C. 陽膚 was a disciple of the philosopher Tsêng. 民散, 謂情誼乖離,不相維繫. By disorganization of the people is meant that facts and justice had become perverted, and the two no longer held together, 故其犯法非迫於不得已則陷於不知也  Hence when they transgressed they were either driven to it, or did it through ignorance. L. The rulers have failed in their duties and the people consequently been disorganized for a long time. When you have found out the truth of any accusation be grieved for and pity them, and do not feel joy at your own ability. Z. Si assequeris rei veritatem tune deplorans miserare, ut noli gaudere. K. feel pity and be merciful to him; do not feel glad at your discovery. Couv. le peuple se divise. Si vous reconnaissez la vérité des accusations etc. ayez compassion des coupables etc. 

十九 孟氏使陽膚為士師, 問於曾子, 曾子曰, 上失其道, 民散久矣, 如得其情, 則哀矜勿喜.

CHAPTER XIX. When the Chief of the Mêng family appointed Yang Fu as chief criminal judge, the latter came to ask advice of Tseng Tsu who replied : "The rulers have lost their principles, and for long the people have been disorganised, hence, when you discover evidence against a man, be grieved for and commiserate him and take no pleasure in your discovery."