Tso Chuen Reading In Progress

The Battle of Pengya

posted 29 Jan 2016, 12:46 by Jim Sheng   [ updated 29 Jan 2016, 13:03 ]

彭衙之战

Pengya. Battle of (or P'eng-ya) battle in 624 BC in which the Chinese State Of Jin defeated Duke Mu Of Qin. Qin invaded Jin and captured several towns including Pengya. Jin leader Marquis Xiang sent military commander Xian Chuju to recover them. He defeated the Qin forces completely with a fierce chariot charge. Jin recovered most of the towns, Including Pengya. 

二月.晉侯禦之.先且居將中軍.趙衰佐之.王官無地御戎.狐鞫居為右.甲子.及秦師戰于彭衙.秦師敗績.晉人謂秦拜賜之師.

戰于殽也.晉梁弘御戎.萊駒為右.戰之明日.晉襄公縛秦囚.使萊駒以戈斬之.囚呼.萊駒失戈.狼瞫取戈以斬囚.禽之以從公乘.遂以為右.

箕之役.先軫黜之.而立續簡伯.狼瞫怒.其友曰.盍死之.瞫曰.吾未獲死所.其友曰.吾與女為難.瞫曰.周志有之.勇則害上.不登於明堂.死而不義.非勇也.共用之謂勇.吾以勇求右.無勇而黜.亦其所也.謂上不我知.黜而宜.乃知我矣.子姑待之.

及彭衙既陳.以其屬馳秦師.死焉.晉師從之.大敗秦師.君子謂狼瞫於是乎君子.詩曰.君子如怒.亂庶遄沮.又曰.王赫斯怒.爰整其旅.怒不作亂.而以從師.可謂君子矣.

秦伯猶用孟明.孟明增脩國政.重施於民.趙成子言於諸大夫曰.秦師又至.將必辟之.懼而增德.不可當也.詩曰.毋念爾祖.聿脩厥德.孟明念之矣.念德不怠.其可敵乎.

In the 2d year, in spring, Mengming Shi of Qin led an army against Jin, to repay his defeat at Yao. In the 2d month, the marquis of Jin went to meet him, Xian Qieju commanding the army of the centre, with Zhao Cui as his assistant. Wudi of Wangguan acted as charioteer, and Hu Juju was spearman on the right. On Jiazi they fought in Pengya, when the army of Qin received a severe defeat, the men of Jin calling it the army with which Qin acknowledged their marquis's gift [See Mengming's language at the end of the Zhuan on p. 3 of the 33d year of duke Xi]. 

At the battle of Yao, Liang Hong had been charioteer, and Lai Ju the spearman on the right. On the day after it, duke Xiang had one of the prisoners bound, and ordered Lai Ju to kill him with a spear. The prisoner gave a shout, and Ju dropt the spear, on which Lang Shen took it up, killed him, and, taking his left ear, followed the marquis's chariot, who made him the spearman on the right.

At the battle of Ji, Xian Zhen degraded Lang Shen, and appointed Xu Jianbo in his place. Lang Shen was angry, and one of his friends said to him, "Why not die here?" He replied, "I have here no proper place to die in." "Let me and you do a difficult thing," said the friend [Meaning that they should kill the general]; but Lang Shen replied, 'It is said in one of the histories of Zhou, 'The brave who kills his superior shall have no place in the hall of Light.' He who dies doing what is not righteous is not brave; he who dies in the public service is brave. By bravery I sought the place of spearman on the right; I am degraded as not being brave; —it is my present place. If I should say that my superior does not know me, and did that which would make my degradation right, I should only prove that he did know me. Wait a little, my friend."

'At Pengya, when the army was marshalled for the battle, Lang Shen, with his own followers, dashed into the army of Qin, and died. The army of Jin followed him, and gained a great victory. The superior man will say that Lang Shen in this way proved himself a superior man. It is said in the ode [Shi, II. v. ode IV. 2]:—

"Let the superior man be angry. And disorder will be stopt;" 

and again [Shi, III. i. ode VII. 5]:—

"The king rose majestic in his wrath, And marshalled his troops." 

When Lang in his anger would not be guilty of disorder, but went on to do good service in the army, he may be called a superior man.

'The earl of Qin, [notwithstanding this fresh defeat], still employed Mengming, who paid increased attention to the government of the State, and made great largesses to the people. Zhao Cheng [Cheng is the hon. title of Zhao Cui] said to the officers of Jin, "The army of Qin will be here again, and we must get out of its way. He who in his apprehension increases his virtue cannot be matched. The ode says [Shi, III. i. ode 1.6]:

"Ever think of your ancestors, Cultivating your virtue." 

It is in this way that Mengming thinks. Thinking of his virtue, without remitting his efforts, can he be resisted?" '

King Mu of Ch'u 楚穆王

posted 29 Jan 2016, 11:14 by Jim Sheng

初.楚子將以商臣為大子.訪諸令尹子上.子上曰.君之齒未也.而又多愛.黜乃亂也.楚國之舉.在少者.且是人也.蜂目而豺聲.忍人也.不可立也.弗聽.

既又欲立王子職.而黜大子商臣.商臣聞之而未察.告其師潘崇曰.若之何而察之.潘崇曰.享江芊而勿敬也.從之.江芊怒曰.呼.役夫.宜君王之欲殺女而立職也.告潘崇曰.信矣.潘崇曰.能事諸乎.曰.不能.能行乎.曰.不能.能行大事乎.曰.能.

冬.十月.以宮甲圍成王.王請食熊蹯而死.弗聽.丁未.王縊.謚之曰靈.不瞑.曰成.乃瞑.穆王立.以其為大子之室與潘崇.使為大師.且掌環列之尹.

At an earlier period, the viscount of Chu, intending to declare Shangchen his successor, consulted his chief minister Zishang about it. Zishang said, "Your lordship is not yet old. You are also fond of many [of your children]. Should you degrade him hereafter, he will make disorder. The succession in Chu has always been from among the younger sons. Morever, he has eyes [projecting] like a wasp's, and a wolf's voice;—he is capable of anything. You ought not to raise him to that position." The viscount did it however. 

But afterwards he wished to appoint his son Zhi instead, and to degrade Shangchen. Shangchen heard of his intention, but was not sure of it. He therefore told his tutor Pan Chong, and asked him how he could get certain information. Chong said, "Give a feast to her of Jiang [The viscount's sister], and behave disrespectfully to her." The prince did so, when the lady became angry, and cried out, "You slave, it is with reason that the king wishes to kill you, and appoint Zhi in your place." Shangchen told this to his tutor, saying, "The report is true.' Chong then said, "Are you able to serve Zhi?" "No." "Are you able to leave the State?" "No." "Are you able to do the great thing?" "Yes."

In winter, in the 10th month. Shangchen, with the guards of his palace, held the king in siege. The king begged to have bear's paws to eat before he died, which was refused him; and on Dingwei he strangled himself. The prince [immediately] gave him the title of Ling, but his eyes would not shut. He changed it to Cheng, and they shut. [Shangchen] took his place, [and is known as] king Mu. He gave the house where he had lived as the eldest son to Pan Chong, made him grand-tutor, and commander of the palace guards.

The Battle of Yao

posted 19 Aug 2015, 13:26 by Jim Sheng

秦晋殽之战

僖公三十二年冬,晉文公卒。庚辰,將殯于曲沃,出絳,柩有聲如牛。卜偃使大夫拜曰:“君命大事,將有西師過軼我,擊之必大捷焉。”
杞子自鄭使告于秦曰:“鄭人使我掌其北門之管,若潛師以來,國可得也。”

穆公訪諸蹇叔。蹇叔曰:“勞師以襲遠,非所聞也。師勞力竭,遠主備之,無乃不可乎?師之所為,鄭必知之;勤而無所,必有悖心;且行千里,其誰不知?”公辭焉。召孟明、西乞、白乙,使出師於東門之外。蹇叔哭之曰:“孟子!吾見師之出,而不見其入也。”公使謂之曰:“爾何知!中壽,爾墓之木拱矣!”蹇叔之子與師,哭而送之曰:“晉人禦師必於殽,殽有二陵焉。其南陵,夏后皋之墓也;其北陵,文王之所辟風雨也。必死是間,余收爾骨焉。”秦師遂東。

僖公三十三年春,秦師過周北門,左右免冑而下,超乘者三百乘。王孫滿尚幼,觀之,言於王曰:“秦師輕而無禮,必敗。輕則寡謀,無禮則脫,入險而脫,又不能謀,能無敗乎?”及滑,鄭商人弦高,將市於周,遇之,以乘韋先牛十二犒師。曰:“寡君聞吾子,將步師出於敝邑,敢犒從者,不腆敝邑,為從者之淹。居則具一日之積,行則備一夕之衛。”且使遽告于鄭。

鄭穆公使視客館,則束載、厲兵、秣馬矣。使皇武子辭焉,曰:“吾子淹久於敝邑,唯是脯資,餼牽竭矣。為吾子之將行也,鄭之有原圃,猶秦之有具囿也。吾子取其麋鹿,以閒敝邑,若何?”杞子奔齊,逢孫、楊孫奔宋。孟明曰:“鄭有備矣,不可冀也,攻之不克,圍之不繼,吾其還也。”滅滑而還。

晉原軫曰:“秦違蹇叔而以貪勤民,天奉我也。奉不可失,敵不可縱。縱敵患生,違天不祥,必伐秦師。”欒枝曰:“未報秦施而伐其師,其為死君乎?”先軫曰:“秦不哀吾喪,而伐吾同姓,秦則無禮,何施之為?吾聞之,一日縱敵,數世之患也。謀及子孫,可謂死君乎?”遂發命,遽興姜戎,子墨衰絰,梁弘御戎,萊駒為右。夏四月,辛巳,敗秦師于殽。獲百里孟明視、西乞術、白乙丙,以歸。遂墨以葬文公。晉於是始墨。

文嬴請三帥,曰:“彼實構吾二君,寡君若得而食之,不厭,君何辱討焉?使歸就戮于秦,以逞寡君之志,若何?”公許之。先軫朝,問秦囚。公曰:“夫人請之,吾舍之矣。”先軫怒曰:“武夫力而拘諸原,婦人暫而免諸國;墮軍實而長寇讎,亡無日矣!”不顧而唾。公使陽處父追之,及諸河,則在舟中矣。釋左驂,以公命贈孟明。孟明稽首曰:“君之惠,不以纍臣釁鼓,使歸就戮于秦,寡君之以為戮,死且不朽,若從君惠而免之,三年將拜君賜。”

秦伯素服郊次,鄉師而哭曰:“孤違蹇叔,以辱二三子,孤之罪也。不替孟明,孤之過也,大夫何罪?且吾不以一眚掩大德。”

The battle of Yao


In winter, in the twelfth month, on Jimao, Chong'er, marquis of Jin, died. On Gengchen, they were conveying his coffin to place it in the temple at Quwo, when, as it was leaving Jiang, there came a voice from it like the lowing of an angry bull. The diviner Yan made the great officers do obeisance to the coffin, saying, "His lordship is charging us about a great affair. There will be an army of the west passing by us; we shall smite it, and obtain a great victory."

Now Qi Zi had sent information from Zheng to Qin, saying, "The people of Zheng have entrusted to my charge the key of their north gate. If an army come secretly upon it, the city may be got. Duke Mu of Qi consulted Jian Shu about the subject, and that officer replied, 'That a distant place can be surprised by an army toiled with a long march is what I have not learned. The strength of the men will be wearied out with toil, and the distant lord will be prepared for them;—does not the undertaking seem impracticable? Zheng is sure to know the doings of our army. Our soldiers, enduring the toil, and getting nothing, will become disaffected. And moreover, to whom can such a march of a thousand li be unknown?" The earl, however, declined this counsel, called for Mengming, Xiqi, and Boyi, and ordered them to collect an army outside the east gate. Jian Shu wept over it, and said, "General Meng. I see the army's going forth, but I shall not see its entry again." The earl sent to say to him, "What do you know, you centenarian? It would take two hands to grasp the tree upon your grave!" Jian Shu's son also went in the expedition, and the old man escorted him, weeping and saying, "It will be at Yao that the men of Jin will resist the army. At Yao there are two ridges. On the southern ridge is the grave of the sovereign Gao of the Xia dynasty; the northern is where king Wen took refuge from the wind and rain. You will die between them. There I will gather your bones." Immediately after this the army of Qin marched to the east.

In spring, the army of Qin was passing by the northgate of [the royal city of] Zhou, when the mailed men on the right and left of the chariots [merely] took off their helmets and descended, springing afterwards with a bound into the chariots,—the 300 of them. Prince Wangsun Man was still quite young; but when he saw this, he said to the king, 'The army of Qin acts lightly and is unobservant of propriety;—it is sure to be defeated. Acting so lightly, there must be little counsel in it. Unobservant of propriety, it will be heedless. When it enters a dangerous pass, and is heedless, being moreover without wise counsel, can it escape defeat?
When the army entered Hua, Xian Gao, a merchant of Zheng, on his way to traffic in Zhou, met it. He went with four dressed hides, preceding 12 oxen, to distribute them among the soldiers, and said [to the general], "My prince, having heard that you were marching with your army, and would pass by his poor city, ventures thus to refresh your attendants. Our poor city, when your attendants come there, can supply them, while they stay, with one day's provisions, and provide them, when they go, with one night's escort." At the same time he sent intelligence of what was taking place with all possible speed to Zheng. 

The earl of Zheng, [on receiving the tidings], sent to see what was going on at the lodging houses which had been built for the guards of Qin, and found there bundles all ready, waggons loaded, weapons sharpened, and the horses fed. On this he sent Huang Wu to decline their further services, and say to them, "You have been detained, Sirs, too long at our poor city. Our dried flesh, our money, our rice, our cattle, are all used up. We have our park of Yuan as Qin has that of Ju. Suppose you supply yourselves with deer from that to give our poor city some rest." On this Qi Zi fled to Qi, while Feng Sun and Yang Sun fled to Song. Mengming said, "Zheng is prepared for us. We cannot hope to surprise it. If we attack it, we shall not immediately take it; and if we lay siege to it, we are too far off to receive succour. Let us return." The army of Qin then proceeded to extinguish Hua, and returned.

[Xian] Zhen of Yuan said to the marquis of Jin, "[The earl of] Qin, contrary to the counsel of Jian Shu, has, under the influence of greed, been imposing toil on his people;—this is an opportunity given us by Heaven. It should not be lost; our enemy should not be let go unassailed. Such disobedience to Heaven will be inauspicious;—we must attack the army of Qin." Luan Zhi said, "We have not yet repaid the services rendered to our last lord by Qin, and if we now attack its army, this is to make him dead indeed!" Xian Zhen replied, "Qin has shown no sympathy with us in our loss, but has attacked [two States of] our surname. It is Qin who has been unobservant of propriety;—what have we to do with [former] favours? I have heard that if you let your enemy go a single day, you are preparing the misfortunes of several generations. In taking counsel for his posterity, can we be said to be treating our last ruler as dead?"

The [new marquis] instantly issued orders [for the expedition]. The Jiang Rong were called into the field on the spur of the moment. The marquis [joined the army], wearing his son's-garb of unhemmed mourning, stained with black, and also his mourning scarf. Liang Hong was his charioteer, and Lai Ju his spearman on the right. In summer, in the 4th month, on Xinsi, he defeated the army of Qin at Yao, took [the commanders], Boli Mengmingshi, Xiqi Shu, and Boyi Bing, prisoners, and brought them back with him to the capital, from which he proceeded in his dark-stained mourning garb to inter duke Wen, which thenceforth became the custom in Jin. Wen Ying [duke Wen's Qin wife] interceded for the prisoners, saying, "In consequence of their stirring up enmity between you and him, [my father], the earl of Qin, will not be satisfied even if he should eat them. Why should you condescend to punish them? Why should you not send them back to be put to death in Qin, to satisfy the wish of my lord there?" The marquis acceded to her advice.

Xian Zhen went to court, and asked about the Qin prisoners. The marquis replied, 'My father's widow requested it, and I have let them go." The officer in a rage said, 'Your warriors by their strength caught them in the field, and now they are let go for a woman's brief word in the city. By such overthrow of the services of the army, and such prolongation of the resentment of our enemies, our ruin will come at no distant day." With this, without turning round, he spat on the ground.

The marquis sent Yang Chufu to pursue after the liberated commanders; but when he got to the He, they were already on board a boat. Loosing the outside horse on the left of his chariot, he said he had the marquis's order to present it to Mengming. Mengming bowed his head to the ground, and said, "Your prince's kindness in not taking the blood of me his prisoner to smear his drums [See Mencius, I. Pt. I., vii. 4], but liberating me to go and be killed in Qin;—this kindness, should my prince indeed execute me, I will not forget in death. If by your prince's kindness I escape this fate, in three years I will thank him for his gift."

The earl of Qin, in white mourning garments, was waiting for them in the borders of the capital, and wept, looking in the direction where the army had been lost. "By my opposition to the counsel of Jian Shu," he said, "I brought disgrace on you, my generals. Mine has been the crime; and that I did not [before] dismiss Mengming [from such a service] was my fault. What fault are you chargeable with? I will not for one error shut out of view your great merits."

Duke He Thirtieth year.

posted 18 Aug 2015, 13:48 by Jim Sheng

僖公三十年

經三十年.

春.王正月.
夏‧狄侵齊.
秋.衛殺其大夫元咺.及公子瑕.衛侯鄭歸于衛.晉人.秦人.圍鄭.介人侵蕭.冬.天王使宰周公來聘.公子遂如京師.遂如晉.
XXX. Thirtieth year.
1. It was the [duke's] thirtieth year, the spring, the king's first month.
2. In summer, the Di made an incursion into Qi.
3. In autumn, Wey put to death its great officer, Yuan Xuan, and duke [ Wen's] son, Xia.
4. Zheng, marquis of Wey, returned to Wey.
5. A body of men from Jin and one from Qin laid siege to [the capital of] Zheng.
6. A body of men from Jie made an incursion into Xiao.
7. In winter, the king [by] Heaven's [grace] sent his chief minister, the duke of Zhou, to Lu, on a mission of friendly inquiries.
8. Duke [Zhuang's] son, Sui, went to the capital, and at the same time went to Jin.
傳三十年.
春.晉人侵鄭.以觀其可攻與否.狄間晉之有鄭虞也.
夏.狄侵齊.晉侯使醫衍酖衛侯.甯俞貨醫.使薄其酖.不死.公為之請.納玉於王.與晉侯.皆十榖.王許之.
秋.乃釋衛侯.衛侯使賂周歂.冶廑.曰.苟能納我.吾使爾為卿.周冶殺元咺.及子適.子儀.公入祀先君.周冶既服將命.周歂先入.及門.遇疾而死.冶廑辭卿.
九月.甲午.晉侯.秦伯.圍鄭.以其無禮於晉.且貳於楚也.晉軍函陵.秦軍汜南.佚之狐言於鄭伯曰.國危矣.若使燭之武見秦君.師必退.公從之.辭曰.臣之壯也.猶不如人.今老矣.無能為也已.公曰.吾不能早用子.今急而求子.是寡人之過也.然鄭亡.子亦有不利焉.許之.夜縋而出.見秦伯曰.秦晉圍鄭.鄭既知亡矣.若亡鄭而有益於君.敢以煩執事.越國以鄙遠.君知其難也.焉用亡鄭以倍鄰.鄰之厚.君之薄也.若舍鄭以為東道主.行李之往來.共其乏困.君亦無所害.且君嘗為晉君賜矣.許君焦瑕.朝濟而夕設版焉.君之所知也.夫晉何厭之有.既東封鄭.又欲肆其西封.若不闕秦.將焉取之.闕秦以利晉.唯君圖之.秦伯說.與鄭人盟.使杞子逢孫楊孫戍之.乃還.子犯謂擊之.公曰.不可.微夫人力不及此.因人之力而敝之.不仁.失其所與.不知.以亂易整.不武.吾其還也.亦去之.初.鄭公子蘭出奔晉.從於晉侯伐鄭.請無與圍鄭.許之.使待命于東.鄭石甲父.侯宣多.逆以為大子.以求成于晉.晉人許之.
冬.王使周公閱來聘.饗有昌歜.白.黑.形鹽.辭曰.國君文足昭也.武可畏也.則有備物之饗.以象其德.薦五味.羞嘉穀.鹽虎形.以獻其功.吾何以堪之.東門襄仲將聘于周.遂初聘于晉.
COMMENTARY
An officer of Jin was conducting an incursion into Zheng, to see whether that State could be attacked with advantage or not. The Di took the opportunity of Jin's being thus occupied with Zheng, and in the summer made an incursion into Qi.

The marquis of Jin employed the physician Yan to poison the marquis of Wey, but Ning Yu bribed the physician to make the poison so weak that his master did not die of it. The duke [of Lu] after this interceded on his behalf, and presented the king and the marquis of Jin each with 10 pairs of jade ornaments. The king acceded to the duke's intercession, and in autumn the marquis of Wey was released. He then bribed Zhou Chuan and Ye Jin, saying, 'If you can secure my restoration, I will make you my high ministers." On this Zhou and Ye killed Yuan Xuan, with Zidi and Ziyi. When the marquis was entering the ancestral temple to sacrifice to his predecessors, Zhou and Ye were there in full dress to receive their charge as ministers. Zhou preceded, but when he came to the door, he was taken ill, and died, upon which Jin declined the appointment.

In the 9th month, on Jia wu, the marquis of Jin and the earl of Qin laid siege to Zheng, because of the want of courtesy which the earl of it had shown to the marquis in his wanderings [See the Zhuan at the end of the 23d year], and because he was with double-mindedness inclining to Chu. The army of Jin took a position at Hanling, and that of Qin one at Fannan. Yi Zhihu said to the earl of Zheng, "The State is in imminent peril. If you send Zhu Zhiwu to see the earl of Qin, his army is sure to be withdrawn." The earl took the advice, but Zhu Zhiwu declined the mission, saying, "When your servant was in the strength of his age, he was regarded as not equal to others; and now he is old, and unable to render any service." The earl said, "That I was not able to employ you earlier, and now beg your help in my straits, I acknowledge to be my fault. But if Zheng perish, you also will suffer loss." On this Zhiwu agreed, and undertook the mission.

At night he was let down from the city-wall by a rope; and when he saw the earl of Qin, he said, "With Jin and Qin both besieging its capital, Zheng knows that it must perish. If the ruin of Zheng were to benefit your lordship, I should not dare to speak to you;—you might well urge your officers and soldiers in such a case. But you know the difficulty there would be with such a distant border, another State intervening. Of what advantage is it to you to destroy Zheng to benefit your neighbour? His advantage will be your disadvantage. If you leave Zheng to be master and host here on the way to the east, when your officers go and come with their baggage, it can minister to their necessities;—and surely this will be no injury to you. And moreover, your lordship was a benefactor to the former marquis of Jin, and he promised you the cities of Jiao and Xia; but in the morning he crossed the He, and in the evening he commenced building defences against you:—this your lordship knows. But Jin is insatiable. Having made Zheng its boundary on the east, it will go on to want to enlarge its border on the west. And how will it be able to do that except by taking territory from Qin? To diminish Qin in order to advantage Jin:—this is a matter for your lordship to think about."

The earl of Qin was pleased with this speech, and made a covenant with the people of Zheng, appointing Qi Zi, Feng Sun, and Yang Sun to guard the territory, while he himself returned to Qin. Zifan asked leave to pursue and smite him, but the marquis of Jin said, "No. But for his assistance I should not have arrived at my present state. To get the benefit of a man's help, and then to injure him, would show a want of benevolence, To have erred in those with whom I was to cooperate shows my want of knowledge. To exchange the orderly array in which we came here for one of disorder would show a want of warlike skill. I will withdraw." And upon this he also left Zheng.

Before this, Lan, a son of the earl of Zheng, had fled from that State to Jin. Following the marquis of Jin in the invasion of Zheng, he begged that he might not take any part in, or be present at, the siege. His request was granted, and he was sent to the eastern border of Jin to wait for further orders. Shi Jiafu and Hou Xuanduo now came to meet him, and hail him as his father's successor, that by means of him they might ask peace from Jin;—and this was granted to them.

At the entertainment to him, there were the pickled roots of the sweet flag cut small, rice, millet, and the salt in the form of a tiger, all set forth. Yue [the prime minister's name] declined such an entertainment, saying, 'The ruler of a State, whose civil talents make him illustrious, and whose military prowess makes him an object of dread, is feasted with such a complete array of provisions, to emblem his virtues. The five savours are introduced, and viands of the finest grains, with the salt in the shape of a tiger, to illustrate his services; but I am not worthy of such a feast.

Dongmen Xiangzhong [see the Zhuan on XXVI. 5] was going with friendly inquiries to Zhou, when he took the occasion to pay a similar visit in the first place to Jin.

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