十三 子夏曰仕而優則學, 學而優則仕.
CHAPTER XIII. --Tzu Hsia said: "The occupant of office when his duties are finished should betake himself to study; and the student when his studies are finished should betake himself to office.
C, 優,有餘力也 With spare strength: i.e. the surplus That remains after performance of duly, 仕與學理同而事異, 故當其事者必先有以盡其事而後可及其餘Service and study are one in principle though different in practice; hence whichever of the two a man pursues he must first fulfil its claims and afterwards expend himself upon the others: for the officer studies to improve his service, and the student takes office to put his theories into practice. L. The officer, having discharged all his duties, should devote all his leisure to learning, ......apply himself to be an officer. Z. si magistratum gerenti superent vires, tune studebit etc. K. An officer who has exceptional abilities etc. should devote himself to study. Couv. Que celui qui est en charge, remplisse d'abord les devoirs de sa charge; puis, s'il a du temps et des forces de reste, qu'il étudie.
十四 子有曰喪, 致乎哀而止.
CHAPTER XIV. --Tzu Yu observed: "In mourning let grief suffice as its highest expression."
Possibly a protest against uncontrolled exhibition of suffering. Or, When mourning has found full expression in grief, let it go no further. C. 不若禮不足而哀有餘 Better to have deficient rites and excess of real grief. Cf. III. 4. L. Mourning having been carried to the utmost degree of grief, should stop at that. Z. parentalis luctus summum attingit in dolores affectu, ibique sistit. K. the only thing indispensible is heart-felt grief. Couv. Le deuil est parfait, si le cœur éprouve une affliction parfait ; tout le rest est secondaire.
十五 子游曰吾友張也, 為難能也, 然而未仁.
CHAPTER XV. --Tzu Yu remarked: "My friend Chang does things hardly possible to others, but he is not yet perfect in Virtue."
C. 子張行過高而少誠實恻忄旦之意, Though Tzu Chang's deeds were high, he was deficient in sincerity and sympathy. L. can do things which are hard to be done, but yet he is not perfectly virtuous. K. can do things which nobody else can do, but he is not quite perfect in his moral character. Couv. fait des choses qu'une autre ferait difficilement etc.