Tso Chuen Reading In Progress
Pengya. Battle of (or P'eng-ya) battle in 624 BC in which the Chinese State Of Jin defeated Duke Mu Of Qin. Qin invaded Jin and captured several towns including Pengya. Jin leader Marquis Xiang sent military commander Xian Chuju to recover them. He defeated the Qin forces completely with a fierce chariot charge. Jin recovered most of the towns, Including Pengya.
In the 2d year, in spring, Mengming Shi of Qin led an army against Jin, to repay his defeat at Yao. In the 2d month, the marquis of Jin went to meet him, Xian Qieju commanding the army of the centre, with Zhao Cui as his assistant. Wudi of Wangguan acted as charioteer, and Hu Juju was spearman on the right. On Jiazi they fought in Pengya, when the army of Qin received a severe defeat, the men of Jin calling it the army with which Qin acknowledged their marquis's gift [See Mengming's language at the end of the Zhuan on p. 3 of the 33d year of duke Xi].
At the battle of Yao, Liang Hong had been charioteer, and Lai Ju the spearman on the right. On the day after it, duke Xiang had one of the prisoners bound, and ordered Lai Ju to kill him with a spear. The prisoner gave a shout, and Ju dropt the spear, on which Lang Shen took it up, killed him, and, taking his left ear, followed the marquis's chariot, who made him the spearman on the right.
At the battle of Ji, Xian Zhen degraded Lang Shen, and appointed Xu Jianbo in his place. Lang Shen was angry, and one of his friends said to him, "Why not die here?" He replied, "I have here no proper place to die in." "Let me and you do a difficult thing," said the friend [Meaning that they should kill the general]; but Lang Shen replied, 'It is said in one of the histories of Zhou, 'The brave who kills his superior shall have no place in the hall of Light.' He who dies doing what is not righteous is not brave; he who dies in the public service is brave. By bravery I sought the place of spearman on the right; I am degraded as not being brave; —it is my present place. If I should say that my superior does not know me, and did that which would make my degradation right, I should only prove that he did know me. Wait a little, my friend."
'At Pengya, when the army was marshalled for the battle, Lang Shen, with his own followers, dashed into the army of Qin, and died. The army of Jin followed him, and gained a great victory. The superior man will say that Lang Shen in this way proved himself a superior man. It is said in the ode [Shi, II. v. ode IV. 2]:—
"Let the superior man be angry. And disorder will be stopt;"
and again [Shi, III. i. ode VII. 5]:—
"The king rose majestic in his wrath, And marshalled his troops."
When Lang in his anger would not be guilty of disorder, but went on to do good service in the army, he may be called a superior man.
'The earl of Qin, [notwithstanding this fresh defeat], still employed Mengming, who paid increased attention to the government of the State, and made great largesses to the people. Zhao Cheng [Cheng is the hon. title of Zhao Cui] said to the officers of Jin, "The army of Qin will be here again, and we must get out of its way. He who in his apprehension increases his virtue cannot be matched. The ode says [Shi, III. i. ode 1.6]:
"Ever think of your ancestors, Cultivating your virtue."
It is in this way that Mengming thinks. Thinking of his virtue, without remitting his efforts, can he be resisted?" '
At an earlier period, the viscount of Chu, intending to declare Shangchen his successor, consulted his chief minister Zishang about it. Zishang said, "Your lordship is not yet old. You are also fond of many [of your children]. Should you degrade him hereafter, he will make disorder. The succession in Chu has always been from among the younger sons. Morever, he has eyes [projecting] like a wasp's, and a wolf's voice;—he is capable of anything. You ought not to raise him to that position." The viscount did it however.
But afterwards he wished to appoint his son Zhi instead, and to degrade Shangchen. Shangchen heard of his intention, but was not sure of it. He therefore told his tutor Pan Chong, and asked him how he could get certain information. Chong said, "Give a feast to her of Jiang [The viscount's sister], and behave disrespectfully to her." The prince did so, when the lady became angry, and cried out, "You slave, it is with reason that the king wishes to kill you, and appoint Zhi in your place." Shangchen told this to his tutor, saying, "The report is true.' Chong then said, "Are you able to serve Zhi?" "No." "Are you able to leave the State?" "No." "Are you able to do the great thing?" "Yes."
In winter, in the 10th month. Shangchen, with the guards of his palace, held the king in siege. The king begged to have bear's paws to eat before he died, which was refused him; and on Dingwei he strangled himself. The prince [immediately] gave him the title of Ling, but his eyes would not shut. He changed it to Cheng, and they shut. [Shangchen] took his place, [and is known as] king Mu. He gave the house where he had lived as the eldest son to Pan Chong, made him grand-tutor, and commander of the palace guards.
In winter, in the twelfth month, on Jimao, Chong'er, marquis of Jin, died. On Gengchen, they were conveying his coffin to place it in the temple at Quwo, when, as it was leaving Jiang, there came a voice from it like the lowing of an angry bull. The diviner Yan made the great officers do obeisance to the coffin, saying, "His lordship is charging us about a great affair. There will be an army of the west passing by us; we shall smite it, and obtain a great victory."
Now Qi Zi had sent information from Zheng to Qin, saying, "The people of Zheng have entrusted to my charge the key of their north gate. If an army come secretly upon it, the city may be got. Duke Mu of Qi consulted Jian Shu about the subject, and that officer replied, 'That a distant place can be surprised by an army toiled with a long march is what I have not learned. The strength of the men will be wearied out with toil, and the distant lord will be prepared for them;—does not the undertaking seem impracticable? Zheng is sure to know the doings of our army. Our soldiers, enduring the toil, and getting nothing, will become disaffected. And moreover, to whom can such a march of a thousand li be unknown?" The earl, however, declined this counsel, called for Mengming, Xiqi, and Boyi, and ordered them to collect an army outside the east gate. Jian Shu wept over it, and said, "General Meng. I see the army's going forth, but I shall not see its entry again." The earl sent to say to him, "What do you know, you centenarian? It would take two hands to grasp the tree upon your grave!" Jian Shu's son also went in the expedition, and the old man escorted him, weeping and saying, "It will be at Yao that the men of Jin will resist the army. At Yao there are two ridges. On the southern ridge is the grave of the sovereign Gao of the Xia dynasty; the northern is where king Wen took refuge from the wind and rain. You will die between them. There I will gather your bones." Immediately after this the army of Qin marched to the east.
In spring, the army of Qin was passing by the northgate of [the royal city of] Zhou, when the mailed men on the right and left of the chariots [merely] took off their helmets and descended, springing afterwards with a bound into the chariots,—the 300 of them. Prince Wangsun Man was still quite young; but when he saw this, he said to the king, 'The army of Qin acts lightly and is unobservant of propriety;—it is sure to be defeated. Acting so lightly, there must be little counsel in it. Unobservant of propriety, it will be heedless. When it enters a dangerous pass, and is heedless, being moreover without wise counsel, can it escape defeat?
When the army entered Hua, Xian Gao, a merchant of Zheng, on his way to traffic in Zhou, met it. He went with four dressed hides, preceding 12 oxen, to distribute them among the soldiers, and said [to the general], "My prince, having heard that you were marching with your army, and would pass by his poor city, ventures thus to refresh your attendants. Our poor city, when your attendants come there, can supply them, while they stay, with one day's provisions, and provide them, when they go, with one night's escort." At the same time he sent intelligence of what was taking place with all possible speed to Zheng.
The earl of Zheng, [on receiving the tidings], sent to see what was going on at the lodging houses which had been built for the guards of Qin, and found there bundles all ready, waggons loaded, weapons sharpened, and the horses fed. On this he sent Huang Wu to decline their further services, and say to them, "You have been detained, Sirs, too long at our poor city. Our dried flesh, our money, our rice, our cattle, are all used up. We have our park of Yuan as Qin has that of Ju. Suppose you supply yourselves with deer from that to give our poor city some rest." On this Qi Zi fled to Qi, while Feng Sun and Yang Sun fled to Song. Mengming said, "Zheng is prepared for us. We cannot hope to surprise it. If we attack it, we shall not immediately take it; and if we lay siege to it, we are too far off to receive succour. Let us return." The army of Qin then proceeded to extinguish Hua, and returned.
[Xian] Zhen of Yuan said to the marquis of Jin, "[The earl of] Qin, contrary to the counsel of Jian Shu, has, under the influence of greed, been imposing toil on his people;—this is an opportunity given us by Heaven. It should not be lost; our enemy should not be let go unassailed. Such disobedience to Heaven will be inauspicious;—we must attack the army of Qin." Luan Zhi said, "We have not yet repaid the services rendered to our last lord by Qin, and if we now attack its army, this is to make him dead indeed!" Xian Zhen replied, "Qin has shown no sympathy with us in our loss, but has attacked [two States of] our surname. It is Qin who has been unobservant of propriety;—what have we to do with [former] favours? I have heard that if you let your enemy go a single day, you are preparing the misfortunes of several generations. In taking counsel for his posterity, can we be said to be treating our last ruler as dead?"
The [new marquis] instantly issued orders [for the expedition]. The Jiang Rong were called into the field on the spur of the moment. The marquis [joined the army], wearing his son's-garb of unhemmed mourning, stained with black, and also his mourning scarf. Liang Hong was his charioteer, and Lai Ju his spearman on the right. In summer, in the 4th month, on Xinsi, he defeated the army of Qin at Yao, took [the commanders], Boli Mengmingshi, Xiqi Shu, and Boyi Bing, prisoners, and brought them back with him to the capital, from which he proceeded in his dark-stained mourning garb to inter duke Wen, which thenceforth became the custom in Jin. Wen Ying [duke Wen's Qin wife] interceded for the prisoners, saying, "In consequence of their stirring up enmity between you and him, [my father], the earl of Qin, will not be satisfied even if he should eat them. Why should you condescend to punish them? Why should you not send them back to be put to death in Qin, to satisfy the wish of my lord there?" The marquis acceded to her advice.
Xian Zhen went to court, and asked about the Qin prisoners. The marquis replied, 'My father's widow requested it, and I have let them go." The officer in a rage said, 'Your warriors by their strength caught them in the field, and now they are let go for a woman's brief word in the city. By such overthrow of the services of the army, and such prolongation of the resentment of our enemies, our ruin will come at no distant day." With this, without turning round, he spat on the ground.
The marquis sent Yang Chufu to pursue after the liberated commanders; but when he got to the He, they were already on board a boat. Loosing the outside horse on the left of his chariot, he said he had the marquis's order to present it to Mengming. Mengming bowed his head to the ground, and said, "Your prince's kindness in not taking the blood of me his prisoner to smear his drums [See Mencius, I. Pt. I., vii. 4], but liberating me to go and be killed in Qin;—this kindness, should my prince indeed execute me, I will not forget in death. If by your prince's kindness I escape this fate, in three years I will thank him for his gift."
The earl of Qin, in white mourning garments, was waiting for them in the borders of the capital, and wept, looking in the direction where the army had been lost. "By my opposition to the counsel of Jian Shu," he said, "I brought disgrace on you, my generals. Mine has been the crime; and that I did not [before] dismiss Mengming [from such a service] was my fault. What fault are you chargeable with? I will not for one error shut out of view your great merits."
XXX. Thirtieth year.
1. It was the [duke's] thirtieth year, the spring, the king's first month.
2. In summer, the Di made an incursion into Qi.
3. In autumn, Wey put to death its great officer, Yuan Xuan, and duke [ Wen's] son, Xia.
4. Zheng, marquis of Wey, returned to Wey.
5. A body of men from Jin and one from Qin laid siege to [the capital of] Zheng.
6. A body of men from Jie made an incursion into Xiao.
7. In winter, the king [by] Heaven's [grace] sent his chief minister, the duke of Zhou, to Lu, on a mission of friendly inquiries.
8. Duke [Zhuang's] son, Sui, went to the capital, and at the same time went to Jin.
An officer of Jin was conducting an incursion into Zheng, to see whether that State could be attacked with advantage or not. The Di took the opportunity of Jin's being thus occupied with Zheng, and in the summer made an incursion into Qi.
The marquis of Jin employed the physician Yan to poison the marquis of Wey, but Ning Yu bribed the physician to make the poison so weak that his master did not die of it. The duke [of Lu] after this interceded on his behalf, and presented the king and the marquis of Jin each with 10 pairs of jade ornaments. The king acceded to the duke's intercession, and in autumn the marquis of Wey was released. He then bribed Zhou Chuan and Ye Jin, saying, 'If you can secure my restoration, I will make you my high ministers." On this Zhou and Ye killed Yuan Xuan, with Zidi and Ziyi. When the marquis was entering the ancestral temple to sacrifice to his predecessors, Zhou and Ye were there in full dress to receive their charge as ministers. Zhou preceded, but when he came to the door, he was taken ill, and died, upon which Jin declined the appointment.
In the 9th month, on Jia wu, the marquis of Jin and the earl of Qin laid siege to Zheng, because of the want of courtesy which the earl of it had shown to the marquis in his wanderings [See the Zhuan at the end of the 23d year], and because he was with double-mindedness inclining to Chu. The army of Jin took a position at Hanling, and that of Qin one at Fannan. Yi Zhihu said to the earl of Zheng, "The State is in imminent peril. If you send Zhu Zhiwu to see the earl of Qin, his army is sure to be withdrawn." The earl took the advice, but Zhu Zhiwu declined the mission, saying, "When your servant was in the strength of his age, he was regarded as not equal to others; and now he is old, and unable to render any service." The earl said, "That I was not able to employ you earlier, and now beg your help in my straits, I acknowledge to be my fault. But if Zheng perish, you also will suffer loss." On this Zhiwu agreed, and undertook the mission.
At night he was let down from the city-wall by a rope; and when he saw the earl of Qin, he said, "With Jin and Qin both besieging its capital, Zheng knows that it must perish. If the ruin of Zheng were to benefit your lordship, I should not dare to speak to you;—you might well urge your officers and soldiers in such a case. But you know the difficulty there would be with such a distant border, another State intervening. Of what advantage is it to you to destroy Zheng to benefit your neighbour? His advantage will be your disadvantage. If you leave Zheng to be master and host here on the way to the east, when your officers go and come with their baggage, it can minister to their necessities;—and surely this will be no injury to you. And moreover, your lordship was a benefactor to the former marquis of Jin, and he promised you the cities of Jiao and Xia; but in the morning he crossed the He, and in the evening he commenced building defences against you:—this your lordship knows. But Jin is insatiable. Having made Zheng its boundary on the east, it will go on to want to enlarge its border on the west. And how will it be able to do that except by taking territory from Qin? To diminish Qin in order to advantage Jin:—this is a matter for your lordship to think about."
The earl of Qin was pleased with this speech, and made a covenant with the people of Zheng, appointing Qi Zi, Feng Sun, and Yang Sun to guard the territory, while he himself returned to Qin. Zifan asked leave to pursue and smite him, but the marquis of Jin said, "No. But for his assistance I should not have arrived at my present state. To get the benefit of a man's help, and then to injure him, would show a want of benevolence, To have erred in those with whom I was to cooperate shows my want of knowledge. To exchange the orderly array in which we came here for one of disorder would show a want of warlike skill. I will withdraw." And upon this he also left Zheng.
Before this, Lan, a son of the earl of Zheng, had fled from that State to Jin. Following the marquis of Jin in the invasion of Zheng, he begged that he might not take any part in, or be present at, the siege. His request was granted, and he was sent to the eastern border of Jin to wait for further orders. Shi Jiafu and Hou Xuanduo now came to meet him, and hail him as his father's successor, that by means of him they might ask peace from Jin;—and this was granted to them.
At the entertainment to him, there were the pickled roots of the sweet flag cut small, rice, millet, and the salt in the form of a tiger, all set forth. Yue [the prime minister's name] declined such an entertainment, saying, 'The ruler of a State, whose civil talents make him illustrious, and whose military prowess makes him an object of dread, is feasted with such a complete array of provisions, to emblem his virtues. The five savours are introduced, and viands of the finest grains, with the salt in the shape of a tiger, to illustrate his services; but I am not worthy of such a feast.
Dongmen Xiangzhong [see the Zhuan on XXVI. 5] was going with friendly inquiries to Zhou, when he took the occasion to pay a similar visit in the first place to Jin.
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