III. Third year.

 昭公三年, 經三年.
  1. 春.王正月.丁未.滕子原卒.
  2. 夏.叔弓如滕.
  3. 五月.葬滕成公.
  4. 秋.小邾子來朝.
  5. 八月.大雩.
  6. 冬.大雨雹.
  7. 北燕伯款出奔齊.
 III. Third year.
1. In the [duke's] third year, in spring, in the king's first month, on Dingwei, Yuan, viscount of Teng, died.
2. In summer, Shu Gong went to Teng.
3. In the fifth month, there was the burial of duke Cheng of Teng.
4. In autumn, the viscount of Little Zhu came to the court [of Lu].
5. In the eighth month, there was a grand sacrifice for rain.
6. In winter there was a great fall of hail.
7. Kuan, earl of North Yan, fled from his State to Qi.
 春.王正月.鄭游吉如晉.至少姜之葬.梁丙與張趯見之.梁丙曰.甚矣哉.子之為此來也.子大叔曰.將得已乎.昔文襄之霸也.其務不煩諸侯.令諸侯三歲而聘.五歲而朝.有事而會.不協而盟.君薨大夫弔.卿共葬事.夫人士弔.大夫送葬.足以昭禮命.事謀闕而已.無加命矣.今嬖寵之喪.不敢擇位.而數於守適.唯懼獲戾.豈敢憚煩.少姜有寵而死.齊必繼室.今茲吾又將來賀.不唯此行也.張趯曰.善哉.吾得聞此數也.然自今子其無事矣.譬如火焉.火中.寒暑乃退.此其極也.能無退乎.晉將失諸侯.諸侯求煩不獲.二大夫退.子大叔告人曰.張趯有知.其猶在君子之後乎. 'In the 1st month of this year, You Ji of Zheng went to Jin, to attend the funeral of the young Jiang, and was visited by Liang Bing and Zhang Ti. The former said to him, "It is [too much] that you should have come here on this account." Zitaishu (You Ji) replied, "Could I have stopped away? Formerly, under the presidency of Wen and Xiang, they made it their object not to trouble the States [too much], ordering the princes once in three years to send a complimentary visit, once in five years to appear in person at their court, to meet when there was business [to be done], and to covenant when there were cases of discordant [States to be dealt with]. When a ruler died, a great officer [was sent] to present condolences, and a minister to assist at the burial. When a ruler's wife died, a [simple] officer presented condolences, and a great officer attended the funeral. These rules were sufficient to illustrate the ceremonial observances, for orders as to what business was to be done, and to take measures in reference to the shortcomings [of States]. Nothing more was required; no extraordinary commands were given. But now, on the death of [this] favourite lady, we must not presume to regulate our services by her rank, but they must be the same as are due to a wife, the keeper [of the harem]. We are only afraid of being found offenders, and dare not shrink from any trouble. But as this young Jiang found favour, and has died [thus soon], Qi is sure to propose a successor to her; and then on that occasion I shall come again to offer our congratulations, and shall not have had this journey only." Zhang Ti said, "Good! I have heard your statement; but after this you will have nothing to do. This case may be illustrated by [the star] huo, according to the culmination of which the cold or the heat retires. Now the case has come to an extreme; —must there not be a recession? Jin will lose the States. Though it seek to trouble them, it will not be able to do so." On this the two great officers withdrew; and Zitaishu said to his people, "Zhang Ti is wise, but his place is notwithstanding, I apprehend, in the rear of superior men."
 丁未.滕子原卒.同盟.故書名. 'The viscount of Teng had been associated in covenants (with the duke [Xiang] of Lu), and therefore the text gives his name.'
 齊侯使晏嬰請繼室於晉.曰.寡君使嬰曰.寡人願事君.朝夕不倦.將奉質幣.以無失時.則國家多難.是以不獲.不腆先君之適.以備內官.焜燿寡人之望.則又無祿.早世隕命.寡人失望.君若不忘先君之好.惠顧齊國.辱收寡人.徼福於大公丁公.照臨敝邑.鎮撫其社稷.則猶有先君之適.及遺姑姊妹若而人.君若不棄敝邑.而辱使董振擇之.以備嬪嬙.寡人之望也. 'The marquis of Qi sent Yan Ying to Jin with the following speech, begging to be allowed to supply a successor in the harem [to the young Jiang]:——"My ruler has sent me to say, 'I wish to serve your lordship, morning and evening without tiring, and would bring my presents and offerings so as never to lose a season; but there have been many difficulties in my State, so that I have not been able [to come myself]. The poor daughter of my father [was sent] to complete the offices in your harem, and shed a blaze [of glory] upon my hopes; but she was unfortunate and died an early death, to the disappointment of my hope. If your lordship, not forgetful of the friendship between our former rulers, will kindly regard the State of Qi, and condescend to accept me so that I may seek the blessing of the Great duke and duke Ding, sending brightness down upon my State, protecting and comforting its altars, then there are still so many of the daughters of my father by his proper wife, and of his sisters who remain. If your lordship, not casting off my poor State, will send some one to judge and select among them those who may complete the ladies of your bed-chamber, this will satisfy my hope."
 韓宣子使叔向對曰.寡君之願也.寡君不能獨任其社稷之事.未有伉儷.在縗絰之中.是以未敢請.君有辱命.惠莫大焉.若惠顧敝邑.撫有晉國.賜之內主.豈惟寡君.舉群臣實受其貺其自唐叔以下.實寵嘉之. 'Han Xuanzi made Shuxiang return a reply, saying, "It is the desire of our ruler. He is not able to discharge alone the duties to his altars; but being now in mourning, he has not ventured to prefer a request [for a successor to the young Jiang]. No kindness could be greater than the message which your lordship has condescended to send. If you will kindly regard our poor State, and comfort Jin by giving a mistress to its harem, not our ruler only, but all his ministers as well, will receive the benefit of your gift. Yea, from Tangshu downwards, [our former rulers] will feel the favour and admire it."
 既成昏.晏子受禮.叔向從之晏.相與語.叔向曰.齊其何如.晏子曰.此季世也.吾弗知.齊其為陳氏矣.公棄其民.而歸於陳氏.齊舊四量.豆.區.釜.鍾.四升為豆.各自其四.以登於釜.釜十則鍾.陳氏三量.皆登一焉.鍾乃大矣.以家量貸.而以公量收之.山木如市.弗加於山.魚鹽蜃蛤.弗加於海.民參其力.二入於公.而衣食其一.公聚朽蠹.而三老凍餒.國之諸市.屨賤踊貴.民人痛疾.而或燠休之.其愛之如父母.而歸之如流水.欲無獲民.將焉辟之.箕伯.直柄.虞遂.伯戲.其相胡公大姬.已在齊矣. 'When the marriage was settled, Yanzi received the courtesy [of an entertainment], from which Shuxiang followed him to the feast. When they conversed together, Shuxiang asked about the state of affairs in Qi, and Yanzi replied, "This is its last age. I know nothing but this,—that Qi will become the possession of the Chen family. The duke is throwing away his people, and they are turning to the Chen. Qi from of old has had four measures, the dou, the ou, the fu, and the zhong. Four sheng make a dou, and up to the fu, each measure is four times the preceding; and then ten fu make a zhong. The Chen family makes each of the [first] three measures once again greater, so that the zhong is [very] large, lending according to their own measure, and receiving back again according to the public measure. The wood on their hills and that in the markets is charged the same price, so that it costs no more in the market than on the hill. Their fish, salt, and frogs cost the same [in the market as at the water]. The produce of the people's strength is divided into three parts, two of which are paid to the State, while only one is [left to them] for food and clothes. The [grain in the] ducal stores rots and is eaten by insects, while the three [classes of the] old are cold and starving. In all the markets of the State, [ordinary] shoes are cheap, while those for criminals whose toes have been cut off are dear. The common people and others groan bitterly [for all this], and there is one who shows an ardent sympathy for them. He loves them as a parent, and they go to him as a flowing stream. Though he wished not to win them to himself, how shall he escape doing so? There were Jibo, Zhibing, Yusui, and Boxi, whose help was given to duke Hu and Taiji, and [now, in their spiritual influence,] they are [all] in Qi."
 叔向曰.然.雖吾公室.今亦季世也.戎馬不駕.卿無軍行.公乘無人.卒列無長.庶民罷敝.而宮室滋侈.道殣相望.而女富溢尤.民聞公命.如逃寇讎.欒.郤.胥.原.狐.續.慶.伯.降在皁隸.政在家門.民無所依.君日不悛.以樂慆憂.公室之卑.其何日之有.讒鼎之銘曰.昧旦丕顯.後世猶怠.況日不悛.其能久乎.晏子曰.子將若何.叔向曰.晉之公族盡矣.肸聞之.公室將卑.其宗族枝葉先落.則公從之.肸之宗十一族.唯羊舌氏在而已.肸又無子.公室無度.幸而得死.豈其獲祀. 'Shuxiang said, "Yes; and even with our ducal House, this also is the last age. The war-horses are not yoked; the ministers never take the field. There are no men over the duke's chariots, no [proper] officers over the soldiers. The multitudes of the people are weary and worn, while the duke's mansions are multiplied and most costly. The people [feel], when they hear the duke's commands, as if they must escape from robbers and enemies. The Luan, the Xi, the Xu, the Yuan, the Hu, the Xu, the Qing, and the Bo, are reduced to the position of menials. The government is ordered by the Heads of the clans. The people have none on whom to rely. The ruler goes on from day to day without stop, burying all sorrow in pleasure. No future day need be waited for the humiliation of the ducal House. The inscription on the tripod of Chan says, 'You may get up early in the morning and become greatly distinguished, but in future generations [your descendants] will still become idle.' Much more may we say that he who holds on [an evil course] from day to day without stopping cannot continue long." Yanzi then asked him what would become of himself, and Shuxiang replied, "The ducal clans of Jin are at an end. I have heard that when the ducal House is about to be brought low, its clan-branches first fall to the ground, and that then the duke follows them. Of the same ducal ancestry with me were eleven clans, and only the Yangshe remains. I moreover have no son. In the lawless course of the ducal House, I shall be fortunate if I die a natural death, for I shall have none to sacrifice to me."
 初.景公欲更晏子之宅.曰.子之宅近市.湫隘囂塵.不可以居.請更諸爽塏者.辭曰.君之先臣容焉.臣不足以嗣之.於臣侈矣.且小人近市.朝夕得所求.小人之利也.敢煩里旅.公笑曰.子近市.識貴賤乎.對曰.既利之.敢不識乎.公曰.何貴何賤.於是景公繁於刑.有鬻踊者.故對曰.踊貴屨賤.既已告於君.故與叔向語而稱之. 'Before this, duke Jing had wished to change the residence of Yanzi, saying. "Your house is near the market, low, small, noisy, and dusty. You should not live in it. Let me change it for you for one bright and lofty." The officer, however, declined the offer, saying, "Your lordship's former minister, [my father], could bear it. I am not fit to be his successor; [the change which you propose] would be extravagance in me. And besides, a small man like me, living near the market, can get what I desire morning and evening, which is a benefit." I dare not trouble the people of the neighbourhood. The duke laughed and asked him whether, through his nearness to the market, he knew what things were cheap and what dear. "Since it is to my advantage to do so," was the reply, "should I dare not to know that?" "What things then are cheap, and what dear?" pursued the marquis. Now duke Jing punished so many that there were people who sold shoes for those whose toes had been cut off. Yanzi therefore answered, "Shoes for people whose toes have been cut off are dear, and [other] shoes are cheap." As he had told this to his ruler, he mentioned it in his conversation with Shuxiang.
 景公為是省於刑.君子曰.仁人之言.其利博哉.晏子一言而齊侯省刑.詩曰.君子如祉.亂庶遄已.其是之謂乎. 'In consequence of this remark, duke Jing more rarely inflicted punishments. The superior man may say, "How widely extends the benefit of a benevolent man's words! By one word of Yanzi the marquis of Qi was led to reduce the number of his punishments;—an illustration of the words of the ode (Shi, II. v. ode IV. 2), 'If he were to rejoice [in the words of the wise], The disorder perhaps would disappear."
 及晏子如晉.公更其宅.反則成矣.既拜乃毀之.而為里室.皆如其舊.則使宅人反之.且諺曰.非宅是卜.唯鄰是卜.二三子先卜鄰矣.違卜不祥.君子不犯非禮.小人不犯不祥.古之制也.吾敢違諸乎.卒復其舊宅.公弗許.因陳桓子以請.乃許之. 'When Yanzi [on this occasion] went to Jin, the duke changed his house into a new one, so that it was completed on his return. After he had made his acknowledgments, however, [for the kindness], he pulled the house down, rebuilt the dwellings in the neighbourhood as they had been before, and sent to the old residents to return to them. [When they declined to do so], he said, "There is the common saying, 'It is not about the house that the tortoise-shell is consulted, but about the neighbours.' My friends, the tortoise-shell was formerly consulted about this neighbourhood. To go against the divination is inauspicious; and that the superior man do not violate the rules of propriety, while smaller men do not incur the risk of what is inauspicious, is an old regulation;—shall I dare to disobey it?" In the end, he brought them back to their old houses. The duke refused his sanction, but he granted it, when Yanzi got Chen Huanzi to intercede with him.'
 夏.四月.鄭伯如晉.公孫段相.甚敬而卑.禮無違者.晉侯嘉焉.授之以策.曰.子豐有勞於晉國.余聞而弗忘.賜女州田.以胙乃舊勳.伯石再拜稽首.受策以出.君子曰.禮其人之急也乎.伯石之汏也.一為禮於晉.猶荷其祿.況以禮終始乎.詩曰.人而無禮.胡不遄死.其是之謂乎. 'In summer, in the 4th month, the earl of Zheng went to Jin, when Gongsun Duan was in attendance on him, and behaved so very respectfully and humbly, violating in nothing the proper rules, that the marquis commended him, and gave him a tablet [of investiture], saying, "Zifeng (Duan's father) did hard service for the State of Jin. I have heard of it, and do not forget it, and [now] bestow on you the lands of Zhou, as a recompense for the old services of your [father]." Boshi bowed twice, with his head to the ground, received the tablet, and went out. The superior man will say on this, "How important to a man are the rules of propriety! Here was an extravagant man like Boshi, and to his once observing those rules in Jin he was indebted for dignity and wealth in that State. Here surely was an illustration of what the ode (Shi, I. iv. Ode VIII. 3), says, 'If a man be not observant of propriety, Why does he not quickly die?"
 初.州縣欒豹之邑也.及欒氏亡.范宣子.趙文子.韓宣子.皆欲之.文子曰.溫吾縣也.二宣子曰.自郤稱以別三傳矣.晉之別縣.不唯州.誰獲治之.文子病之.乃舍之.二子曰.吾不可以正議而自與也.皆舍之.及文子為政.趙獲曰.可以取州矣.文子曰.退.二子之言義也.違義禍也.余不能治余縣.又焉用州.其以徼禍也. 'Before this the district of Zhou had belonged to Luan Bao; and on the ruin of the Luan family, Fan Xuanzi, Zhao Wenzi, and Han Xuanzi, all wished to have it. Wenzi said, "All Wen (Zhou had once been part of it) belongs to me." The two Xuanzi said, "Since the time of Xi Cheng, [Zhou] has been handed down, separate [from Wen], in three families. There are other districts in Jin, separated [in this way], and not Zhou only;—who can get the right to take the rule of them?" Wenzi was vexed by this, but gave Zhou up. The other two ministers said, "We ought not, having given a correct decision [in reference to his claim] to take it to ourselves;" and so they all gave it up. When the administration [of Jin] came into the hands of Wenzi, Zhao Huo advised him to take Zhou, but he said to him, "Begone! The words of those two were righteous, and to oppose righteousness is the way to misery. I cannot rule properly my own district; of what use would Zhou be to me? I should only thereby occasion misery to myself."
 君子曰.弗知實難.知而弗從.禍莫大焉.有言州必死.豐氏故主.韓氏伯石之獲州也.韓宣子為之請之.為其復取之之故. 'The superior man may say on this, "His case is hard who does not know [whence misery will arise]. When one knows this and does not act accordingly, nothing can exceed the misery. There was a saying that [the possessor of] Zhou was sure to die." Fengshi (Gongsun Duan), according to his wont, was a guest with Hanshi. His getting Zhou was upon the request of Han Xuanzi in his behalf, to be the ground of his taking it [himself] again.'
 五月.叔弓如滕.葬滕成公.子服椒為介.及郊.遇懿伯之忌.敬子不入.惠伯曰.公事有公利.無私忌.椒請先入.乃先受館.敬子從之. 'In the 5th month, Shu Gong went to Teng, to the burial of duke Cheng, Zifu Jiao being the assistant commissioner. When they got to the suburbs, it happened to be the anniversary of the death of Yibo (Jiao's uncle), and Jingzi (Shu Gong) proposed not to enter the city. Huibo (Jiao), however, said, "We are on public business. Where there is a public benefit, there should be no recognition of one's private death-days." With this he preceded the other, and received the reception-house [assigned to them], Jingzi coming after him."
 晉韓起如齊逆女.公孫蠆為少姜之有寵也.以其子更公女.而嫁公子.人謂宣子.子尾欺晉.晉胡受之.宣子曰.我欲得齊而遠其寵.寵將來乎. 'Han Qi of Jin went to Qi, to meet the [marquis's] bride, when Gongsun Chai, because of the favour which the young Jiang had found, substituted a daughter of his own for the duke's, whom he gave in marriage [to another husband]. Some people told Han Qi of the deceit put upon Jin by Ziwei, and said that he should not accept the lady; but that minister replied, "I want to get [the adherence of] Qi; and if I keep the favourite [minister] away from us [in that way], will the favourite come to us?"
 秋.七月.鄭罕虎如晉.賀夫人.旦告曰.楚人日徵敝邑.以不朝立王之故.敝邑之往.則畏執事.其謂寡君.而固有外心.其不往.則宋之盟云.進退罪也.寡君使虎布之.宣子使叔向對曰.君若辱有寡君.在楚何害.脩宋盟也.君苟思盟.寡君乃知免於戾矣.君若不有寡君.雖朝夕辱於敝邑.寡君猜焉.君實有心.何辱命焉.君其往也.苟有寡君.在楚猶在晉也. 'In autumn, in the 7th month, Han Hu of Zheng went to Jin, to offer congratulations on the marquis's marriage. At the same time he made the following announcement;—-"The people of Chu are daily summoning our State, because we have not been to the court of their new king. If we go to Chu, we are afraid of your ministers, lest they say that our ruler has done so because his heart is indeed set on that other alliance; while, if we do not go, there is the covenant of Song. Whether we advance or retreat, we may be held offenders; and my ruler has instructed me to lay the case before you." Xuanzi made Shuxiang reply, "If your ruler condescends to be true to ours, his being in Chu will do no harm;—it will be but observing the covenant of Song. If he thinks of that covenant, our ruler knows that he will escape any charge of doing wrong [in regard to it]. If your ruler is not true [in heart] to ours, although he were to condescend morning and evening to come to our poor State, our ruler would be suspicious of him. If he be indeed true in heart, there was no necessity for the trouble of this message. Let your ruler go to Chu. If he be true to ours, his being in Chu is the same as if he were in Jin."
 張趯使謂大叔曰.自子之歸也.小人糞除先人之敝廬.曰.子其將來.今子皮實來.小人失望.大叔曰.吉賤不獲來.畏大國尊夫人也.且孟曰而將無事.吉庶幾焉. '[At this time], Zhang Ti sent a messenger [to Zheng], to say to Taishu, "After you went back [to Zheng], I removed the dirt from the poor cottage of my father, saying to myself that you would be coming [again]; now it is Zipi who has come, and I am disappointed." Taishu replied, "My rank was too mean to get to come [on this occasion]. We were in awe of your great State, and [wanted] to honour the [new] wife; and moreover you said that I should have nothing [more] to do. It has nearly proved so with me."
  小邾穆公來朝.季武子欲卑之.穆叔曰.不可.曹滕二邾.實不忘我.好敬以逆之.猶懼其貳.又卑一睦焉.逆群好也.其如舊而加敬焉志曰.能敬無災.又曰.敬逆來者.天所福也.季孫從之. 'Ji Wuzi proposed to give the viscount a very slender reception; but Mushu said, "No. Since Cao, Teng, and the two Zhus, do not forget their old friendship with us, we should meet them with respect, and even more, fearful of their being alienated from us. And moreover, if we receive in a humbling way one of those friendly States, we shall provoke the others, our friends, [to fall away]. We should show greater respect than in any former time. It is said in a Book, 'No calamities befal the respectful;' and also, 'They who meet the comer respectfully receive blessing from Heaven." Jisun followed this advice.'
 八月.大雩.旱也. In eighth month, there was grand sacrifice for rain due to the drought.
 齊侯田於莒.盧蒲嫳見.泣且請曰.余髮如此種種.余奚能為.公曰.諾.吾告二子.歸而告之.子尾欲復之.子雅不可.曰.彼其髮短而心甚長.其或寢處我矣. 九月.子雅放盧蒲嫳于北燕. 'The marquis of Qi was hunting in Ju, when Lupu Pie sought an introduction to him, and begged with tears [that he might be permitted to return], saying, "With my hair so short and thin, what can I [now] do?" The marquis replied, as if assenting, that he would inform the two ministers of it. He did tell them accordingly on his return, and Ziwei was willing that Pie should be allowed to come back, but Ziya objected, saying, "His hair may be short, but his heart is very long. Perhaps he will [still] make our [skins] his beds (See the Zhuan on IX. xxviii. 6)." In the 9th month, Ziya drove Lupu Pie to North Yan.'
燕簡公多嬖寵.欲去諸大夫.而立其寵人.冬.燕大夫比以殺公之外嬖.公懼奔齊.書曰.北燕伯款出奔齊.罪之也. 'Duke Jian of Yan had many favourites, and wanted to make away with all the great officers, and appoint his favourites in their room. The great officers united [in consequence], and killed those favourites who were of other surnames than their own. The duke was frightened, and fled to Qi. The style of the text, that "The earl of Yan, Kuan, fled to Qi, is condemnatory of him." 
 十月.鄭伯如楚.子產相.楚子享之.賦吉日既享.子產乃具田備.王以田江南之夢. 'In the tenth month the earl of Zheng went to Chu, with Zichan in attendance on him. The viscount entertained him. and sang the Ji ri (Shi, II. iii. ode VI.) When the entertainment was over, Zichan proceeded to make the preparations for a hunt. The king then hunted along [the marsh of] Meng (See on the Shu, III i. Pt. i. 50), on the south of the Jiang, [having the earl] with him.'
 齊公孫灶卒.司馬灶見晏子曰.又喪子雅矣.晏子曰.惜也子旗不免.殆哉姜族弱矣.而媯將始昌.二惠競爽.猶可.又弱一個焉.姜其危哉. 'Gongsun Zao of Qi having died, Zao, minister of War, visited Yanzi, and said, "We have further lost Ziya." Yanzi replied, "Alas! [his son] Ziqi will not escape [an evil end]. It is a perilous time! The House of Jiang is weak, and that of Gui will begin to flourish. While the two [grandsons of duke Hui were strong and vigorous, they might make head, and now there is the weakness induced by the loss of this one. The [House of] Jiang is tottering to its fall!']