XVIII. Eighteenth year.

 經十有八年 Text
  1. 春.王二月.丁丑.公薨于臺下.
  2. 秦伯罃卒.
  3. 夏.五月.戊戌.齊人弒其君商人.
  4. 六月.癸酉.葬我君文公.
  5. 秋.公子遂.叔孫得臣.如齊.
  6. 冬.十月.子卒.
  7. 夫人姜氏歸于齊.
  8. 季孫行父如齊.
  9. 莒弒其君庶其.
 1. In his eighteenth year, in spring, in the king's second month, on Dingchou, the duke died, [in a chamber] beneath [one] of his towers.
2. Ying, earl of Qin, died.
3. In summer, in the fifth month, on Wuxu, the people of Qi murdered their ruler, Shangren.
4. In the sixth month, on Guiyou, we buried our ruler, duke Wen.
5. In autumn, duke [Zhuang's] son, Sui, and Shusun Dechen, went to Qi.
6. In winter, in the tenth month, the [duke's] son died.
7. The [duke's] wife, the lady Jiang, went back to Qi.
8. Jisun Hangfu went to Qi.
9. Ju murdered its ruler, Shuqi.
  1. 春.齊侯戒師期.而有疾.醫曰.不及秋.將死.公聞之.卜曰.尚無及期.惠伯令龜.卜楚丘占之.曰.齊侯不及期.非疾也.君亦不聞.令龜有咎.二月.丁丑.公薨.
  2. 齊懿公之為公子也.與邴歜之父爭田.弗勝.及即位.乃掘而刖之.而使歜僕.納閻職之妻.而使職驂乘.
  3. 夏.五月.公游于申池.二人浴于池.歜以扑抶職.職怒.歜曰.人奪女妻而不怒.一抶女庸何傷.職曰.與刖其父而弗能病者何如.乃謀弒懿公.納諸竹中.歸舍爵而行.齊人立公子元.
  4. 秋.襄仲.莊叔.如齊.惠公立故.且拜葬也.
  5. 文公二妃.敬嬴生宣公.敬嬴嬖.而私事襄仲.宣公長.而屬諸襄仲.襄仲欲立之.叔仲不可.仲見于齊侯而請之.齊侯新立.而欲親魯.許之.
  6. 冬.十月.仲殺惡及視.而立宣公.書曰.子卒.諱之也.仲以君命召惠伯.其宰公冉務人止之.曰.入必死.叔仲曰.死君命可也.公冉務人曰.若君命可死.非君命何聽.弗聽.乃入.殺而埋之馬矢之中.公冉務人奉其帑以奔蔡.既而復叔仲氏.
  7. 夫人姜氏歸于齊.大歸也.將行哭而過市.曰天乎.仲為不道.殺適.立庶.市人皆哭.魯人謂之哀姜.
  8. 莒紀公子生大子僕.又生季佗.愛季佗而黜僕.且多行禮於國.僕因國人以弒紀公.以其寶玉來奔.納諸宣公.公命與之邑.曰.今日必授.季文子使司寇出諸竟.曰.今日必達.公問其故.季文子使大史克對曰.先大夫臧文仲.教行父事君之禮.行父奉以周旋.弗敢失隊.曰.見有禮於其君者事之.如孝子之養父母也.見無禮於其君者誅之.如鷹鸇之逐鳥雀也.先君周公制周禮曰.則以觀德.德以處事.事以度功.功以食民.作誓命曰.毀則為賊.掩賊為藏.竊賄為盜.盜器為姦.主藏之名.賴姦之用.為大凶德.有常無赦.在九刑不忘.行父還觀莒僕.莫可則也.孝敬忠信為吉德.盜賊藏姦為凶德.夫莒僕.則其孝敬.則弒君父矣.則其忠信.則竊寶玉矣.其人.則盜賊也.其器.則姦兆也.保而利之.則主藏也.以訓則昏.民無則焉.不度於善.而皆在於凶德.是以去之.
  9. 昔高陽氏有才子八人.蒼舒.隤敳.檮戭.大臨.尨降.庭堅.仲容.叔達.齊聖廣淵.明允篤誠.天下之民.謂之八愷.
  10. 高辛氏有才子八人.伯奮.仲堪.叔獻.季仲.伯虎.仲熊.叔豹.季貍.忠肅共懿.宣慈惠和.天下之民.謂之八元.
  11. 此十六族也.世濟其美.不隕其名.以至於堯.堯不能舉.舜臣堯.舉八愷.使主后土.以揆百事.莫不時序.地平天成.舉八元.使布五教于四方.父義.母慈.兄友.弟共.子孝.內平.外成.
  12. 昔帝鴻氏有不才子.掩義隱賊.好行凶德.醜類惡物.頑嚚不友.是與比周.天下之民.謂之渾敦.
  13. 少皞氏有不才子.毀信廢忠.崇飾惡言.靖譖庸回.服讒蒐慝.以誣盛德.天下之民.謂之窮奇.
  14. 顓頊有不才子.不可教訓.不知話言.告之則頑.舍之則嚚.傲很明德.以亂天常.天下之民.謂之檮杌.
  15. 此三族也.世濟其凶.增其惡名.以至于堯.堯不能去.
  16. 縉雲氏有不才子.貪于飲食.冒于貨賄.侵欲崇侈.不可盈厭.聚斂積實.不知紀極.不分孤寡.不恤窮匱.天下之民.以比三凶.謂之饕餮.
  17. 舜臣堯.賓于四門.流四凶族.渾敦.窮奇.檮杌.饕餮.投諸四裔.以禦螭魅.是以堯崩而天下如一.同心戴舜.以為天子.以其舉十六相.去四凶也.故虞書數舜之功曰.慎徽五典.五典克從.無違教也.曰.納于百揆.百揆時序.無廢事也.曰賓于四門.四門穆穆.無凶人也.舜有大功二十而為天子.今行父雖未獲一吉人.去一凶矣.於舜之功.二十之一也.庶幾免於戾乎.
  18. 宋武氏之族道昭公子.將奉司城須以作亂.十二月.宋公殺母弟須.及昭公子使戴.莊.桓.之族.攻武氏於司馬子伯之館.遂出武穆之族.使公孫師為司城.公子朝卒.使樂呂為司寇.以靖國人.
  1. In the spring, the marquis of Qi, was preparing for the time when he should take the field [to attack Lu], when he fell ill, and his physician said that he would die before autumn. The duke heard of it, and consulted the tortoise-shell, saying, "May his death take place before the time [of his taking the field]!" Huibo communicated the subject inquired about to the shell. Chuqiu, the diviner, performed the operation, and said, "The marquis of Qi will die before that time, though not of illness; and the duke also [will die] without hearing of the marquis's death. There is evil also in store for him who communicated the subject to the shell." [Accordingly], the duke died on Dingchou, in the 2d month.
  2. When duke Yi of Qi was [only] duke's son, he had a strife with the father of Bing Chu about some fields, in which he did not get the better; and therefore, when he became marquis, he caused the grave of his opponent to be dug open, and the feet of the corpse to be cut off, while yet he employed Chu as his charioteer. And though he took to himself the wife of Yan Zhi, he carried Zhi with him as the third attendant in his chariot.
  3. In summer, in the 5th month, the duke having gone to the pool of Shen, these two men were bathing in the pool, when Chu struck the other with a twig, and then said to him, when he got angry, "Since you allowed your wife to be taken from you without being angry, how does a tap like that hurt you?" "How is it," replied Zhi, "between me and him who was able to see his father's feet cut off without feeling aggrieved.?" The two men then consulted together, murdered duke Yi, and laid his body among the bamboos. They then returned [to the city], calmly put down their cups [after drinking], and went away. The people of Qi raised duke Huan's son Yuan to his brother's place.
  4. In autumn, Xiangzhong and Zhuangshu went to Qi, [to congratulate] duke Hui on account of his accession, and to express Lu's acknowledgment for the presence of an officer of Qi at duke Wen's burial.
  5. Jing Ying, the second wife [in rank] of duke Wen bore him a son, [Tui, who became] duke Xuan. She was the duke's favourite, and privately paid court to Xiangzhong, to whom she entrusted the care of her son's interests as he grew up. [In consequence of this], Xiangzhong wished to declare Tui his father's successor; but Shuzhong (Shu Pengsheng, or Huibo) objected. When Zhong had an interview with the marquis of Qi, he begged his sanction to what he proposed, and the marquis, being new in his own position, and wishing to be on friendly terms with Lu, granted it.
  6. In winter, in the 10th month, [Xiang]chung killed E and Shi, and set up [Tui, who became] duke Xuan. The entry that 'the [duke's] son died' is to conceal the nature of the fact. Zhong then, [as if] by the [young] ruler's order, called Huibo [to come to him]. Huibo's steward, Gongran Wuren endeavoured to stop him, saying that, if he entered [the palace]. he was sure to die. Shuzhong said, "If I die in obeying my ruler's command, it is right I should do so." The steward answered, "Yes, if it be the ruler's command; but if it be not, why should you listen to it?" Huibo would not take this advice, but entered [the palace], where they killed him, and hid his body among the horses' dung. His steward then carried his wife and children with him, and fled to Cai; but the Shuzhong family was afterwards restored.
  7. This return of duke Wen's wife Jiang to Qi was a return for good. When she was about to go, she wept aloud. Passing through the market place, she cried out, "O Heaven, Zhong has done wickedly, killing the son of the wife, and setting up the son of a concubine!" All in the market wept, and the people of Lu called her Ai Jiang ("The sorrowful Jiang").
  8. Duke Ji of Ju had two sons,—Pu the eldest, [and who should have succeeded him], and Jituo; but through his love for Jituo he degraded Pu. He also did many things against all propriety in the State, and Pu, by the help of the people, proceeded to murder him. He then gathered all his valuable treasures together, and came flying with them to Lu, and presented them to duke Xuan. The duke gave orders to assign him a city, saying,"It must be given to him today;" but Ji Wen made the minister of Crime send him beyond the borders, saying, "He must get there today." The duke asked the reason of this conduct, and Ji Wen sent Ke, the grand historiographer, with the following reply:——"A deceased great officer of our State, Zang Wenzhong taught Hangfu rules to guide him in serving his ruler, and Hangfu gives them the widest application, not daring to let them slip from his mind. Wenzhong's words were, 'When you see a man who observes the rules of propriety in his conduct to his ruler, behave to him as a dutiful son should do in nourishing his parents. When you see a man who transgresses those rules towards his ruler, take him off as an eagle or a hawk pursues a small bird.' The founder of our House the duke of Zhou, in the Rules which he framed for Zhou, said, 'By means of the model of conduct you can see a man's virtue. His virtue is evidenced in his management of affairs. From that management his merit can be measured. His services result in the support of the people.' In the Admonitory Instructions which he made, [the duke of Zhou] said, 'He who overthrows [the laws of conduct] is a villain; and he who conceals him is his harbourer. He who filches money is a thief; he who steals the treasures of a State is a traitor. He who harbours the villain, and he who uses the treasures of the traitor, is guilty of the greatest crime. He must suffer the regular penalty, without forgiveness;—such a case is not omitted in [the Book of] the nine Punishments.' When Hangfu viewed the whole action of Pu of Ju, he saw nothing in him fit to be a model of conduct. Filial reverence and loyal faith are virtues of good conduct; theft and villainy, and harbouring [the thief] and [accepting the gifts of] the traitor, are vices of evil conduct. Now what was the pattern of filial reverence given by Pu of Ju?—The murder of his father and ruler. And his pattern of loyal faith was his stealing the treasures and jewels of the State. The man is a robber and a villain; the things he brought with him are the signs of his treachery. To protect him and accept his gifts would be to be a principal in harbouring him. If we, with [the duke of Zhou's] lessons, should take such a blind course, the people would have no pattern; and unable to take the measurement of good themselves, they would be in the midst of vices of bad conduct. It was for these reasons that [Hangfu] sent Pu of Ju away.
  9. The ancient [emperor] Gaoyang (i. q. Zhuanxu) had eight descendants of ability [and virtue]:—Cangshu; Tui'ai; Taoyan; Dalin; Mangxiang; Tingjian; Zhongrong; and Shuda. They were correct and sagely, of wide comprehension and deep, intelligent and consistent, generously good and sincere:—all under heaven called them the eight Harmonies.
  10. [The emperor] Gaoxin [i. q. Ku] had [also] eight descendants of ability [and virtue]:——Bofen; Zhongkan, Shuxian; Jizhong; Bohu; Zhongxiong; Shubao; and Jili. They were leal and reverential, respectful and admirable, all-considering and benevolent, kind and harmonious:—all under heaven called them the eight Worthies.
  11. Of these 16 men [after] ages have acknowledged the excellence, and not let their names fall to the ground. But in the time of Yao, he was not able to raise them to office. When Shun, however, became Yao's minister, he raised the eight Harmonies to office, and employed them to superintend the department of the minister of the Land. All matters connected with it were thus regulated, and everything was arranged in its proper season;—the earth was reduced to order, and the influences of heaven operated with effect. He also raised the eight Worthies to office, and employed them to disseminate through the four quarters a knowledge of the duties belonging to the five relations of society. Fathers became just and mothers gentle; elder brothers kindly, and younger ones respectful; and sons became filial:—in the empire there was order, and beyond it submission.
  12. The ancient emperor Hong [Huangdi] had a descendant devoid of ability [and virtue]. He hid righteousness from himself, and was a villain at heart; he delighted in the practice of the worst vices; he was shameless and vile, obstinate, stupid, and unfriendly, cultivating only the intimacy of such as himself. All the people under heaven called him Chaos.
  13. The emperor Shaohao [Preceded Zhuanxu] had a descendant devoid of ability [and virtue]. He sought to overthrow faith, and disowned loyalty. He delighted in evil speeches and tried to make them attractive; he was at home with slanderers, and employed the perverse; he readily received calumnies, and sought out men's iniquities, to stigmatize what was sincere. All the people under heaven called him Monster.
  14. [The emperor] Zhuanxu had a descendant devoid of ability [and virtue]. He would receive no instruction; he would acknowledge no good words. When told, he was obstinate; when left alone, he was stupid. He was an arrogant hater of intelligent virtue, seeking to confound the heavenly rules of society. All the people under heaven called him Block.
  15. 'Of these three men [after] ages acknowledged the wickedness, and added to their evil names. But in the time of Yao, he was not able to put them away.
  16. [The officer] Jinyun [In the time of Huangdi] had a descendant who was devoid of ability and virtue. He was greedy of eating and drinking, craving for money and property. Ever gratifying his lusts, and making a grand display, he was insatiable, rapacious in his exactions, and accumulating stores of wealth. He had no idea of calculating where he should stop, and made no exceptions in favour of the orphan and the widow, felt no compassion for the poor and exhausted. All the people under heaven likened him to the three other wicked ones, and called him Glutton
  17. When Shun became Yao's minister, he received the nobles from the four quarters of the empire, and banished these four wicked ones, Chaos, Monster, Block, and Glutton, casting them out into the four distant regions, to meet the spite of the sprites and evil things. The consequence of this was, that, when Yao died, all under heaven, as if they had been one man, with common consent bore Shun to be emperor, because he had raised to office those sixteen helpers, and had put away the four wicked ones. Therefore the Book of Yu, in enumerating the services of Shun, says, 'He carefully set forth the beauty of the five cardinal duties, and they came to be universally observed (The Shu, II. i. 2):'—none were disobedient to his instructions; 'being appointed to be General Regulator, the affairs of each department were arranged according to their proper seasons (ibid.):'—there was no neglect of any affair; 'having to receive the princes from the four quarters of the empire, they all were docilely submissive (ibid.):'—there were none wicked among them. Shun's services were shown in the case of those 20 men, and he became emperor; and now, although Hangfu has not obtained one good man, he has put away one bad one. 'He has a twentieth part of the merit of Shun; and may he not, perhaps, escape the charge of having been disobedient?" 
  18. The Wu clan in Song led on a son of duke Zhao, to support Xu the minister of Works, in making an insurrection. In the 12th month, the duke of Song put to death his own brother Xu, and the son of duke Zhao. He also made the heads of clans, descended from dukes Dai, Zhuang, and Huan, attack the head of the Wu clan in the court-house of Zibo, minister of War, and then expelled the chiefs of the clans of Wu and Mu. He appointed Gongsun Shi minister of Works; and on the death of Gongzi Zhao, he made Yue Lü minister of Crime; —thus quieting [the minds of] the people.