- 六月．丙寅朔．日有食之．晉侯使欒黶(yǎn 黑痣)來乞師．
| XVI. Sixteenth year.|
1. In the [duke's] sixteenth year, in spring, in the king's first month, it rained, and the trees became encrusted with ice.
2. In summer, in the fourth month, on Xinwei, the viscount of Teng died.
3. Duke [Mu's] son, Xi, of Zheng led a force, and made an inroad into Song.
4. In the sixth month, on Bingyin, the first day of the moon, the sun was eclipsed.
5. The marquis of Jin sent Luan Yan to Lu, to ask the assistance of an army.
6. On Jiawu, the last day of the moon, the marquis of Jin fought with the viscount of Chu and the earl of Zheng at Yanling, when the viscount of Chu and the army of Zheng received a great defeat.
7. Chu put to death its great officer, the Gongzi Ce.
8. In autumn, the duke [went to have] a meeting with the marquis of Jin, the marquis of Qi, the marquis of Wey, Hua Yuan of Song, and an officer of Zhu, in Shasui; [but the marquis of Jin] would not see him.
9. The duke arrived from the meeting.
10. The duke went to join the viscount of Yin, the marquis of Jin, Guo Zuo of Qi, and an officer of Zhu, in invading Zheng.
11. The earl of Cao returned from the capital.
12. In the ninth month, the people of Jin seized Jisun Hangfu, and lodged him in Tiaoqiu.
13. In winter, in the tenth month, on Yihai, Shusun Qiaoru fled to Qi.
14. In the twelfth month, on Yichou, Jisun Hangfu and Xi Chou of Jin made a covenant in Hu.
15. The duke arrived from the meeting.
16. On Yiyou we put to death the duke's half-brother, Yan.
| 傳十六年．|| COMMENTARY|
| 春．楚子自武城使公子成．以汝陰之田．求成于鄭．鄭叛晉．子駟從楚子盟于武城．|| In spring, the viscount of Chu sent the Gongzi Cheng from Wucheng to seek for peace with Zheng by the offer of the lands of Ruyin. [On this], Zheng revolted from Jin, and Zisi went to the viscount, and made a covenant in Wucheng.|
| 夏．四月．滕文公卒．|| In summer, in the fourth month, duke Wen of Teng died.|
| 鄭子罕伐宋．宋將鉏．樂懼．敗諸汋陂．退舍於夫渠．不儆．鄭人覆之．敗諸汋陵．獲將鉏樂懼．宋恃勝也．|| Zihan of Zheng invaded Song, and was defeated at Zhuobi by Jiang Chu and Yue Ju. [The conquerors then] retired and halted at Fuqu, where they were not on their guard. The men of Zheng [consequently] overthrew and defeated them at Zhuoling, taking both the leaders;—as Song had been relying on its previous victory.|
| 衛侯伐鄭．至于鳴鴈．為晉故也．|| The marquis of Wey invaded Zheng, and advanced as far as Mingyan;—in behalf of Jin.|
| 晉侯將伐鄭．范文子曰．若逞吾願．諸侯皆叛．晉可以逞．若唯鄭叛．晉國之憂．可立俟也．欒武子曰．不可以當吾世而失諸侯．必伐鄭．乃興師．欒書將中軍．士燮佐之．郤錡將上軍．荀偃佐之．韓厥將下軍．郤至佐新軍．荀罃居守．郤犨如衛．遂如齊．皆乞師焉．欒黶來乞師．孟獻子曰．有勝矣．|| The marquis of Jin was going to invade Zheng. Fan Wenzi said, "To satisfy my desires, all the States would revolt from Jin, and then Jin might be satisfied [Wenzi saw great evils in Jin itself, which he thought could only be kept in check by apprehensions from without, and their removal was necessary in his view to the prosperity of the State]. If only Zheng revolt from it, the sorrow of Jin will not have to be waited for long." Luan Wuzi said, "We must not in my time lose the States. We must invade Zheng." On this the armies were called out. Luan Shu commanded that of the centre, with Shi Xie as assistant; Xi Qi the 1st army, with Xun Yan as assistant; Han Jue, the 3d; Xi Zhi acted as assistant-commander of the new army, Xun Ying remaining and keeping guard in Jin. Xi Chou went to Wey, and then on to Qi, to ask the assistance of their armies. Luan Yan came to Lu to ask the aid of an army from it. Meng Xianzi said, "He will be victorious.'"|
| 戊寅．晉師起．鄭人聞有晉師．使告于楚．姚句耳與往．楚子救鄭．司馬將中軍．令尹將左．右尹子辛將右．過申．子反入見申叔時．曰．師其何如．對曰．德．刑．詳．義．禮．信．戰之器也．德以施惠．刑以正邪．詳以事神．義以建利．禮以順時．信以守物．民生厚而德正．用利而事節．時順而物成．上下和睦．周旋不逆．求無不具．各知其極．故詩曰．|| 'On Wuyin, the armies of Jin commenced their march; and Zheng, hearing of their approach, sent word to Chu, Yao Gou'er going with the messenger. The viscount of Chu marched to the relief of Zheng. The minister of War [Zifan] commanded the army of the centre; the chief minister [Zichong] commanded on the left, and Zixin, minister of the Right, on the right. As they passed by Shen, Zifan entered the city, to see Shen Shushi [see on XV. 7], and asked him what he thought of the expedition. The other replied, "Virtuous goodness, punishments, religion, righteousness, propriety, and good faith, all are the appliances of war. Virtuous goodness appears in the exercise of kindness; punishment in the correction of what is wrong, religion in the service of the Spirits; righteousness in the establishment of what is beneficial; propriety in doing things at the proper times; and good faith in the watchful keeping of everything. [When these things obtain], the people live well off, and their virtue is correct; all movements are with advantage, and affairs are rightly ordered; the seasons are all accorded with, and everything is prosperous; harmony prevails between superiors and inferiors; all movements are made without insubordinate opposition; whatever the superiors require is responded to; everyone knows his duty. Hence it is said in the ode (Shi, IV. i. [i.] X.),|
| 立我烝民．莫匪爾極．是以神降之福．時無災害．民生敦厖(máng)．和同以聽．莫不盡力．以從上命．致死以補其闕．此戰之所由克也．今楚內棄其民．而外絕其好．瀆齊盟．而食話言．奸時以動．而疲民以逞．民不知信．進退罪也．人恤所底．其誰致死．子其勉之．吾不復見子矣．|| 'Thou didst establish [and nourish] the multitudes of our people,—The immense gift of thy goodness.' In consequence of this, [in that ancient time], the Spirits sent down their blessing, and the seasons all passed without calamity or injury. The wants of the people were abundantly supplied, and with consenting harmony they received the orders of their superiors. They all did their utmost to obey those orders, and would devote themselves to death to supply the places of any that were lacking. This was the way to secure victory in battle. But now [the government of] Chu abandons the people in the State itself, and it breaks off its friendships with other States; it irreligiously violates its covenants, and eats its words; it moves in the season when it ought not to do so, and wearies its people to gratify [its ambition]. The people have lost their confidence in its good faith; let them advance or retire, they will be held guilty. When men are thus anxious about what will come to them, who will be prepared to go to the death? Do you, Sir, do your utmost, but I shall not see you again." |
| 姚句耳先歸．子駟問焉．對曰．其行速．過險而不整．速則失志．不整喪列．志失列喪．將何以戰．楚懼不可用也．|| Yao Gou'er returned [to Zheng] before the messenger, and Zisi asked him [about the army of Chu]. He replied, "Its march is rapid, and it passes through dangerous passes without order. The rapidity of its march leads to the want of proper thought, and its neglect of order disorganizes its ranks. Without thought and with its ranks disordered, how can it fight? I am afraid that Chu will be of no use to us."|
| 五月．晉師濟河．聞楚師將至．范文子欲反．曰．我偽逃楚．可以紓憂．夫合諸侯．非吾所能也．以遺能者．我若群臣輯睦以事君．多矣．|| 'In the 5th month, the army of Jin crossed the He, and heard of the approach of that of Chu. Fan Wenzi wished that they should return, and said, "If we make as if we were avoiding Chu, it may l 鄢陵 ighten [our own] sorrow. We cannot unite the States in allegiance to Jin. Let us leave that to some one who can unite and hold them all. If we, the ministers of Jin, can harmoniously serve our ruler, we may be well content." |
| 武子曰．不可．六月．晉楚遇於鄢陵．范文子不欲戰．郤至曰．韓之戰．惠公不振旅．箕之役．先軫不反命．邲之師．荀伯不復從．皆晉之恥也．子亦見先君之事矣．今我辟楚．又益恥也．文子曰．吾先君之亟戰也有故．秦狄齊楚皆彊．不盡力．子孫將弱．今三彊服矣．敵楚而已．唯聖人能外內無患．自非聖人．外寧必有內憂．盍釋楚以為外懼乎．|| Wuzi refused to take this counsel; and in the 6th month, Jin and Chu met at Yanling. [Then] Fan Wenzi did not want to fight, but Xi Zhi said to him, "At the battle of Han [See V. xv. 13], duke Hui could not marshal his troops; at the battle of Ji [See V. xxxiii. 8], Xian Zhen [died, and] could not return with an account of his commission; at the battle of Bi [See VII. xii. 3], Xun Bo could not return by the way he had advanced. These battles were all to the disgrace of Jin;—you, Sir, are yourself acquainted with the history of our former rulers. If we now avoid Chu, it will be an additional disgrace." Wenzi replied, "There was reason for the frequent battles of our former rulers. [In their times], Qin, the Di, Qi, and Chu were all powerful enemies; and if they had not exerted their strength, their descendants would have been reduced to weakness. But now three of those strong ones have submitted, and we have only to cope with Chu. It is only a sage ruler who can safely be without trouble either from abroad or within his State. Excepting under a sage ruler, when there is quietness abroad, sorrow is sure to spring up at home; why should we not leave Chu to be an occasion of apprehension to us from abroad?"|
| 甲午．晦．楚晨壓晉軍而陳．軍吏患之．范匄趨進曰．塞井夷灶．陳於軍中而疏行首．晉楚唯天所授．何患焉．文子執戈逐之．曰．國之存亡．天也．童子何知焉．欒書曰．楚師輕窕．固壘而待之．三日必退．退而擊之．必獲勝焉．郤至曰．楚有六間．不可失也．其二卿相惡．王卒以舊．鄭陳而不整．蠻軍而不陳．陳不違晦．在陳而囂．合而加囂．各顧其後．莫有鬥心．舊不必良．以犯天忌．我必克之．|| 'On Jiawu, the last day of the month, the army of Chu came close up to that of Jin, and drew up in order of battle. The officers of Jin were perplexed by this movement, when Fan Gai [A lad, son of Wenzi] ran forward, and said, "Stop up the wells, and level the cooking places, marshal the army within the encampment, and make room for the heads of the columns to issue. Between Jin and Chu victory must be the gift of Heaven;—what necessity is there for being perplexed?" Wenzi took a lance and chased [his son], saying, "The preservation or ruin of the State depends on Heaven; what does a boy like you know?" Luan Shu said, "The army of Chu is full of levity. Let us keep firm within our entrenchments, and in 3 days it will be sure to withdraw. If we then attack it, we shall get the victory." Xi Zhi said, "Chu affords us six advantages, which should not be lost:—the two ministers [commanding it] hate each other; the king's soldiers are old; the army of Zheng is marshalled, but not in good order; the wild tribes of the south are there, but their forces are not marshalled; the army of Chu has been marshalled without regard to its being the last day of the month; there was a clamour during the marshalling, and there is still more now that it is effected, each man looking behind him, without any heart for fighting. The old soldiers cannot be good; and with them to violate the day which Heaven requires men to stand in awe on,—we shall surely conquer."|
| 楚子登巢車以望晉軍．子重使大宰伯州犁侍于王後．王曰．騁而左右．何也．曰．召軍吏也．皆聚於中軍矣．曰．合謀也．張幕矣．曰．虔卜於先君也．徹幕矣．曰．將發命也．甚囂且塵上矣．曰．將塞井夷灶而為行也．皆乘矣．左右執兵而下矣．曰．聽誓也．戰乎．曰．未可知也．乘而左右皆下矣．曰．戰禱也．伯州犁以公卒告王．|| The viscount of Chu got up on a carriage with a lookout on it to survey the army of Jin; and Zichong sent the grand-administrator, Bo Zhouli [See the Zhuan after p. 9 of last year] to wait behind him. The king said, "There are men running to the left and to the right. What does that mean?" "They are calling the officers," replied Zhouli. "They are all collected in the army of the centre." "They are met to take counsel." "They are pitching a tent." "It is reverently to divine before the Spirit-tablets of Jin's former rulers," "They are removing the tent." "The commands of the marquis are about to be given forth." "There is a great clamour, and there are clouds of dust." "They are shutting up the wells and levelling the cooking places in order to form their ranks." "They had mounted their carriages, and now the men on the left and right descend, with their weapons in their hands." "It is to hear the speech of the general." "Will they fight?" "I cannot yet tell." "They had [again] mounted their carriages, and [again] those on the left and right descend." "It is to pray in reference to the battle." Zhouli [also] told the king about the marquis's own men.|
| 苗賁皇在晉侯之側．亦以王卒告．皆曰．國士在．且厚．不可當也．苗賁皇言於晉侯曰．楚之良．在其中軍王族而已．請分良以擊其左右．而三軍萃於王卒．必大敗之．公筮之．史曰．吉．其卦遇復．曰．南國蹙．射其元．王中厥目．國蹙王傷．不敗何待．|| [At the same time], Miao Fenhuang [A fugitive from Chu, a son of Dou Jiao; see the Zhuan after VII. iv. 6], was by the side of the marquis of Jin, and told him about the king's own men. On both sides [the armies] said, "There is an officer of our State [with the enemy], and their number is great, not to be resisted." Miao Fenhuang said to the marquis, "The best soldiers of Chu are in the army of the centre, which is made up of clans descended from the kings of Chu. Divide your best soldiers and attack the left and right armies of Chu, and then bring all your three armies together against the king's men; in this way you will inflict on Chu a great defeat." The marquis consulted the milfoil about it when the diviner said, "The result is fortunate. The diagram found is fu (復), which indicates that the southern State is reduced to extremity; its great king is shot, and hit in his eye. If this,—the State reduced to extremity and its king wounded—does not intimate defeat, what would you wait for?|
| 公從之．有淖於前．乃皆左右．相違於淖．步毅御晉厲公．欒鍼為右．彭名御楚共王．潘黨為右．石首御鄭成公．唐苟為右．欒范以其族夾公行．陷於淖．欒書將載晉侯．鍼曰．書退．國有大任．焉得專之．且侵官．冒也．失官．慢也．離局．姦也．有三罪焉．不可犯也．乃掀公以出於淖．|| 'The marquis accordingly [determined to fight]. In front of his entrenchments there was a slough, and to avoid it the chariots separated, some going to the left, and some to the right. Yi of Bu (Xi Yi) was charioteer to the marquis, and Luan Zhen was spearman on the right. Peng Ming drove king Gong of Chu, with Pan Dang on the right. Shi Shou drove duke Cheng of Zheng, with Tang Gou on the right. Luan [Wuzi] and Fan [Wenzi], with their clansmen, advanced on either side of the marquis, whose carriage sank in the slough. Luan Shu came to take him into his, but Zhen said, "Retire, Shu. You have the great charge from the State, and how can you take it on you [to abandon it for another]? Moreover, to encroach on the office of another is presumption; to abandon your own office is an act of disrespect; to leave your own game is treachery. Here are three offences, which you must not incur." [With these words] he dragged [the carriage of] the marquis out of the slough.|
| 癸巳．潘尪之黨．與養由基．蹲甲而射之．徹七札焉．以示王．曰．君有二臣如此．何憂於戰．王怒曰．大辱國．詰朝．爾射死藝．|| On Guisi, Dang, [the son] of Pan Wang and Yang Youji had set buff-coats and shot at them, their arrows going through seven at once. [The spectators] took [the proof of their skill and strength] to show it to the king, saying, "Since you have two officers like these, you need not be anxious about the battle." The king, however, was angry, and said [to the archers], "You are a great disgrace to the State. Tomorrow morning, your archery will be found the art that will cause your death."|
| 呂錡夢射月．中之．退入於泥．占之曰．姬姓．日也．異姓．月也．必楚王也．射而中之．退入於泥．亦必死矣．及戰．射共王中目．王召養由基．與之兩矢．使射呂錡．中項伏弢(tāo,弓袋)．以一矢復命．|| 'Yi of Lü [Wei Yi] dreamt that he discharged an arrow at the moon, and hit it, but that, on retiring, he got into the mire. An interpreter told him, "[Princes of] the surname Ji are represented by the sun; those of other surnames, by the moon. Your dream must respect the king of Chu,—you shall shoot and hit him; but the getting into the mire, as you retired, shows that you will also die." In the battle, accordingly, Yi shot king Gong in the eye. The king called for Yang Youji, and gave him two arrows, that he might shoot Lü Yi. [The first] hit him in the neck, so that he fell dead on his quiver, and Youji returned the other arrow, and reported the execution of his commission.|
| 郤至三遇楚子之卒．見楚子必下．免冑而趨風．楚子使工尹襄問之以弓．曰．方事之殷也．有韎(mèi)韋之跗注．君子也．識見不穀而趨．無乃傷乎．郤至見客．免冑承命曰．君之外臣至．從寡君之戎事．以君之靈．間蒙甲冑．不敢拜命．敢告不寧．君命之辱．為事之故．敢肅使者．三肅使者而退．|| 'Xi Zhi three times met the viscount's soldiers; and whenever he saw the viscount, he dismounted from his chariot, took off his helmet, and ran like the wind. The viscount sent Xiang, minister of Works, to salute him, and present him with a bow, saying, "In a time of so much business and excitement as the present, that man with the gaiters of red leather shows himself a superior man. [Say that] I am afraid lest, running as he does when he recognizes me, he should hurt himself." When Xi Zhi saw the stranger, he took off his helmet, received his message, and then said, "I, Zhi, the minister of another State, following my ruler to the wars, by the powerful influence of your ruler find myself among the buffcoats and helmets. I do not dare to kneel in acknowledgment of your message, but I venture to say how the condescension of it from your ruler makes me feel not at ease. In consequence of present circumstances, I will venture with my hands to the ground to salute his messenger." And thus he saluted the messenger three times, and then withdrew.|
| 晉韓厥從鄭伯．其御杜溷羅曰．速從之．其御屢顧．不在馬．可及也．韓厥曰．不可以再辱國君．乃止．|| 'Han Jue of Jin was pursuing the earl of Zheng, when his charioteer, Du Hunluo, said to him, "Let us make haste after him. His driver often looks round, and has not his mind upon his horses. He can be overtaken." Han Jue, however, said, "I ought not a second time to disgrace the ruler of a State [See the account of the battle of An in the 2d year];" and desisted from the pursuit.|
| 郤至從鄭伯．其右茀翰胡曰．諜輅之．余從之乘．而俘以下．郤至曰．傷國君有刑．亦止．石首曰．衛懿公唯不去其旗．是以敗於熒．乃內旌於弢中．唐苟謂石首曰．子在君側．敗者壹大．我不如子．子以君免．我請止．乃死．|| 'Xi Zhi [then] pursued the earl, and the spearman on his right, Fu Hanhu, said to him, "Let some runners get before and intercept him, and I will get into his chariot from behind, capture him, and descend." Xi Zhi said, "He who injures the ruler of a State gets punished;" and also gave up the pursuit. Shi Shou [The earl's charioteer; see above] then said, "it was only because duke Yi of Wey would not take down his flag, that he was defeated at Ying [See on IV. ii. 7. The present passage Shows that we should there read 去其旗" and he put the earl's flag into the quiver.] Tang Gou [the spearman] said to Shi Shou, "You are by our ruler's side. Our defeat is great. I am not so important as you. Do you make your escape with the earl, and let me remain here." And there he died.|
| 楚師薄於險．叔山冉謂養由基曰．雖君有命．為國故．子必射．乃射．再發盡殪．叔山冉搏人以役．中車折軾．晉師乃止．囚楚公子茷．|| 'The army of Chu drew near to a dangerous pass, and Shushan Ran said to Yang Youji, "Notwithstanding the king's command, it being for the State, you must shoot." Youji shot two arrows, each of which killed its man. Shushan Ran seized a man, and hurled him against the cross bar in front of his chariot which was broken by the force; and the army of Jin, [seeing such archery and such strength], stopped its pursuit, having made a prisoner of Fa, a son of the viscount of Chu.|
| 欒鍼見子重之旌．請曰．楚人謂夫旌．子重之麾也．彼其子重也．日臣之使於楚也．子重問晉國之勇．臣對曰．好以眾整．曰．又何如．臣對曰．好以暇．今兩國治戎．行人不使．不可謂整．臨事而食言．不可謂暇．請攝飲焉．公許之．使行人執榼(kē)承飲．造于子重曰．寡君乏使．使鍼御持矛．是以不得犒從者．使某攝飲．子重曰．夫子嘗與吾言於楚．必是故也．不亦識乎．受而飲之．免使者而復鼓．|| 'Luan Zhen, seeing the flag of Zichong, made a request to the marquis, saying, "The people of Chu say that flag is the signal flag of Zichong. That then is Zichong. Formerly, when I was sent on a mission to Chu, he asked me in what the valour of Jin was seen. I told him it was seen in our love of orderly arrangement, and when he asked in what besides, I said, in our love of being leisurely. Now his State and ours have engaged in battle, without any messenger having gone from us;—that is not what can be called orderly arrangement. And if in the time of action I eat my words, that cannot be called acting leisurely. Allow me to send a drink to him." The marquis granted the request, and Zhen then sent a messenger with a vessel of spirits to Zichong, and to say for him self, "My ruler, through want of other officers, has employed me to be in attendance on him with my spear, so that I cannot in person dispense bounty to your followers, and have sent So-and-So with a drink to you in my room." Zichong said, "This must be in consequence of what he said to me in Chu;—do I not remember his words?" He then received the vessel and drank, let the messenger go, and resumed the beating of his drum.|
| 旦而戰．見星未已．子反命軍吏察夷傷．補卒乘．繕甲兵．展車馬．雞鳴而食．唯命是聽．晉人患之．苗賁皇徇曰．蒐乘補卒．秣馬利兵．脩陳固列．蓐食申禱．明日復戰．乃逸楚囚．|| 'It was morning when the fighting began, and when the stars appeared, it was not over. Zifan ordered the officers of the army to examine the wounded, to supply from the reserves the place of those who had fallen, to repair the buff-coats and weapons, to inspect the chariots and horses, and that all should take a meal at cock-crow, so as to be ready for orders. On the side of Jin they were troubled about these arrangements, and Miao Fenhuang went round the host, saying, "Review the reserves, and supply the place of the fallen; feed your horses and sharpen your weapons; maintain the same array, and strengthen your ranks; take a meal in your tents, and repeat your prayers;—tomorrow we will resume the engagement." At the same time they let go some of their prisoners.|
| 王聞之．召子反謀．穀陽豎獻飲於子反．子反醉而不能見．王曰．天敗楚也夫．余不可以待．乃宵遁．晉入楚軍．三日穀．范文子立於戎馬之前．曰．君幼．諸臣不佞．何以及此．君其戒之．周書曰．惟命不于常．有德之謂．|| 'When the king heard this, he called Zifan to him to consult, but Zifan's servant, Guyang, had supplied him with spirits till he was now drunk, and not able to see. The king said, "Heaven is defeating Chu. We must not remain here." He withdrew accordingly during the night, and Jin entered the camp of Chu, and found grain in it sufficient for three days. Fan Wenzi stood before the marquis's horses, and said, "With your lordship so young, and your officers so wanting in ability, however did we attain to this? Let your lordship beware [of being lifted up]. It is said in one of the Books of Zhou (Shu, V. ix, 23) that 'the appointments of Heaven are not constant,' indicating that it is virtue [which secures them]."|
| 楚師還．及瑕．王使謂子反曰．先大夫之覆師徒者．君不在．子無以為過．不穀之罪也．子反再拜稽首曰．君賜臣死．死且不朽．臣之卒實奔．臣之罪也．子重復謂子反曰．初隕師徒者．而亦聞之矣．盍圖之．對曰．雖微先大夫有之．大夫命側．側敢不義．側亡君師．敢忘其死．王使止之．弗及而卒．|| The army of Chu returned, and when it had got as far as Xia, the king sent a messenger to Zifan saying, "When a former great officer of our State [Dechen] caused the overthrow of his army, the ruler was not present. Do not consider [the present disaster] as your fault;—the guilt of it belongs to me." Zifan bowed twice, with his head to the ground, and said, "The king grants me death, and I will die without shrinking from it. My soldiers did really flee, and I feel that the guilt is mine." [At the same time], Zichong sent a message to Zifan, saying, "You have heard the case of him who formerly lost his army; why should you not consider and act accordingly?" He replied, "Though there had not been such a case, dare I do anything but approve of your command [thus conveyed]? Having lost our ruler's army, dare I forget to die?" The king sent to stop him from his purpose, but, before the messenger arrived, he had died [by his own hand].|
| 戰之日．齊國佐．高無咎．至于師．衛侯出于衛．公出于壞隤．宣伯通於穆姜．欲去季孟．而取其室．將行．穆姜送公．而使逐二子．公以晉難告．曰．請反而聽命．姜怒．公子偃．公子鉏．趨過．指之曰．女不可．是皆君也．公待於壞隤．申宮儆備．設守而後行．是以後．使孟獻子守于公宮．|| On the day of the battle, Guo Zuo and Gao Wujiu of Qi reached the army [of Jin]; the marquis of Wey commenced his march [to join it] from his capital; and the duke proceeded from Huaitui. Xuanbo [Shusun Qiaoru] had an intrigue with Mu Jiang [the duke's mother], and wanted to make away with Ji and Meng [Jisun Hangfu or Ji Wenzi, and Meng Xianzi or Zhongsun Mie] and appropriate their property. When the duke was commencing his march, Mu Jiang escorted him, and urged him to drive out those two ministers; but he represented to her his difficulties with Jin, and begged [that the matter might be in abeyance] till his return, when he would hear her commands. She was angry; and the duke's two half brothers Yan and Chu [just then] hurrying past, she pointed to them, and said, "If you refuse, either of these may be our ruler." The duke waited at Huaitui, renewing his orders for a careful watch to be maintained in the palace, and appointed officers to guard [the city]. After this he marched, but the delay made him too late [for the battle]. He had appointed Meng Xianzi to keep guard in the palace.|
| 秋．會干沙隨．謀伐鄭也．宣伯使告郤犨曰．魯侯待于壞隤．以待勝者．郤犨將新軍．且為公族大夫．以主東諸侯．取貨于宣伯．而訴公于晉侯．晉侯不見公．|| 'The meeting in autumn at Shasui was to take measures for the invasion of Zheng. Xuanbo sent information to Xi Chou that the duke had waited in Huaitui, till he should see which side conquered. [Now] Xi Chou commanded the new army, and was president of [his branch of] the ducal relatives, with the management of the States of the east. He took bribes from Xuanbo, and accused the duke to the marquis of Jin, who consequently refused to see him.'|
| 曹人請于晉曰．自我先君宣公即位．國人曰．若之何．憂猶未弭．而又討我寡君．以亡曹國社稷之鎮公子．是大泯曹也．先君無乃有罪乎．若有罪．則君列諸會矣．君唯不遺德刑．以伯諸侯．豈獨遺諸敝邑．敢私布之．|| 'The people of Cao made a petition to Jin, saying, "Since our last ruler, duke Xuan, left the world, our people have been saying, 'How is it that our sorrows do not ever come to an end?' And now you have further punished our present ruler, so as to send into exile his brother [See on XV. pp. 3, 4], the guardian of the altars of Cao [See on p. of last year]? Thus you are greatly destroying Cao. Is it not because our former ruler was chargeable with offences? If [our present one] be guilty, yet he had taken his place in an assembly [of the States]. Your lordship is chief and leader of the States, because the punishments you have inflicted have not been contrary to virtue;—how is it that your dealings with our poor State should be the single exception to this? We venture thus privately to set forth our case."|
| 七月．公會尹武公．及諸侯伐鄭．將行．姜又命公如初．公又申守而行．諸侯之師．次于鄭西．我師次于督揚．不敢過鄭．子叔聲伯使叔孫豹請逆于晉師．為食於鄭郊．師逆以至．聲伯四日不食以待之．食使者．而後食．諸侯遷于制田．知武子佐下軍．以諸侯之師侵陳．至于鳴鹿．遂侵蔡未反．諸侯遷于潁上．戊午．鄭子罕宵軍之．宋．齊．衛皆失軍．|| 'In the 7th month, the duke joined duke Wu of Yin and the States in an invasion of Zheng. When he was about to set out, Mu Jiang laid her commands on him in the same way as before, while he also repeated his arrangements for keeping guard, and went his way. The armies of the other States halted on the west of Zheng, and our army halted at Duyang, not daring to pass through that State. Zishu Shengbo [The Gongsun Yingqi] sent Shusun Bao [brother of Qiaoru] to ask a party from the army of Jin to come and meet us, saying he would remain without eating, in the borders of Zheng, till it arrived. When the party did come to meet us, Shengbo had been waiting for it 4 days without eating anything; and then he gave food to Bao's messenger [also], before he ate himself. The States then removed [with their forces] to Zhitian. Zhi Wuzi (Xun Ying) was acting as the assistant-commander of the 3d army; and with it and some forces of the States, he made an incursion into Chen, as far as Minglu. Thence he went on into Cai; and before he returned, the States had removed to Yingshang. There, on Wuwu, Zihan of Zheng attacked them in the night, and the leaders of the armies of Song, Qi, and Wey all got separated from them.'|
| 曹人復請于晉．晉侯謂子臧．反．吾歸而君．子臧反．曹伯歸．子臧盡致其邑與卿．而不出．|| The people of Cao again begged Jin [to return to them their earl]. The marquis said, "If Zizang return, I will send back your ruler." Zizang did return [from Song] [See on p. 4 of last year], and then the earl returned to Cao. Zizang surrendered [to his brother] his city and his office of minister, and did not leave [his house to engage in the public service].|
| 宣伯使告郤犨曰．魯之有季孟．猶晉之有欒范也．政令於是乎成．今其謀曰．晉政多門．不可從也．寧事齊楚．有亡而已．蔑從晉矣．若欲得志於魯．請止行父而殺之．我斃蔑也．而事晉．蔑有貳矣．魯不貳．小國必睦．不然．歸必叛矣．九月．晉人執季文子于苕丘．|| Xuanbo [Qiaoru] sent word to Xi Chou, saying, "Ji and Meng are in Lu what Luan and Fan are in Jin;—by them is all the action of the govt. determined. Now they have consulted together, and say, "The govt. of Jin issues from many gates; Jin is not to be followed. We had better serve Qi or Chu. [In any wise] we can only perish; we will not follow Jin.' If you wish to get your will in Lu, let me ask you to detain Hangfu, and put him to death. I will [here] cut off Mie, and serve Jin with an unwavering fidelity. When Lu does not waver in its adherence to Jin, the smaller States are sure to agree in their service. If you do not do as I request, when he returns, he is sure to revolt from you." In the 9th month, the people of Jin seized and held Ji Wenzi in Tiaoqiu.|
| 公還．待于鄆．使子叔聲伯請季孫于晉．郤犨曰．苟去仲孫蔑而止季孫行父．吾與子國．親於公室．對曰．僑如之情．子必聞之矣．若去蔑與行父．是大棄魯國．而罪寡君也．若猶不棄．而惠徼周公之福．使寡君得事晉君．則夫二人者．魯國社稷之臣也．若朝亡之．魯必夕亡．以魯之密邇仇讎．亡而為讎．治之何及．郤犨曰．吾為子請邑．對曰．嬰齊．魯之常隸也．敢介大國．以求厚焉．承寡君之命以請．若得所請．吾子之賜多矣．又何求．|| 'The duke, returning [from the expedition], waited in Yun, while he sent Zishu Shengbo to ask Jin to liberate Jisun. Xi Chou said to him, "If you will take off Zhongsun Mie, and we detain [here] Jisun Hangfu, I will be more friendly with your State than with our own ducal House." Shengbo replied, " You must have heard all about Qiaoru. If you take away Mie and Hangfu, it will be a great casting away of Lu, and will involve my ruler in guilt [towards you]. But if you will not cast Lu away, but bestow on it your favour as a blessing of the duke of Zhou, so that my ruler can [continue to] serve yours, then these two men are the ministers on whom Lu's altars depend. Destroy them in the morning, and in the evening Lu is lost to you, for it lies near to the States that are hostile to you. If it be once lost to you and become hostile, how can you remedy such an issue?" Xi Chou urged, "I will ask a city for you." The other replied, " I am but an ordinary underling of Lu; dare I seek to become great through your great State? I have received my ruler's order to present to you this request. If I obtain it, your gift will be great; what more should I seek for?"|
| 范文子謂欒武子曰．季孫於魯．相二君矣．妾不衣帛．馬不食粟．可不謂忠乎．信讒慝而棄忠良．若諸侯何．子叔嬰齊奉君命無私．謀國家不貳．圖其身不忘其君．若虛其請．是棄善人也．子其圖之．乃許魯平．赦季孫．|| 'Fan Wenzi said to Luan Wuzi, "Jisun has been minister to two marquises of Lu, yet his concubines have never worn silk, and his horses have not fed on grain. If we believe the slanderous and bad, and cast away the loyal and good, how shall we appear to the States? Zishu Yingqi has discharged his ruler's commission without any selfishness. He consulted for his State, without swerving from his purpose; consideration for himself did not make him forget his ruler. If we deny his request, we shall be abandoning a good man. You ought to take measures accordingly." [On this], they, agreed to peace with Lu, and liberated Jisun.|
| 冬．十月．出叔孫僑如而盟之．僑如奔齊．|| In winter, in the 10th month, [the people drove] away Shusun Qiaoru, and [the great officers] entered into a covenant regarding him. He fled to Qi.|
| 十二月．季孫及郤犨盟于扈．歸刺公子偃．召叔孫豹于齊而立之．|| In the 12th month, Jisun and Xi made a covenant in Hu. [Jisun] then returned to Lu, and put to death the duke's half brother Yan [see on p. 8]. [Lu subsequently] called Shusun Bao from Qi, and made him the representative [of the Shusun family];—see in the 2d year of next Book.|
| 齊聲孟子通僑如．使立於高國之閒．僑如曰．不可以再罪．奔衛．亦閒於卿．|| 'Sheng Mengzi [the mother of the marquis of Qi, a daughter of the House of Song; the eldest daughter by a concubine] began an intrigue with Qiaoru, and gave him a position between that of Gao and Guo. He said, however, " I must not be charged with such an offence a second time," and fled to Wey, where also his position was between that of its ministers.'|
|晉侯使郤至獻楚捷于周．與單襄公語．驟稱其伐．單子語諸大夫曰．溫季其亡乎．位於七人之下．而求掩其上．怨之所聚．亂之本也．多怨而階亂．何以在位．夏書曰．|| 'The marquis of Jin sent Xi Zhi to Zhou to present the spoils of Chu; and there, in talking with duke Xiang of Shan, he frequently boasted of his services. The viscount of Shan said to the great officers of the court, "Ji of Wen [Xi Zhi; see the Zhuan at the end of the 11th year] will come to an evil end! His position is below that of seven others, and he seeks to hide the merit of those above him. When resentments gather round a man, there is the root of all disorder. How can he who excites many resentments and prepares the steps of disorder continue in a high position? One of the Books of Xia (Shu, III.iii.5) says,|
| 怨豈在明．不見是圖．將慎其細也．今而明之．其可乎．|| Should resentment be waited for till it appears? It must be cared for before it is seen; showing how cautious we should be in small things, but now he publishes what must occasion resentment. Can that end well?'"|
The Battle of Yanling (Chinese: 鄢陵之戰)