| 經十有八年|| Text|
| 1. In his eighteenth year, in spring, in the king's second month, on Dingchou, the duke died, [in a chamber] beneath [one] of his towers.|
2. Ying, earl of Qin, died.
3. In summer, in the fifth month, on Wuxu, the people of Qi murdered their ruler, Shangren.
4. In the sixth month, on Guiyou, we buried our ruler, duke Wen.
5. In autumn, duke [Zhuang's] son, Sui, and Shusun Dechen, went to Qi.
6. In winter, in the tenth month, the [duke's] son died.
7. The [duke's] wife, the lady Jiang, went back to Qi.
8. Jisun Hangfu went to Qi.
9. Ju murdered its ruler, Shuqi.
- In the spring, the marquis of Qi, was preparing for the time when he should take the field [to attack Lu], when he fell ill, and his physician said that he would die before autumn. The duke heard of it, and consulted the tortoise-shell, saying, "May his death take place before the time [of his taking the field]!" Huibo communicated the subject inquired about to the shell. Chuqiu, the diviner, performed the operation, and said, "The marquis of Qi will die before that time, though not of illness; and the duke also [will die] without hearing of the marquis's death. There is evil also in store for him who communicated the subject to the shell." [Accordingly], the duke died on Dingchou, in the 2d month.
- When duke Yi of Qi was [only] duke's son, he had a strife with the father of Bing Chu about some fields, in which he did not get the better; and therefore, when he became marquis, he caused the grave of his opponent to be dug open, and the feet of the corpse to be cut off, while yet he employed Chu as his charioteer. And though he took to himself the wife of Yan Zhi, he carried Zhi with him as the third attendant in his chariot.
- In summer, in the 5th month, the duke having gone to the pool of Shen, these two men were bathing in the pool, when Chu struck the other with a twig, and then said to him, when he got angry, "Since you allowed your wife to be taken from you without being angry, how does a tap like that hurt you?" "How is it," replied Zhi, "between me and him who was able to see his father's feet cut off without feeling aggrieved.?" The two men then consulted together, murdered duke Yi, and laid his body among the bamboos. They then returned [to the city], calmly put down their cups [after drinking], and went away. The people of Qi raised duke Huan's son Yuan to his brother's place.
- In autumn, Xiangzhong and Zhuangshu went to Qi, [to congratulate] duke Hui on account of his accession, and to express Lu's acknowledgment for the presence of an officer of Qi at duke Wen's burial.
- Jing Ying, the second wife [in rank] of duke Wen bore him a son, [Tui, who became] duke Xuan. She was the duke's favourite, and privately paid court to Xiangzhong, to whom she entrusted the care of her son's interests as he grew up. [In consequence of this], Xiangzhong wished to declare Tui his father's successor; but Shuzhong (Shu Pengsheng, or Huibo) objected. When Zhong had an interview with the marquis of Qi, he begged his sanction to what he proposed, and the marquis, being new in his own position, and wishing to be on friendly terms with Lu, granted it.
- In winter, in the 10th month, [Xiang]chung killed E and Shi, and set up [Tui, who became] duke Xuan. The entry that 'the [duke's] son died' is to conceal the nature of the fact. Zhong then, [as if] by the [young] ruler's order, called Huibo [to come to him]. Huibo's steward, Gongran Wuren endeavoured to stop him, saying that, if he entered [the palace]. he was sure to die. Shuzhong said, "If I die in obeying my ruler's command, it is right I should do so." The steward answered, "Yes, if it be the ruler's command; but if it be not, why should you listen to it?" Huibo would not take this advice, but entered [the palace], where they killed him, and hid his body among the horses' dung. His steward then carried his wife and children with him, and fled to Cai; but the Shuzhong family was afterwards restored.
- This return of duke Wen's wife Jiang to Qi was a return for good. When she was about to go, she wept aloud. Passing through the market place, she cried out, "O Heaven, Zhong has done wickedly, killing the son of the wife, and setting up the son of a concubine!" All in the market wept, and the people of Lu called her Ai Jiang ("The sorrowful Jiang").
- Duke Ji of Ju had two sons,—Pu the eldest, [and who should have succeeded him], and Jituo; but through his love for Jituo he degraded Pu. He also did many things against all propriety in the State, and Pu, by the help of the people, proceeded to murder him. He then gathered all his valuable treasures together, and came flying with them to Lu, and presented them to duke Xuan. The duke gave orders to assign him a city, saying,"It must be given to him today;" but Ji Wen made the minister of Crime send him beyond the borders, saying, "He must get there today." The duke asked the reason of this conduct, and Ji Wen sent Ke, the grand historiographer, with the following reply:——"A deceased great officer of our State, Zang Wenzhong taught Hangfu rules to guide him in serving his ruler, and Hangfu gives them the widest application, not daring to let them slip from his mind. Wenzhong's words were, 'When you see a man who observes the rules of propriety in his conduct to his ruler, behave to him as a dutiful son should do in nourishing his parents. When you see a man who transgresses those rules towards his ruler, take him off as an eagle or a hawk pursues a small bird.' The founder of our House the duke of Zhou, in the Rules which he framed for Zhou, said, 'By means of the model of conduct you can see a man's virtue. His virtue is evidenced in his management of affairs. From that management his merit can be measured. His services result in the support of the people.' In the Admonitory Instructions which he made, [the duke of Zhou] said, 'He who overthrows [the laws of conduct] is a villain; and he who conceals him is his harbourer. He who filches money is a thief; he who steals the treasures of a State is a traitor. He who harbours the villain, and he who uses the treasures of the traitor, is guilty of the greatest crime. He must suffer the regular penalty, without forgiveness;—such a case is not omitted in [the Book of] the nine Punishments.' When Hangfu viewed the whole action of Pu of Ju, he saw nothing in him fit to be a model of conduct. Filial reverence and loyal faith are virtues of good conduct; theft and villainy, and harbouring [the thief] and [accepting the gifts of] the traitor, are vices of evil conduct. Now what was the pattern of filial reverence given by Pu of Ju?—The murder of his father and ruler. And his pattern of loyal faith was his stealing the treasures and jewels of the State. The man is a robber and a villain; the things he brought with him are the signs of his treachery. To protect him and accept his gifts would be to be a principal in harbouring him. If we, with [the duke of Zhou's] lessons, should take such a blind course, the people would have no pattern; and unable to take the measurement of good themselves, they would be in the midst of vices of bad conduct. It was for these reasons that [Hangfu] sent Pu of Ju away.
- The ancient [emperor] Gaoyang (i. q. Zhuanxu) had eight descendants of ability [and virtue]:—Cangshu; Tui'ai; Taoyan; Dalin; Mangxiang; Tingjian; Zhongrong; and Shuda. They were correct and sagely, of wide comprehension and deep, intelligent and consistent, generously good and sincere:—all under heaven called them the eight Harmonies.
- [The emperor] Gaoxin [i. q. Ku] had [also] eight descendants of ability [and virtue]:——Bofen; Zhongkan, Shuxian; Jizhong; Bohu; Zhongxiong; Shubao; and Jili. They were leal and reverential, respectful and admirable, all-considering and benevolent, kind and harmonious:—all under heaven called them the eight Worthies.
- Of these 16 men [after] ages have acknowledged the excellence, and not let their names fall to the ground. But in the time of Yao, he was not able to raise them to office. When Shun, however, became Yao's minister, he raised the eight Harmonies to office, and employed them to superintend the department of the minister of the Land. All matters connected with it were thus regulated, and everything was arranged in its proper season;—the earth was reduced to order, and the influences of heaven operated with effect. He also raised the eight Worthies to office, and employed them to disseminate through the four quarters a knowledge of the duties belonging to the five relations of society. Fathers became just and mothers gentle; elder brothers kindly, and younger ones respectful; and sons became filial:—in the empire there was order, and beyond it submission.
- The ancient emperor Hong [Huangdi] had a descendant devoid of ability [and virtue]. He hid righteousness from himself, and was a villain at heart; he delighted in the practice of the worst vices; he was shameless and vile, obstinate, stupid, and unfriendly, cultivating only the intimacy of such as himself. All the people under heaven called him Chaos.
- The emperor Shaohao [Preceded Zhuanxu] had a descendant devoid of ability [and virtue]. He sought to overthrow faith, and disowned loyalty. He delighted in evil speeches and tried to make them attractive; he was at home with slanderers, and employed the perverse; he readily received calumnies, and sought out men's iniquities, to stigmatize what was sincere. All the people under heaven called him Monster.
- [The emperor] Zhuanxu had a descendant devoid of ability [and virtue]. He would receive no instruction; he would acknowledge no good words. When told, he was obstinate; when left alone, he was stupid. He was an arrogant hater of intelligent virtue, seeking to confound the heavenly rules of society. All the people under heaven called him Block.
- 'Of these three men [after] ages acknowledged the wickedness, and added to their evil names. But in the time of Yao, he was not able to put them away.
- [The officer] Jinyun [In the time of Huangdi] had a descendant who was devoid of ability and virtue. He was greedy of eating and drinking, craving for money and property. Ever gratifying his lusts, and making a grand display, he was insatiable, rapacious in his exactions, and accumulating stores of wealth. He had no idea of calculating where he should stop, and made no exceptions in favour of the orphan and the widow, felt no compassion for the poor and exhausted. All the people under heaven likened him to the three other wicked ones, and called him Glutton
- When Shun became Yao's minister, he received the nobles from the four quarters of the empire, and banished these four wicked ones, Chaos, Monster, Block, and Glutton, casting them out into the four distant regions, to meet the spite of the sprites and evil things. The consequence of this was, that, when Yao died, all under heaven, as if they had been one man, with common consent bore Shun to be emperor, because he had raised to office those sixteen helpers, and had put away the four wicked ones. Therefore the Book of Yu, in enumerating the services of Shun, says, 'He carefully set forth the beauty of the five cardinal duties, and they came to be universally observed (The Shu, II. i. 2):'—none were disobedient to his instructions; 'being appointed to be General Regulator, the affairs of each department were arranged according to their proper seasons (ibid.):'—there was no neglect of any affair; 'having to receive the princes from the four quarters of the empire, they all were docilely submissive (ibid.):'—there were none wicked among them. Shun's services were shown in the case of those 20 men, and he became emperor; and now, although Hangfu has not obtained one good man, he has put away one bad one. 'He has a twentieth part of the merit of Shun; and may he not, perhaps, escape the charge of having been disobedient?"
- The Wu clan in Song led on a son of duke Zhao, to support Xu the minister of Works, in making an insurrection. In the 12th month, the duke of Song put to death his own brother Xu, and the son of duke Zhao. He also made the heads of clans, descended from dukes Dai, Zhuang, and Huan, attack the head of the Wu clan in the court-house of Zibo, minister of War, and then expelled the chiefs of the clans of Wu and Mu. He appointed Gongsun Shi minister of Works; and on the death of Gongzi Zhao, he made Yue Lü minister of Crime; —thus quieting [the minds of] the people.