| 1. In his eleventh year, in spring, in the king's third month, the duke arrived from Jin.|
2. The marquis of Jin sent Xi Chou to Lu on a friendly mission; and on Jichou the duke made a covenant with him.
3. In summer, Jisun Hangfu went to Jin.
4. In autumn, Shusun Qiaoru went to Qi.
5. It was winter, the tenth month.
| 傳十一年．|| COMMENTARY|
| 春．王三月．公至自晉．晉人以公為貳於楚．故止公．公請受盟．而後使歸．|| The people of Jin, thinking that the duke had been inclining to the side of Chu, detained him, till he requested that he might be permitted to make a covenant with Jin, and then they sent him home.|
| 郤犨來聘．且蒞盟．|| Xi Chou came to Lu on a friendly mission, and to make [on the part of Jin] the covenant [which the duke had requested.|
| 聲伯之母不聘．穆姜曰．吾不以妾為姒．生聲伯而出之．嫁於齊管于奚．生二子而寡．以歸聲伯．聲伯以其外弟為大夫．而嫁其外妹於施孝叔．郤犨來聘．求婦於聲伯．聲伯奪施氏婦以與之．婦人曰．鳥獸猶不失儷．子將若何．曰．吾不能死亡．婦人遂行．生二子於郤氏．郤氏亡．晉人歸之施氏．施氏逆諸河．沈其二子．婦人怒曰．已不能庇其伉儷而亡之．又不能字人之孤而殺之．將何以終．遂誓施氏．|| The mother of Shengbo [The Gongsun Yingqi; see on VI. 6] had been without [the regular ceremony of] betrothal; and Mu Jiang [Duke Xuan's wife; sister-in-law, therefore, to this lady] said, "I will not acknowledge a concubine as my sister-in-law." After the birth of Shengbo, his father [Shuxi of VII. xvii. 8] sent away the mother, who was afterwards married to Guan Yuxi of Qi. She bore him two children, and was then left a widow, when she came back with the children to Shengbo. He got his half-brother made a great officer [of Lu], and married his half-sister to Shi Xiaoshu [A descendant of duke Hui of Lu]. When Xi Chou came on his friendly mission, he applied for a wife to Shengbo, who took this half-sister from Shi Xiaoshu, and gave her to him. She said [to her husband], "Even birds and beasts do not consent to lose their mates; what do you propose to do?" He said, "I am not able to die for you." On this she went [to Jin], where she bore two children to Xi. After his death, they sent her back from Jin to [her former husband] Shi, who met her at the He, and drowned in it her two children. She was angry, and said to him, "You could not protect me when I was your wife, and let me go away from you, and now you are not able to cherish another man's orphans and have killed them;—what death do you expect to die?" She then swore that she would not live again with him.|
| 夏．季文子如晉報聘．且蒞盟也．|| Ji Wenzi went to Jin on a friendly mission in return for that of Xi Chou; and to make a covenant [on the part of Lu].|
| 周公楚惡惠襄之偪也．且與伯與爭政．不勝．怒而出．及陽樊．王使劉子復之．盟于鄄而入．三日．復出奔晉．|| Chu, duke of Zhou, disliked the pressure of [the clans descended from the kings] Hui and Xiang, and he had a contention, moreover, about the chief place in the government with Boyu. Being worsted in this, he was angry and left the court, proceeding to Yangfan. The king sent the viscount of Liu to bring him back from there, with whom [also] he made a covenant in Juan, before he would enter [the capital]. Three days afterwards, however, he again fled to Jin.|
| 秋．宣伯聘于齊．以脩前好．|| Xuanbo went on a friendly mission to Qi, to renew the former friendship between it and Lu.|
| Xi Zhi [A grandnephew of Xi Ke] had a contention with [the court of] Zhou about the lands of Hou. The king commissioned duke Kang of Liu and duke Xiang of Shan, to dispute the question with him in Jin. He urged that Wen was an old grant made to his family, and he dared not allow [any part of] it to be lost. The viscounts of Liu and Shan said, 'Formerly, when Zhou subdued Shang, it gave the various princes the territories which they should gently rule. Su Fensheng received Wen, and was minister of Crime, and his territory and that of the earl of Tan extended to the He. One of his descendants afterwards went among the Di, and when he could do nothing among them, he fled to Wey [See V.x.2].|
[By and by], King Xiang rewarded duke Wen with the gift of Wen [See the Zhuan after V. xxv.4.]. The families of Hu and Yang were the first to occupy it, and then it came to Xi. If you examine its history, it was a city held by an officer of the king;—how can Xi Zhi be allowed to have it? The marquis of Jin then insisted that Xi Zhi should not presume to contend about the place [any longer].
| 宋華元善於令尹子重．又善於欒武子．聞楚人既許晉糴茷成．而使歸復命矣．|| Hua Yuan of Song was on good terms with Zichong, the chief minister [of Chu], and also with Luan Wuzi [of Jin]. When he heard that the people of Chu had granted the peace proposed by Jin through Di Fa, and had sent that officer back to give such a report of his mission, he went this winter, first to Chu and then to Jin, to cement the good understanding of the two States.|
| 冬．華元如楚．遂如晉．合晉楚之成．秦晉為成．將會于令狐．晉侯先至焉．秦伯不肯涉河．次于王城．使史顆盟晉侯于河東．晉郤犨盟秦伯于河西．范文子曰．是盟也．何益．齊盟．所以質信也．會所信之始也．始之不從．其何質乎．秦伯歸而背晉成．|| Qin and Jin, having made peace, proposed to have a meeting at Linghu. The marquis of Jin came first to the place, but the earl of Qin was then unwilling to cross the He. He halted in Wangcheng, and made the historiographer Ke go and make a covenant with the marquis of Jin on the east of the river. Xi Chou of Jin [then went and] made a covenant with the earl on the west of it. Fan Wenzi said, "Of what use is this covenant? Two parties make a covenant to establish their good faith. But a meeting together is the first demonstration of that good faith; and if the first step be not taken to it, is it likely to be evidenced afterwards?" When the earl returned to Qin, he broke the [treaty of] peace with Jin.|