| XIII. Thirteenth year.|
1. In the [duke's] thirteenth year, in spring, the marquis of Jin sent Xi Qi to Lu, to beg the assistance of an army.
2. In the third month, the duke went to the capital.
3. In summer, in the fifth month, the duke, going on from the capital, joined the marquis of Jin, the marquis of Qi, the duke of Song, the marquis of Wey, the earl of Cao [Zheng?], an officer of Zhu, and an officer of Teng, in invading Qin.
4. Lu, earl of Cao, died in the army.
5. In autumn, in the seventh month, the duke arrived from the invasion of Qin.
6. In winter, there was the burial of duke Xuan of Cao.
| 傳十三年．|| COMMENTARY|
| 春．晉侯使郤錡來乞師．將事不敬．孟獻子曰．郤氏其亡乎．禮．身之幹也．敬．身之基也．郤子無基．且先君之嗣卿也．受命以求師．將社稷是衛．而惰棄君命也．不亡何為．|| When Xi Qi (The son of Xi Ke) came to Lu, he was not respectful in the execution of his mission. Meng Xianzi said, "This Xi will [soon] perish! Propriety is the stem of character, and respectfulness is its foundation. Xizi has not that foundation, and his ministry has come to him by inheritance. Having received a charge to ask for [the assistance of] an army, it must be for the defence of the altars [of Jin], and he carries himself rudely,—throwing away the charge of his ruler. What can happen to him but to perish [soon]?"|
| 三月．公如京師．宣伯欲賜．請先使．王以行人之禮．禮焉．孟獻子從．王以為介．而重賄之．公及諸侯朝王．遂從劉康公．成肅公．會晉侯伐秦．成子受脤(shèn)于社．不敬．劉子曰．吾聞之．民受天地之中以生．所謂命也．是以有動作禮義威儀之則．以定命也．能者養之以福．不能者敗以取禍．是故君子勤禮．小人盡力．勤禮莫如致敬．盡力莫如敦篤．敬在養神．篤在守業．國之大事．在祀與戎．祀有執膰(fán)．戎有受脤．神之大節也．今成子惰棄其命矣．其不反乎．|| When the duke was going to the capital, Xuanbo [Shusun Qiaoru], wishing to obtain gifts [from the king], begged to be sent on beforehand. The king, however, received him [only] with the ceremonies due to an envoy. Meng Xianzi [Zhongsun Mie] came on in attendance [on the duke], and the king considered him to be the duke's director for the visit, and gave him large presents. The duke and the other princes had an audience of the king, and then followed duke Kang of Liu and duke Su of Cheng, to join the marquis of Jin in the invasion of Qin. When the viscount of Cheng received the flesh of the sacrifice at the altar of the land, his manner was not respectful. The viscount of Liu said, "I have heard that men receive at birth the exact and correct principles of Heaven and Earth, and these are what is called their appointed [nature]. There are the rules of action, propriety, righteousness, and demeanour, to establish this nature. Men of ability nourish those rules so as to secure blessing, while those devoid of ability violate them so as to bring on themselves calamity. Therefore superior men diligently attend to the rules of propriety, and men in an inferior position do their best. In regard to the rules of propriety, there is nothing like using the greatest respectfulness. In doing one's best, there is nothing like being earnestly sincere. That respectfulness consists in nourishing one's spirit; that earnestness, in keeping one's duties in life. The great affairs of a State are sacrifice and war. At sacrifices [in the ancestral temple], [the officers] receive the roasted flesh; in war they receive that offered at the altar of the land:—these are the great ceremonies in worshipping the Spirits. Now the viscount of Cheng by his lazy rudeness has cast from him his proper nature;—may we suppose that he will not return from this expedition?"|
| 夏．四月．戊午．晉侯使呂相絕秦．曰．昔逮我獻公．及穆公相好．戮力同心．申之以盟誓．重之以昏姻．天禍晉國．文公如齊．惠公如秦．無祿．獻公即世．穆公不忘舊德．俾我惠公．用能奉祀于晉．又不能成大勳．而為韓之師．亦悔于厥心．用集我文公．是穆之成也．|| In summer, the marquis of Jin sent Xiang of Lü [Known as Lü Xuanzi (呂宣子), a son of Wei Yi (魏 錡), who appears in the Zhuan on the battle of Bi] to declare the end of his friendly relations with Qin in the following terms:——"In former times, our duke Xian and your duke Mu were on terms of friendship, which they cultivated with all their might and with one mind, adding to it covenants and oaths, and cementing it by the affinities of marriage. When Heaven was afflicting Jin, our duke Wen went to Qi, and duke Hui went to Qin. When, through our evil fate, duke Xian left the world, duke Mu was not unmindful of their old friendship, and assisted our duke Hui, so that he presided over the sacrifices of Jin [See the 2d Zhuan at the end of V. ix]. But he could not complete his great service to Jin, and there ensued the battle of Han [See V. xv. 13]. Afterwards, however, he repented of this, and secured the accession of our duke Wen;—this was accomplished for us by Mu.|
| 文公躬擐(huàn)甲冑．跋履山川．踰越險阻．征東之諸侯．虞夏商周之胤．而朝諸秦．則亦既報舊德矣．鄭人怒君之疆場．我文公帥諸侯及秦圍鄭．秦大夫不詢于我寡君．擅及鄭盟．諸侯疾之．將致命于秦．文公恐懼．綏靜諸侯．秦師克還無害．則是我有大造于西也．|| "Duke Wen then donned buff-coat and helmet, traversed the plains and crossed the streams, taking his way through the most dangerous defiles, and operated against the States of the east, held by descendants of Yu, Xia, Shang and Zhou, till he brought them all with him to the court of Qin:—this surely was enough to repay the old kindness [of duke Mu]. And when the people of Zheng had been angrily troubling your borders, our duke Wen led the other States and Qin, and laid siege to the capital of Zheng. Then the great officers of Qin, without consulting with our ruler, presumed to make a covenant with Zheng. The States were indignant at such conduct, and wished to risk the lives of their men against Qin. Duke Wen, however, afraid of the consequences, soothed and pacified them, so that the army of Qin effected its return, without suffering any injury. And thus we rendered the greatest service to your western State.|
| 無祿．文公即世．穆為不弔．蔑死我君．寡我襄公．迭我殽地．奸絕我好．伐我保城．殄滅我費滑．散離我兄弟．撓亂我同盟．傾覆我國家．我襄公未忘君之舊勳．而懼社稷之隕．是以有殽之師．|| Through our evil fate, duke Wen [also] left the world, and your Mu sent no message of condolence. Contemning duke Wen as dead, and slighting the youth of our duke Xiang, he assailed our territory of Yao, violated and broke off all friendship with us, attacked our city of Baocheng, cruelly extinguished our Bi, [the capital of] Hua [See V.xxxiii. 1], scattered and dispersed our brethren, broke the covenants that were between us, and would have overthrown our State. Then our duke Xiang was not unmindful of the former service which Mu had rendered [to his father]; but he was afraid lest our altars should be cast down, and there ensued the battle of Yao [See V. xxxiii. 3].|
| 猶願赦罪于穆公．穆公弗聽．而即楚謀我．天誘其衷．成王隕命．穆公是以不克逞志于我．|| "[Our Xiang], even after this, wished to seek the forgiveness of duke Mu, but the duke would not listen to him. On the contrary he applied to Chu [See the 2d Zhuan after VI. xiv. 7], planning against us. But through the influence which Heaven exerts on men's minds, king Cheng lost his life [See VI.i. 10], and duke Mu did not succeed in carrying out his hostile intentions.|
| 穆襄即世．康靈即位．康公我之自出．又欲闕翦我公室．傾覆我社稷．帥我蝥(máo)賊．以來蕩搖我邊疆．我是以有令狐之役．|| "When Mu and Xiang left this world, Kang and Ling succeeded to them. [Your] duke Kang was the son of a daughter of Jin, but he still wished to uproot and cut down our House, and to overturn our altars. He gave an army to a vile insect [The Gongzi Yong of Jin] to disturb our borders, in consequence of which we had the engagement at Linghu [See VI. vii. 5].|
| 康猶不悛．入我河曲．伐我涑川．俘我王官．翦我羈馬．我是以有河曲之戰．|| "Still persisting in his hostility, Kang entered our Hequ, invaded our Suchuan, captured our Wangguan, dismembered our Jima, in consequence of which we had the battle of Hequ [See VI. xii. 7].|
| 東道之不通．則是康公絕我好也．及君之嗣也．我君景公．引領西望曰．庶撫我乎．君亦不惠稱盟．利吾有狄難．入我河縣．焚我箕郜．芟夷我農功．虔劉我邊陲．我是以有輔氏之聚．君亦悔禍之延．而欲徼福于先君獻穆．使伯車來命我景公曰．吾與女同好棄惡．復脩舊德．以追念前勳．言誓未就．景公即世．我寡君是以有令狐之會．君又不祥．背棄盟誓．|| "That the way eastward was thus rendered impracticable to Qin was through duke Kang's own rejection of our friendship. When your lordship succeeded to him, our ruler, duke Jing, looked to the west with outstretched neck, saying, 'Now, perhaps, Qin will have compassion on us!' But, unkindly, you would not respond to us with a covenant, and took advantage of our difficulties with the Di. You entered our Hexian, burned our Ji and Gao, cut down and destroyed the labours of our husbandmen, and killed the people of our borders, so that we had the gathering at Fushi [See on VII. xv. 4]. Then you also were sorry for the long continuance of our miserable hostilities; and wishing to obtain the blessing of the former rulers, Xian and Mu, you sent Boju with your commands to our duke Jing, saying that you and we should be friendly together, put away all evil feelings, and again cultivate the old kindliness, thinking of the services that had formerly passed between our rulers. Before an oath in accordance with these words could be taken, duke Jing left the world, and I [寡君, here, and elsewhere in the speech, should be 寡人] went to have a meeting with you at Linghu, when with an unhappy purpose you turned back, and rejected the covenant and oath [See the last Zhuan after XI. 5].|
| 白狄及君同州．君之仇讎(chóu)．而我之昏姻也．君來賜命曰．吾與女伐狄．寡君不敢顧昏姻．畏君之威．而受命于吏．君有二心於狄．曰．晉將伐女．狄應且憎．是用告我．楚人惡君之二三其德也．亦來告我曰．秦背令狐之盟．而來求盟于我．昭告昊天上帝．秦三公．楚三王．曰．余雖與晉出入．余唯利是視．不穀惡其無成德．是用宣之．以懲不壹．諸侯備聞此言．斯是用痛心疾首．暱就寡人．寡人帥以聽命．唯好是求．君若惠顧諸侯．矜哀寡人．而賜之盟．則寡人之願也．其承寧諸侯以退．豈敢徼亂．君若不施大惠．寡人不佞．其不能諸侯退矣．敢盡布之執事．俾執事實圖利之．|| "The White Di and you are in the same province [Yongzhou]. They are your enemies, while between us and them there have been intermarriages. You sent your commands, saying that you and we should invade the Di. I then dared not consider our affinities with them, but, in awe of your majesty, I received the command from your messenger. You, however, with a double heart, represented to the Di that Jin was going to attack them; and though they responded to you, they came with indignation, and told us of your conduct. The people of Chu, hating your double-dealing, also came and told me saying, "Qin is violating the covenant of Linghu, and came to ask a covenant with us, plainly appealing to God in the great heavens, to the three dukes of Qin and the three kings of Chu, that notwithstanding all its communications with Jin, its only view had been to its own advantage. I, [the king of Chu], hating such want of virtue, declare it to you, that such insincerity may be punished." The princes of the States, having heard these things, are pained by them in heart and head, and are come to me. I will lead them to hear your commands, seeking only your friendship. If you will show a kind consideration for them, and, in compassion for me grant me a covenant, this is what I desire. I will then receive your wishes, quiet all the princes, and retire;—how should I dare to seek the confusion [of strife]? If you will not bestow on us your great kindness, I am a man of plain speech;—I cannot withdraw with the princes. I have presumed to declare all my mind to your servants, that they may consider what it will be best to do."|
|Because duke Huan of Qin, after making the covenant of Linghu with duke Li of Jin, proceeded to call on the Di and Chu, wishing to persuade them to invade Jin, therefore the States rendered their friendly aid to the latter. Luan Shu commanded Jin's army of the centre, with Xun Geng under him; Shi Xie the 1st army, with Xi Qi under him; Han Jue the 3d army, with Xun Ying under him; Zhao Zhan the new army, with Xi Zhi under him. Xi Yi [Different from the Xi Qi above] drove the chariot of the commander-in-chief, and Luan Zhen was spearman on the right. Meng Xianzi said, "The generals of Jin and its chariot-men are harmonious; —this army will accomplish a great success."|
| 五月．丁亥．晉師以諸侯之師．及秦師戰于麻隧．秦師敗績．獲秦成差．及不更女父．曹宣公卒于師．師遂濟涇．及侯麗而還．迓晉侯于新楚．成肅公卒于瑕．||In the 5th month, on Dinghai, the army of Jin, with the armies of the States, fought with the army of Qin at Masui. The army of Qin received a great defeat. Cheng Chai of Qin was taken, and the Bugeng, Rufu. Duke Xuan of Cao died in the army, which then crossed the Jing, proceeded to Houli, and returned, meeting the marquis of Jin at Xinchu. Duke Su of Cheng [See the last Zhuan] died in Xia.|
| 六月．丁卯．夜．鄭公子班自訾求入于大宮．不能．殺子印．子羽．反軍于市．己巳．子駟帥國人盟于大宮．遂從而盡焚之．殺子如．子駹．孫叔．孫知．|| In the 6th month, on Dingmao, the Gongzi Ban [See on X.3.] of Zheng, [coming] from Zi, sought by night to enter the grand temple, and when he was not able to do so, killed Ziyin and Ziyu [sons of duke Mu]. He then returned, and took up a position with his followers in the market place. On Jisi, Zisi [another son of duke Mu] led the people to the temple and made a covenant with them, and afterwards burned the market place, killing Ziru [Ban], [his brother] Zimang, [his son] Sunshu, and [Zimang's son], Sunzhi.]|
| 曹人使公子負芻守．使公子欣時逆曹伯之喪．秋．負芻殺其大子而自立也．諸侯乃請討之．晉人以其役之勞．請俟他年．|| The people of Cao appointed the earl's son, Fuchu, to take charge [of the capital], and another son, Xinshi, to meet the coffin of the earl. In autumn, Fuchu put to death the earl's eldest son, and made himself earl. The princes begged to go and punish him, but Jin, in consequence of the fatigues of the service [in which they had been engaged], asked them to wait till next year.|
| 冬．葬曹宣公．既葬．子臧將亡．國人皆將從之．成公乃懼．告罪．且請焉．乃反而致其邑．|| In winter, after the burial of duke Xuan, Zizang [the above Xinshi] was going to leave the State, and the people all wished to follow him. Duke Cheng (Fuchu) became afraid, acknowledged his offence, and begged [Zizang to remain]. The latter returned accordingly [to the capital], and surrendered his city [to the duke].|
The speech of Lü Xiang in this narrative is considered one of the masterpieces of Zuo Qiuming. And so it is, as regards the composition; but it is sadly disfigured by its misrepresentations and falsehoods. As between Jin and Qin, each State had its injuries from the other of which to complain; but the balance of right would have inclined rather on the side of Qin. The battle of Masui, however, was very important, and kept Qin shut up in the west for a long time afterwards.