| 經十有五年|| Text|
| 1. In the [duke's] fifteenth year, in spring, Jisun Hangfu went to Jin.|
2. In the third month, Huasun, minister of war, of Song, came and made a covenant.
3. In summer, the earl of Cao came to Lu on a court-visit.
4. The people of Qi sent back to Lu the coffin of Gongsun Ao.
5. In the sixth month, on Xinchou, the first day of the moon, the sun was eclipsed. Drums were beaten, and victims were offered at the altar of the land.
6. The earl of Shan arrived from Qi.
7. Xi Que of Jin led a force and invaded Cai; and on Wushen, he entered [the capital of] Cai.
8. In autumn, a body of men from Qi made an incursion into our western borders.
9. Jisun Hangfu went to Jin.
10. In winter, in the eleventh month, [many of] the States made a covenant at Hu.
11. In the twelfth month, an officer of Qi came to Lu with the second daughter of our House.
12. The marquis of Qi made an incursion into our western borders, and then proceeded to invade Cao, entering within the outer suburbs of its capital.
- In spring, Ji Wenzi went to Jin. This mission was on account of [the injury done by Qi to] the earl of Shan, and the second daughter of the House of Lu.
- In third month, Hua Ou of Song came to Lu and made a covenant, accompanied by the officers of his department. The text speaks of him with his office—Huasun, minister of War, of Song"—to do him honour. The duke was going to feast along with him, but he declined the honour, saying, "Your lordship's former servant, my ancestor Du, was a criminal with duke Shang of Song (See II. ii. 1). His name is in the records of all the States. Charged as I am with his sacrifices, dare I disgrace your lordship [so]? Let me receive your commands from one of your officers of the rank below that of a high minister." The people of Lu considered him [in this speech] to be respectful and exact.
- In summer, the earl of Cao came to Lu on a court-visit, it's according to rule. It was an ancient regulation that the princes of States should interchange these court-visits once in 5 years, in order to their better observance of the king's commands.
- saying, "[The House of] Lu and you are of kin. Get the coffin all ready with its decorations, and place it in Tangfu. Lu will be sure [to wish] to take it away." This counsel was taken, and the commandant of Bian sent word to the court [of where the coffin was]. Huishu, still with all the symbols of deepest sorrow, took the opportunity to prosecute his [former] request, and stood in the court to await the duke's commands. The duke granted his request, when he took the coffin, and went through the ceremony of enshrouding the body [in the grand chamber of the Meng family]. An officer of Qi escorted the coffin. What the text says, that an officer of Qi brought the coffin of Gongsun Ao, was recorded out of regard to the Meng family, and its consanguinity with the ducal House. The burial was after the example of that of Gongzhong (Qingfu; with inferior honours to those due to a high minister). Sheng Si, (Ao's first wife) did not go to see the coffin, but wept inside the screen in the hall. Xiangzhong wished not to weep, but Huibo said to him. "With the mourning there is an end of one's [living] relationship. Although you [and he] could not [be on good terms] before, you may be so now that that he is gone. The historiographer Yi said, 'Brethren should display all the beauty [of kindly regard], relieving one another's wants, congratulating in prosperity, condoling in calamity, in sacrificing reverent. in mourning really sad. Although they may be unable to agree, they do not abandon the relative affection which should subsist between them.' Do not you, Sir, fail in this point;—why should you cherish such resentment?" Xiangzhong was pleased, and conducted all his brethren to weep for Ao.
- Years after, Ao's two sons came [from Ju] to Lu, when the affection of Meng Xian [The grandson of Ao, and son of Wenbo, Zhongsun Mie, then Head of the family] for them became spoken of through the State. Some one slandered them to him, saying that they would kill him. He told this to Ji Wen; and the two young men [having heard of it], said, "His love for us is well known, and it is talked of that we mean to kill him. Would this not be far from what is right? It is better that we should die than be considered so far removed from propriety." One of them, accordingly, died, defending the gate of Goumeng, and the other died, defending the gate of Liqiu.
- In the sixth month, on Xinchou, the first day of the moon, the sun was eclipsed. Drums were beaten, and victims were offered at the altar of the land. It was contrary to rule. On occasion of an eclipse of the sun, the son of Heaven should not have his table spread so full as ordinarily, and should have drums beaten at the altar of the land, while princes of States should present offerings of silk at the altar of the land, and have drums beaten in their courts;—thus showing how they serve the Spirits, teaching the people to serve their ruler, and exhibiting the different degrees of observance. Such was the way of antiquity.
- The people of Qi granted what the earl of Shan requested, and liberated him, that he might come to Lu, and report the fulfilment of his mission. The language of the text—The earl of Shan came from Qi—is modelled to honour him.
- Cai took no part in the covenant at Xincheng [See p. 4 of last year], and now Xi Que, with the 1st and 3d armies, invaded Cai, saying, "Our ruler is young;—we must not dally over our work." On Wushen, he entered [the capital of] Cai, obliged [the marquis] to make a covenant with him close by the wall, and returned. when a State was [entirely] conquered, [the conquerors] were said to 'extinguish it,' and when a great city was taken, they were said to 'enter it.'
- In autumn, a body of men from Qi made an incursion into our western borders. So Hangfu visit Jin to inform that leading State of the injury received from Qi.
- In winter, in the 11th month, the marquis of Jin, the duke of Song, the marquis of Wey, the marquis of Cai, the marquis of Chen, the earl of Zheng, the baron of Xu, and the earl of Cao, made a covenant at Hu, renewing that at Xincheng, and to consult about invading Qi. The people of Qi bribed the marquis of Jin, and he returned without doing anything against that State. At this time the duke was not present at the meeting because of his difficulties with Qi. The text says that "the princes covenanted at Hu, [without specifying them]." because they were able to do nothing.
- In general, on occasions of meetings of the States, when the duke of Lu was not present, the names are not specified, to conceal the duke's remissness! When he was present, and yet the names are not specified, it is because he came late!
- Qi thus sent the lady to Lu at last, 'because of the king,' i. e., in deference to his request or requirement.
- The marquis of Qi made an incursion into our western borders, this paragraph tells the inability of the other States [to control Qi]; and the movement of Qi against Cao was to punish it because of the earl's visit to Lu.
- 'Ji Wen said, "The marquis of Qi will not escape his doom. Himself regardless of propriety, he punishes those who observe it, saying, 'Why do you practise that rule?' [Now], propriety is to express accordance with Heaven; it is the way of Heaven. He sets himself against Heaven, and goes to punish others [for obeying it];—it will be hard for him to escape his doom. The ode says (Shi, II. iv. ode X. 3),
- 'Why do ye not stand in awe of one another? Ye do not stand in awe of Heaven.' The superior man does not oppress the young or the mean, because he stands in awe of Heaven. It is said in the Praise-songs of Zhou (Shi, IV. i.[i.]VII.),
- I revere the majesty of Heaven, And for ever preserve its favour. By villainy he got his State. Though he were to try to keep it by all the rules of propriety, without the fear of Heaven, how can he preserve himself? I fear he would not be able to do so. Doing many things contrary to those rules, he cannot live [long]."