||We walled Zhongcheng. It was done at the proper season.|
| 十二月．楚子使公子辰如晉．報鍾儀之使．請修好結成．|| In the 12th month, the viscount of Chu sent the Gongzi Chen to Jin, in return for the mission of Zhongyi, asking that the two States should cultivate friendship and knit the bonds of peace.|