V. Fifth year.

  1. 春.王正月.舍中軍.
  2. 楚殺其大夫屈申.
  3. 公如晉.
  4. 夏.莒牟夷以牟婁及防茲來奔.
  5. 秋.七月.公至自晉.
  6. 戊辰.叔弓帥師敗莒師于蚡泉.
  7. 秦伯卒.
  8. 冬.楚子.蔡侯.陳侯.許男.頓子.沈子.徐人.越人.伐吳.
 V. Fifth year.
1. In the [duke's] fifth year, in spring, in the king's first month, we disbanded the army of the centre.
2. Chu put to death its great officer, Qu Shen.
3. The duke went to Jin.
4. In summer, Mouyi of Ju came a fugitive [to Lu], giving over to it [the cities of] Moulou, Fang, and Zi.
5. In autumn, in the seventh month, the duke arrived from Jin.
6. On Wuchen, Shu Gong led a force, and defeated an army of Ju at Fenquan.
7. The earl of Qin died.
8. In winter, the viscount of Chu, the marquises of Cai and Chen, the viscounts of Dun and Shen, an officer of Xu, and an officer of Yue, invaded Wu.
 春.王正月.舍中軍.卑公室也.毀中軍于施氏.成諸臧氏. 'The disbanding of the army of the centre was to reduce [still] lower the ducal House. The disbanding was [proposed] at the house of the Shi family, and determined on at that of the Zang.
 初作中軍.三分公室而各有其一.季氏盡征之.叔孫氏臣其子弟.孟氏取其半焉.及其舍之也.四分公室.季氏檡二.二子各一.皆盡征之.而貢于公.以書使杜洩告於殯曰.子固欲毀中軍.既毀之矣.故告杜洩曰.夫子唯不欲毀也.故盟諸僖閎.詛諸五父之衢.受其書而投之.帥士而哭之. 'Formerly, when the army of the centre was first constituted, the ducal House was [as it were] divided into three parts, each [of the three families] having one of them. The Ji family took to itself all the men and contributions of its part. The Shusun made [only] the sons and younger brothers of its part to be its subjects. The Meng took the one half. When they [now] disbanded that army, they divided [the prerogative of] the ducal House into four parts, of which the [head of the] Ji family took two, and each of the other ministers one; but they all took the entire control of the men and their contributions, paying [only] a tribute to the duke. They gave a notice to Du Xie, and required him to announce it to [Muzi in] his coffin, to this effect, "You did desire the disbanding of the middle army. We have disbanded it, and therefore announce the thing to you." Du Xie said, "But my master did not wish the army to be disbanded, and therefore he insisted on the covenant at the gate of Xi's temple, and the imprecations in the street of Wufu (See on IX. xi. 1)." He then took the notice, and threw it on the ground, led [to the coffin] the officers [of Muzi], and wept over it.
 叔仲子謂季孫曰.帶受命於子叔孫曰.葬鮮者自西門.季孫命杜洩.杜洩曰.卿喪自朝.魯禮也.吾子為國政.未改禮而又遷之.群臣懼死.不敢自也.既葬而行. 'Shuzhongzi said to Jisun, "I received a charge from my father Shusun, that, in burying [a minister] who had not died a natural death from age, the coffin should be taken from the western gate [of the court.]" Jisun gave orders accordingly to Du Xie; but that officer said, "The coffin of a minister, according to the rules of Lu, is taken from [the principal gate of] the court. The government of the State is in your hands, but you have not changed this rule. If we notwithstanding [now] depart from it, we are afraid of dying [for it], and dare not follow your order." When the funeral was over, Xie went away.
 仲至自齊.季孫欲立之.南遺曰.叔孫氏厚.則季氏薄.彼實家亂.子勿與知.不亦可乎.南遺使國人助豎牛.以攻諸大庫之庭.司宮射之.中目而死.豎牛取東鄙三十邑.以與南遺. '[Soon after,] Zhong[-ren, the second son of Muzi by his Qi wife], arrived from Qi (See the Zhuan at the end of last year), and Jisun proposed to appoint him in his father's place. Nan Yi, however, said to him, "The stronger the Shusun, the weaker the Jisun. You had better simply take no knowledge of the disorder in that family." At the same time Nan Yi made the people of the State assist Niu in an attack in the open space before the grand arsenal on Zhong, who received an arrow in one of his eyes from the superintendent of the palace, and died. Niu then took 30 towns in the eastern borders, [belonging to the Shusun], and gave them to Nan Yi.
 昭子即位.朝其家眾曰.豎牛禍叔孫氏.使亂大從.殺適立庶.又披其邑.將以赦罪.罪莫大焉.必速殺之.豎牛懼.奔齊.孟仲之子.殺諸塞關之外.投其首於寧風之棘上.仲尼曰.叔孫昭子之不勞.不可能也.周任有言曰.為政者不賞私勞.不罰私怨.詩云.有覺德行.四國順之. 'Zhaozi [finally] succeeded to his father's place, when he gave audience to all the members of his clan, and said. "The waiting boy Niu has done evil to the House of Shusun, and thrown into confusion the grand [principle of] natural order. Having put to death the children by the wife, and secured the succession to the son of a concubine, he has gone on to distribute its towns, that he might thereby get forgiveness for his offences. His crimes could not be more heinous, and we must quickly put him to death." Niu got frightened, and fled to Qi, where he was killed, outside the gate between the two States, by the sons of Meng and Zhong, who threw his head into a thorn tree near Ningfeng. Zhongni said, "The conduct of Shusun Zhaozi in not being influenced by services done to himself is what [few] could attain to." [The historiographer] Zhou Ren has said, "The administrator of government does not reward services done to himself, nor does he punish his private wrongs." As the ode (Shi, III. iii. ode II. 2) says,"To an evident virtuous conduct, All States render their homage!"
 初.穆子之生也.莊叔以周易筮之.遇明夷之謙.以示卜楚丘.曰.是將行.而歸為子祀.以讒人入.其名曰牛.卒以餒死.明夷.日也.日之數十.故有十時.亦當十位.自王已下.其二為公.其三為卿.日上其中.食日為二.旦日為三.明夷之謙.明而未融.其當旦乎.故曰為子祀.日之謙當鳥.故曰明夷于飛.明之未融.故曰垂其翼象.日之動.故曰君子于行.當三在旦.故曰三日不食. 'At an earlier period, on the birth of Muzi, [his father] Zhuangshu, consulted the Zhou yi by the reeds about him, and got the diagram Mingyi (明夷), which then became Qian (謙). He showed this to the diviner Chu Qiu, who said, "This [son] will have to leave [the State], but he will return and offer the sacrifices to you. The entrance of a slanderer, of the name of Niu, will be sufficient to make him die of starvation. [The diagram] Mingyi relates to the sun. The solar numbers are 10. Hence there are 10 periods in the day, which correspond also to the ten ranks. Reckoning from the king downwards, the rank of duke is the 2d, and that of minister is the 3d. The highest point of the day is when the sun is in the meridian. When it is meal time, that represents the 2d rank; and early dawn represents the third. Mingyi's becoming Qian represents brightness, but that which is not yet fully developed,—corresponding, we may presume, to the early dawn. Therefore I say, [this child will be minister and] offer the sacrifices for you. [The diagram for] the sun's becoming Qian has its correspondency in a bird. Hence we read (On the lowest line of the diagram Mingyi), 'The brightness is injured in its flight.' And as the brightness is not fully developed, we read, 'It droops its wings.' There is an emblem of the movement of the sun, and hence we read, 'The superior man goes away.' This happens with the third rank, in the early dawn, and hence we read, "Three days he does not eat.'
 離.火也.艮.山也.離為火.火焚山.山敗.於人為言.敗言為讒.故曰有攸往.主人有言.言必讒也.純離為牛.世亂讒勝.勝將適離.故曰其名曰牛.謙不足.飛不翔.垂不峻.翼不廣.故曰其為子後乎.吾子亞卿也.抑少不終. [Again] Li (☲, the lower half of Mingyi) represents fire, aud Gen (☶, the lower half of Qian) represents a hill. Li is fire; fire burns the hill, and the hill is destroyed. But applied to men, [Gen] denotes speech, and destroying speech is slander. Hence we read, 'He goes whither he would; and to him, the lord, there is speech.' That speech must be slander. In [the diagram of] the double Li there is [mention made of] a cow. The age is in disorder and slander overcomes; the overcoming goes on to dismemberment; and therefore I say, "His name will be Niu (牛 bull or cow).' Qian denotes insufficiency. The flight is not high. Descending from on high, the wings do not reach far. Hence, while I say that this child will be your successor, yet you are the second minister, and he will fall somewhat short of your dignity."
 楚子以屈伸為貳於吳.乃殺之.以屈生為莫敖.使與令尹子蕩如晉逆女.過鄭.鄭伯勞子蕩于氾.勞屈生于菟氏.晉侯送女于邢丘.子產相鄭伯.會晉侯于邢丘. 'The viscount of Chu, considering that Qu Shen was disaffected and leant towards Wu, put him to death. He then made Qu Sheng the Mo'ao, and sent him, along with the chief minister, Zidang, to Jin to meet his bride. As they passed by [the capital of] Zheng, the earl sent to pay the compliments of the journey to Zidang at Fan, and to Qu Sheng at Tushi. The marquis of Jin escorted his daughter to Xingqiu, where the earl of Zheng had an interview with him, with the attendance and under the direction of Zichan.'
 公如晉.自郊勞至于贈賄.無失禮.晉侯謂女叔齊曰.魯侯不亦善於禮乎.對曰.魯侯焉知禮.公曰.何為.自郊勞至于贈賄.禮無違者.何故不知.對曰.是儀也.不可謂禮.禮所以守其國.行其政令.無失其民者也.今政令在家.不能取也.有子家羈.弗能用也.奸大國之盟.陵虐小國.利人之難.不知其私.公室四分.民食於他.思莫在公.不圖其終.為國君.難將及身.不恤其所.禮之本末.將於此乎在.而屑屑焉習儀以亟.言善於禮.不亦遠乎. 'The duke went to Jin; and from his reception in the suburbs to the gifts at his departure, he did not fail in any point of ceremony. The marquis of Jin said to Ru Shuqi, "Is not the marquis of Lu good at propriety?" "How does the marquis of Lu know propriety?" was the reply. "Wherefore [do you say so]?" asked the marquis. "Considering that, from his reception in the suburbs to the gifts at his departure, he did not err in a single point, why should you say that he does not know propriety?" "That was deportment" said Shuqi, "and should not be called propriety. Propriety is that by which [a ruler] maintains his State, carries out his governmental orders, and does not lose his people. Now the government [of Lu] is ordered by the [three great] clans, and he cannot take it [from them]. There is Zijia Ji, (A descendant of duke Zhuang, called elsewhere Zijia Yibo) and he is not able to employ him. He violates the covenants of our great State, and exercises oppression on the small State [of Ju]. He makes his gain of the distresses of others, and is ignorant of his own. The [patrimony] of his House is divided into four parts, and [like one of] the people he gets his food from others. No one thinks of him, or takes any consideration for his future. The ruler of a State, calamity will come upon him, and he has no regard to what is proper for him to do. The beginning and end of his propriety should be in these matters; and in small particulars he practises deportment, as if that were all-important:——is it not far from correct to say that he is well acquainted with propriety?"
 君子謂叔侯於是乎知禮. 'The superior man will say that Shuhou showed by these remarks that he knew propriety.'
 晉韓宣子如楚送女.叔向為介.鄭子皮.子大叔.勞諸索氏.大叔謂叔向曰.楚王汏侈已甚.子其戒之.叔向曰.汏侈已甚.身之災也.焉能及人.若奉吾幣帛.慎吾威儀.守之以信.行之以禮.敬始而思終.終無不復.從而不失儀.敬而不失威.道之以訓辭.奉之以舊法.考之以先王.度之以二國.雖汏侈若我何. 'Han Xuanzi of Jin went to Chu as escort to [the king's] bride, Shuxiang being the assistant commissioner. Zipi and Zitaishu of Zheng visited them on their journey at Suoshi, and the latter said to Shuxiang, "The extravagance of the king of Chu is excessive; you must be on your guard against it." "His excessive extravagance," replied Shuxiang, "will be calamitous to himself, but how can it affect others? If we present our offerings, and be careful of our deportment, maintaining our good faith, and observing the rules of propriety, reverently attentive to our first proceedings and thinking at the same time of our last, so that all might be done over again; if we comply [with his requirements] so as not to lose our decorum, and, while respectful, do not lose our dignity; if our communications be according to the lessons [of wisdom], our service be performed according to the laws of antiquity, and our duty be discharged according to [the rules of] the ancient kings, and regulated by a consideration of [what is due to] our two States, however extravagant he be, what can he do to us?"
 及楚.楚子朝其大夫曰.晉.吾仇敵也.苟得志焉.無恤其他.今其來者.上卿上大夫也.若吾以韓起為閽.以羊舌肸為司宮.足以辱晉.吾亦得志矣.可乎.大夫莫對.薳啟彊曰.可.苟有其備.何故不可.恥匹夫不可以無備.況恥國乎.是以聖王務行禮.不求恥人.朝聘有珪.享覜有璋.小有述職.大有巡功.設机而不倚.爵盈而不飲.宴有好貨.飧有陪鼎.入有郊勞.出有贈賄.禮之至也.國家之敗.失之道也.則禍亂興. 'When they arrived at [the capital of] Chu, the viscount gave audience to his great officers, and said, "Jin is my enemy. If I can get my will, I have no regard to anything else. Those who are now come from it are its highest minister and a great officer of the highest rank. If I [cut off his feet, and] make Han Qi a janitor, and [castrate] Yangshe Xi and make him superintendent of my harem, that will be enough to disgrace Jin, and I shall get my will. May it be done?" None of the great officers gave any reply, till Wei Qiqiang said, "It may. If you are prepared for it, why may it not be done? But a common man may not be put to shame without preparations for it, and how much less a State! On this account the sage kings made it their object to observe the rules of propriety, and did not seek to put people to shame. For appearances at court and complimentary visits there were the jade tokens of rank; for entertainments and receptions there were the semi-tokens; the small (= all the princes) had to make a report of their duties; the great one (= the king) had to make tours to observe the merits [of the princes]; when the benches were spread [with the dishes], there was no leaning forward on them, and when the cup was filled, there was no drinking of it, [till the time came]; for feasts there was the provision of good gifts; for meals there were double the usual number of dishes; on the arrival of guests they were met in the suburbs and condoled with on the toils of their journey, and at their departure, there were gifts presented to them. These embrace the most important usages of ceremony. The ruin of States and families has been from the neglect of these, which has given occasion to miseries and disorders.
 城濮之役.晉無楚備.以敗於邲.邲之役.楚無晉備.以敗於鄢.自鄢以來.晉不失備.而加之以禮.重之以睦.是以楚弗能報.而求親焉.既獲姻親.又欲恥之.以召寇讎.備之若何.誰其重此.若有其人.恥之可也.若其未有.君亦圖之.晉之事君.臣曰可矣.求諸侯而麇至.求昏而薦女.君親送之.上卿及上大夫致之.猶欲恥之.君其亦有備矣.不然奈何. 'After the battle of Chengpu, Jin made no preparations against Chu, and was defeated at Bi. After the battle of Bi, Chu made no preparations against Jin, and was defeated at Yan. Since Yan, Jin has not neglected its preparations, and has added to them the observance of propriety and a double measure of harmony in itself, so that Chu had not been able to retaliate [for that defeat at Yan], but has sought marriage with Jin. You have obtained that affinity of marriage, and you wish further to put Jin to shame, thereby calling forth its violent animosity :—what preparations have you made for such an issue? If you have the men [to meet it], well :—put Jin to shame. If you have them not, your lordship should consider well what you propose to do. In my opinion, the service which Jin has done to you may be pronounced sufficient. You sought the States from it, and they have all come to you; you sought marriage with it, and it has sent you its daughter. Its ruler himself escorted her. Its highest minister and a great officer of the highest rank have come to the completion of the union; and still you wish to put it to shame. You must surely be prepared for such a thing; if you are not, what will be the consequences?
 韓起之下.趙成.中行吳.魏舒.范鞅.知盈.羊舌肸之下.祁午.張趯.籍談.女齊.梁丙.張骼.輔躒.苗賁皇.皆諸侯之選也.韓襄為公族大夫.韓須受命而使矣.箕襄.邢帶.叔禽.叔椒.子羽.皆大家也.韓賦七邑.皆成縣也.羊舌四族.皆彊家也.晉人若喪韓起.楊肸.五卿.八大夫.輔韓須.楊石.因其十家九縣.長轂九百.其餘四十縣.遺守四千.奮其武怒.以報其大恥.伯華謀之.中行伯魏舒帥之.其蔑不濟矣.君將以親易怨.實無禮以速寇.而未有其備.使群臣往遺之禽.以逞君心.何不可之有.王曰.不穀之過也.大夫無辱.厚為韓子禮.王欲敖叔向以其所不知而不能.亦厚其禮. ' Below Han Qi there are [in Jin] Zhao Cheng, Zhonghang Wu, Wei Shu, Fan Yang, and Zhi Ying. Below Yangshe Xi there are Qi Wu, Zhang Ti, Ji Tan, Ru Qi, Liang Bing, Zhang Ge, Fu Li, and Miao Fenhuang;—all of them the choice of all the States. Han Xiang is great officer of a ducal clan; Han Xu receives his ruler's orders, and goes forth with them to other States; Ji Xiang, Xing Dai, Shuqin, Shujiao, and Ziyu, all belong to great families. The Han draw their levies from seven cities, round each of which is a full district. The Yangshe embraces 4 clans,— all consisting of strong families. If the people of Jin lose Han Qi and Yang Xi, those 5 [other] ministers, and 8 [other] great officers, will give their aid to Han Xu and Yangshi. From their 10 families and 9 districts they can raise 900 chariots of war, while 4000 chariots will be left to guard the remaining 40 districts [of the State]. With their martial rage all in fury, they will come to be revenged for the great disgrace [put upon them]. With Bohua to direct their plans, and with Zhonghang Bo and Wei Shu to lead on their armies, they are sure to be successful. Your lordship intends to change the friendship of marriage for enmity, and violate all propriety to accelerate the approach of the enemy; and if you have not made preparations for such an issue, you will be sending all of us your servants, and leaving us to be captured, to gratify yourself. But what is there in this that may not be done?" The king said, "It was my error. Do not you, my great officers, trouble yourselves [any further]." He then treated Hanzi with courtesy. He wished, however, to get a triumph over Shuxiang on matters he might not be acquainted with, but was not able to do so; and he also showed great courtesy to him.
 韓起反.鄭伯勞諸圉.辭不敢見.禮也. 'When Han Qi was returning, the earl of Zheng came to Yu, to show him there the compliments of the journey; but Han declined to be introduced to him :—which was according to rule.'
 鄭罕虎如齊.娶於子尾氏.晏子驟見之.陳桓子問其故.對曰.能用善人.民之主也. 'Han Hu of Zheng went to Qi, to marry a daughter of Ziwei. Yanzi paid him frequent visits, and when Chen Huanzi asked the reason, he replied, "He is able to employ good men;—he is a fitting lord of the people."
 夏.莒牟夷以牟婁及防茲來奔.牟夷非卿而書.尊地也.莒人愬于晉.晉侯欲止公.范獻子曰.不可.人朝而執之.誘也.討不以師.而誘以成之.惰也.為盟主而犯此二者.無乃不可乎.請歸之.間而以師討焉.乃歸公.秋.七月.公至自晉. 'Mouyi was not a minister, yet his name is given here, importance being attached to the territory [which he surrendered] . The people of Ju made a complaint on the subject to Jin, and the marquis wished to detain the duke [as a prisoner]. Fan Xianzi, however, said to him, "You should not do so. When a prince comes to your court, if you seize him there, you have enticed him. To punish him without using your troops, and entice him, thereby effecting your purpose, is the procedure of indolence. Would it not be improper for the lord of covenants to be guilty of these two things? I beg you to send him back. When we have leisure, we can go with troops and punish him." The duke accordingly was allowed to return, and in autumn, in the 7th month, he arrived from Jin.'
 莒人來討.不設備.戊辰.叔弓敗諸蚡泉.莒未陳也. 'A body of men from Ju came to make reprisals [for the reception of] Mouyi. They made no preparations [against surprise], and on Wuchen, Shu Gong defeated them at Fenquan, before they could form in order of battle.'
 冬.十月.楚子以諸侯及東夷伐吳.以報棘.櫟.麻.之役.薳射以繁揚之師.會於夏汭.越大夫常壽過.帥師會楚子于瑣.聞吳師出.薳啟彊帥師從之.遽不設備.吳人敗諸鵲岸.楚子以馹至於羅汭.吳子使其弟蹶由犒師.楚人執之.將以釁鼓.王使問焉.曰.女卜來吉乎.對曰.吉.寡君聞君將治兵於敝邑.卜之以守龜.曰.余亟使人犒師.請行以觀王怒之疾徐.而為之備.尚克知之.龜兆告吉.曰克可知也.君若驩焉.好逆使臣.滋敝邑休殆而忘其死.亡無日矣.今君奮焉.震電馮怒.虐執使臣.將以釁鼓.則吳知所備矣.敝邑雖羸.若早脩完.其可以息師.難易有備.可謂吉矣. 'In winter, in the 10th month, the viscount of Chu, along with several princes and [the chiefs of] the eastern Yi, invaded Wu, in retaliation for that State's taking Ji, Li, and Ma (See the 2d narrative after par. 7 of last year). Wei She joined him with the army of Fanyang at Xiarui. Chang Shouguo, a great officer of Yue, joined him with a force at Suo. Hearing that the army of Wu had come forth, Wei Qijiang led a force and pursued; but in his hurry he did not make [sufficient] preparations, and the men of Wu defeated him at Que'an. The viscount came by hasty stages to the bend of the Luo, and there the viscount of Wu sent his brother, Jueyou, with refreshments for the troops. The people of Chu seized him, and were about to smear their drums with his blood, when the king caused him to be asked whether he had consulted the tortoise-shell if his coming would be fortunate. Jueyou replied, "[We were told it would be] fortunate. My ruler having heard that your lordship was going to regulate your troops in our State, consulted our guardian shell in this way,— I will at once send a messenger with refreshments to the army [of Chu], and ask him to go and observe whether the king's anger be furious or slow, that we may make preparations accordingly. Shall we be able to ascertain this?' The reply given by the indications of the shell was, 'That may be known.' If your lordship had been gracious, and received me, the messenger, in a friendly way, that would have increased the feeling of ease and indifference in our State, and it would have forgotten that its ruin might soon happen. But now your lordship is furious, surcharged with rage as with thunder and lightning. You have oppressively seized me, and are going to smear your drums with my blood: —Wu will thus know what preparations to make. Feeble though our State is, with all its equipment put early in good order, it may secure rest for its army. To be prepared alike for a difficult or for an easy contest may be said to be fortunate.
 且吳社稷是卜.豈為一人.使臣獲釁軍鼓.而敝邑知備.以禦不虞.其為吉孰大焉.國之守龜.其何事不卜.一臧一否.其誰能當之.城濮之兆.其報在邲.今此行也.其庸有報志.乃弗殺. "And moreover, the tortoise-shell was consulted with reference to the altars of Wu, and not for a single individual. If my blood be used to smear the drums of your army, and our State thereby knows to make preparations to meet all casualties, what could be more fortunate than this? The State has its carefully guarded shell, which in all things it consults. Who can calculate on the regularity of the good fortune or the evil? Chengpu gave an omen, and the answer to it was at Bi. As to this present journey of mine, [Wu] will keep it in mind to make you a return for it." After this the envoy was not put to death.
 楚師濟於羅汭.沈尹赤會楚子次於萊山.薳射帥繁揚之師.先入南懷.楚師從之.及汝清.吳不可入.楚子遂觀兵於坻箕之山.是行也.吳早設備.楚無功而還.以蹶由歸.楚子懼吳.使沈尹射待命于巢.薳啟彊待命于雩婁.禮也. 'The army of Chu crossed the river at the bend of the Luo, when Chi, director of Shen, effected a junction with the viscount at mount Lai. Wei Qiqiang then led forward the army of Fanyang, and entered Nanhuai, while the [rest of] the army followed as far as Ruqing; but it was found that Wu could not be penetrated. The viscount therefore made [simply] a display of his troops at the hill of Zhiji. In this campaign, Wu had made early preparations, so that Chu was obliged to return without effecting anything, [only] taking Jueyou back with it. The viscount, being afraid of Wu, made She, the director of Shen, wait for orders from him at Chao, and Wei Qiqiang do the same at Yulou:—which was according to rule.'
 秦后子復歸於秦.景公卒故也. 'Houzi of Qin returned again to his position in Qin;—in consequence of the death of duke Jing.'