CONTENTS. The last book opened with the Chief of the Chi clan, who had usurped the ducal authority. This opens with Yang Huo, the Chi Comptroller, a Minister s minister, see XVI, 2, 3 who had usurped his chief s power with all which that included.
陽貨欲見孔子，孔子不見，歸孔子豚。孔子時其亡也，而往拜之，遇諸塗。謂孔子曰：「來，予與爾言。」曰：「懷其寶而迷其邦，可謂仁乎？」曰：「不可。」「好從事而亟失時，可謂知乎？」曰：「不可。」「日月逝矣，歲不我與。」孔子曰：「諾，吾將仕矣。」CHAPTER I i. Yang Huo wanted to see Confucius but Confucius would not go to see him, so he sent Confucius a present of a sucking pig. Confucius, timing his visit when the other would be out, went to tender his acknowledgements, but met him on the way. 2. " Come” he said to Confucius, "let me have a word with you. For a man," he said, " to hide his talent in his bosom, and thus share in his country s misguidance, can he be called a lover of his fellow men ? " “He cannot," was the reply. “For a man who would like to take part in public affairs to be continually losing his opportunity, can he be called wise?" “He cannot," was the reply. “Days and months are passing by, the years do not wait for us." “That is so," said Confucius, “I will take office presently."
i. 陽貨 His name was 虎 See note on XVI. 3 et al. C. He was nominally the administrator of the Chi family, 季氏家臣 The Chi family were administrators of Lu, the Duke being a mere cipher. Yang Huo had confined his chief Chi Huan, and sought to make himself sole administrator of Lu, whence he was driven out in B. C. 502, 陽貨嘗因桓子而專國政 He wanted Confucius to visit him, but Confucius would nut go, so Yang Huo sent him a present. 大夫有賜於士不得受於其家則往拜其門 When a minister sent a present to a man of position, if the latter were not home to receive it, it was his duty to go and return thanks in person; hence Yang Huo sent the present when Confucius was out, who also timed his visit to escape the minister. 歸 is used in the sense of 饋. L. similar. Z. volebat conventum...... captavit tempus illius absentiae...... offendit in via. Couv. choisit le moment où Iang Houo n’était pas chez lui.
2. 懷 etc. To embosom his precious gifts and mislead his country. 仁 might almost be translated patriot. 好從 Liking to pursue state business. 歲不我與 are taken as 歲不為我留 the years do not wait for us. 諾 is "Yes," "all right." C. 懷寶迷邦, 謂懷藏道德, 不救國之迷亂 meansto hide one’s virtue and not succour the country in its tribulation, 亟, 數也 Frequently. 失時為不及事機之會 Not avail oneself of the opportune concurrence of events. 將者,且然而未必之辭, 將(about to) means as yet indefinite, i.e. Confucius gave a polite assent, though with no real intention of serving under or advancing the aims of Yang Huo. L. Come, let me speak with you. Can he be called benevolent who keeps his jewel in his bosom and leaves his country to confusion? Anxious to be engaged in public employment, and yet is constantly losing the opportunity of being so? Right; I will go into office. Z. sinu recondens suum thesaurum, et tuibatum relinquens suum legnum, poterit dici pius? Amans operari publicis rebus prudens? anni haud nos manent bene, ego mox geram magistratum. K. Whether he is a good man who hides the treasures of his knowledge and leaves his country to go astray. Misses every chance that comes to him etc. Yes, I will enter the public service. Couv. Celui qui tient son trésor (sa sagesse) cache clans son sein, et laisse son pays dans le trouble, mérite-t-il d’être appelé bienfaisant? Bien; j’exercerai un emploi, (quand le temps en sera venu).
CHAPTER II - -The Master said: “By nature men nearly resemble each other; in practice they grow wide apart."
Or, The natures of men are mutually near, in practice they are mutually apart Here. Confucius does not declare whether man is by nature good, or merely innocent; though the former is implied in 中庸 I.1 Mencius was the first to introduce into the Confucian cult the definite doctrine that man is by nature good ; Mencius HI. I. i. This clause forms part of the opening stanzas of the 三字經 C. 此所謂性,兼氣質而言者也,氣質之性固有美惡之不同矣,然以其初而言則皆不甚相遠也,但習於善則善,習於惡則惡,於是始相遠耳 The meaning of nature here is mot the moral nature, but the natural temperament, in which, indeed, men do differ in respect of good and evil, but at the very outset none differs greatly from another, those who are trained in goodness become good and in evil evil, hence it is in the training that the differentiation begins. 若言草木則性即是理,理無不善 But if we discuss fundamentals then human nature is li, and li cannot be anything but good. L. says in regard to 氣質 that is “his complex, actual nature, with its elements of the material, the animal, and the intellectual, by association with which, the perfectly good moral nature is continually being led astray” in other words St. Paul s "the flesh." L. By nature, men are nearly alike, by practice they get to be wide apart. Z. homines natura invicem approximant, moium consuetudine invicem distant. K. Men in their nature are alike, but by practice they become widely different. Couv. Les hommes sont tous semblables par leur nature (par leur constitution physique et leurs facultés naturelles) ils different par les habitudes qu’ils contractent.
CHAPTER III. The Master said: “It is only the very wisest and the very stupidest who never change."
Or, Only the uppermost wise and the lowermost stupid do not change. 移 To move, chancre. C. 此承上章而言, 人之氣質相近之中, 又有美惡一定, 而非習之所能移者. This is a continuation of the last chapter. Along with the natural similarity of human temperament there is a definite admixture of good and evil, which no training can remove. 程子 says of the good who can never be shaken there are two classes, 其性則皆善也, 其才則有下愚之不移 those who are by nature together good, and those with the unchangeableness of the very stupid; of the latter class there are two kinds, the 自暴自棄者 (themselves their own enemies ) of Mencius (IV. I. X the 自暴者拒之以不信 the 自棄者絕之以不為Those who harm themselves by thrusting goodness aside and not believing in it; and those who throw themselves away by putting it from them as beyond their capacity. But he continues that the 下愚 need not be ignorant men, on the contrary they may be men of great ability, but by cutting themselves off from goodness they reveal their real obtuseness. L. There are only the wise of the highest class, and the stupid etc. who cannot be changed. Z. non mutantur. K. men of the highest understanding, grossest dullness, who do not change. Couv. II n y a que deux classes d’hommes qui ne changent jamais de conduite; les plus sages (qui sont toujours parfaits), ct les plus insensés (qui ne veulent ni s’instruire ni se corriger).
CHAPTER IV. i. When the Master came to Wu-ch’eng he heard (everywhere) the sound of stringed instruments and sing ing; whereupon he smiled and laughingly said, “Why use a cleaver to kill a chicken?” 3. "A while ago, Sir," replied Tzu Yu,” I heard you say: When men of rank have learnt Wisdom they love their fellowmen; and when the common people have learnt Wisdom they are easily commanded V 4. “My disciples!” said the Master, “Yen s remark is right. What I said before was only in jest."
i. Wu was in the district of 辟and Tzü Yu (晏) was in charge of it, VI. 12. L. translating from 備旨 says it was called Wu " from its position, precipitous and favourable to military operations, but Tsze Yew had been able, by his course, to transform the people, and make them change their mail and helmets for stringed instruments and singing." 弦 is a silk string for an instrument. C 弦, 琴瑟也 Lutes and guitars. 子游以禮樂為教, 故邑人皆弦歌也 Tzu Yu educated them in the arts of manners and music, hence the citizens were all playing and singing. L. The Master having come to Woo-ch’ang heard there etc. K. heard the sounds of music and singing amongst the people.
2. 莞爾 Smilingly. C. 小笑貌, 蓋喜之也 The appearance of a smile, that is was pleased with it. 因言其治小邑,何必用大道也 Why use this great principle (禮樂) in ruling so small a place? L. Why use an ox-knife to kill a fowl? Z. jugulaturus gallinam etc. K. with a mischievous smile in his look, remarked, To kill a chicken why use a knife used for slaughtering an ox. Couv. Pour tuer etc. couteau qui sert a dépecer les bœufs?
3. C. 君子小人以位言之 The two terms are used in reference to position, ruler and ruled. The phrase quoted was ,常言 a general expression of the Sage s. L. Formerly, Master, I heard you say, When the man of high station is well-instructed, he loves men......easily ruled. Z. Sapiens pracses si studet sapientiae etc. facilis mandatur. K. When the gentleman of a country are highly educated etc. sympathise with the people ; amenable to government. Couv. l’étude ete. rend les officiers bienfaisants et les hommes du peuple facile à gouverner.
4. 二三子 Boys, or Gentlemen. C. 嘉子游之篤信, 又以解門人之惑也He commended Tzü Yu’s sincerity, and relieved the perplexity of his followers. L. My disciples, etc. only in sport. Z. jocus scilicet. K. Only spoken in jest. Couv. Nes enfants etc. n’était qu’une plaisanterie.
CHAPTER V. i. When Kung-shan Fu-rao was holding Pi in revolt (against the House of Chi), he sent for the Master, who was inclined to go to him. 2. But Tzu Lu was displeased, and said: “Verily there is nowhere at all to go, why then must you think of going to Kung-shan?" 3. “Here is one calling me, and can he be doing it for nothing"? answered the Master. "If one be willing to employ me, may I not make an eastern Chou?”
Cf. XVII. I. Date circa 501. i. C. Kung-shan Fu-rao, also 公山弗狃style洩, was a minister of the 季 House, who with 陽虎 had confined the head of that family, 桓子 and now had seized the 季 fief of 費 the intention being to obtain complete control of 魯. By 召 is meant a formal invitation, which necessitated special envoys and display. L, When he was holding Pe, and in an attitude of rebellion, invited the Master to visit him etc. Z. usurpata Pi, rebellaverat. Couv. maitre de la ville de Pi, s’etait révolté.
2. The first and last 之 are verbs; There being no going at all, why must there be a Kung-shan’s going. C. says 末 is 無 indicative not imperative, and interprets thus: 道既不行,無所往矣,何必公山之往乎 Since your principles make no headway, there is nowhere to go, why (of all places) must you go to Kung-shan? L. Indeed you cannot go! Why must you think of going to see etc. Z. nusquam ire est jam; quid necesse K-s familiam adire. K. Indeed, you cannot go. Why should you think of going to see such a man? Couv. Il n’est pas d’endroit où il convienne d’aller. Quelle nécessite y a-t-il d’aller trouver le chef de la famille Koung
3. 夫 etc. For, if one call me, is it likely to be in vain! The 我 and 吾 are emphatic, but the 其 is taken impersonally. C. 豈徒哉, 言必用我也 He would certainly make use of me. 為東周言興周道於東方 Means that he might revive the ancient doctrines of Chou in eastern Lu, i.e. do in the eastern part what Wen and Wu had done in the western. 然而終不往者, 之其必不能改故也 But he finally did not go, because he recognised it would be impossible to produce reformation. L. Can it be without some reason that he has invited ME? If anyone employ me may I not make an eastern Chou? K. It cannot be for nothing etc. I would establish a new empire here in the East. Couv. Celui qui m’a invité, l’a-t-il fait sans une intention véritable etc. ne ferais-je [vis revivre en orient les principes des fondateurs etc.
CHAPTER VI Tzu Chang asked Confucius the meaning of Virtue, on which Confucius replied: “To be able everywhere one goes to carry five things into practice constitutes Virtue. On begging to know what they were, he was told: “They are respect, magnanimity, sincerity, earnestness, and kindness. With respect you will avoid insult, with magnanimity you will win all, with sincerity men will trust you, with earnestness you will have success, and with kindness you will be well fitted to command others."
C. 行是五者則心存而理得矣 He who does these five things will find his heart fixed and his principles settled. 放天下,言無適而不然 means, he so acts wherever he goes,-- even amongst tribes of barbarians, 五者之目蓋因子張所不足而言 The five were thus detailed because Tzu Chang came short therein, 任,倚仗也 Rely upon. L. To be able to practice five things everywhere under Heaven etc. Gravity, generosity of soul, sincerity, earnestness and kindness. If you are grave, you will not be treated with disrespect. If earnest, accomplish much. If kind, employ the services of others. Z. Si obsequiosus, tune non contemnetur, si sedulus, tune habebit effectum; si beneficus etc. mandet aliis. K. Earnestness, consideration for others, trustworthiness, diligence and generosity. Couv. pratiquer cinq choses partout et toujours, la gravite du maintien, la grandeur d’âme, la sincérité, la diligence, et la bienfaisance. La gravite du maintien inspire respect etc.
CHAPTER VII. i. Pi Hsi sent a formal invitation and the Master was inclined to go. 2. But Tzti Lu observed: " Once upon a time, I heard you say, Sir,-- With the man who is personally engaged in a wrongful enterprise, the man of honour declines to associate. Pi Hsi is holding Chung-mou in revolt, what will it be like, Sir, your going there?"
3. "True," said the Master, "I did use those words, but is it not said of the really hard, that you may grind it but it will not grind down; and is it not said of the really white, that you may dye it but it will not turn black? 4. Am I indeed a bitter gourd! Can I, like that, be hung up and not eaten!"
i. Cf. caps i and 5. C. 佛肸, 晉大夫, 趙氏之中牟宰也 Pi Hsi was a minister of the Chin Slate, commandant for the Chao House of Chung Mou, modern Honan 彰德府, 湯隱縣 L. inviting him to visit him etc.
2. 昔者 etc. Formerly Yu heard from you, Master, saying etc. He, who in his own person, is doing what is not good. C. 親, 猶自也 Himself. 不入, 不入其黨也 does not enter his party; 何晏 makes it 不入其國. L. Master, formerly, etc. when a man in his own person, is guilty of doing evil etc. not associate with him if you go to him, what shall be said? Z. et magister ilium adit; quomodo hoc? K. will not associate even with those who are nearly related to him, when such etc. guilty of evil-doing. Couv. ne faisait pas société avec un homme engagé dans une entreprise coupable. Convient-il que vous alliez le voir ?
3. C. 磷, 薄也 Thin, fine. 涅, 染皁物 To dye or clip in some black substance, also described as 皁礬 alum, or a strong lye ; 言人之不善不能浼己 Meaning that another man's misdeeds could nut defile Confucius, 磨不磷 etc. 而後無可無不可 L. When a man can be ground without his principles becoming attenuated etc. he is then beyond formal permissions or prohibitions. L. Yes etc. But is it not said that it a thing, etc. ground without being made thin? really while, steeped in a dark fluid without being made black? Z. durum? perfricatur quin attenuetur; album, tingitur quin nigrescat. K. really hard, you may pound it and it will not crack; really white, you may smirch it etc. Couv. objet ties dur n’est pas entamé par le frottement? objet essentiellement blanc ne devient pas noir par le teinture?
4. Or, Am I then a bitter gourd, -- fit only to be hung up and not eaten? C. 瓠瓜繫於一處則不能飲食 A bottle gourd hangs in one place and cannot drink or eat, but men are different, i.e. even Sage’s need meat and drink. This is the usual interpretation (see 備旨 which says: 不食謂不求食非謂不可食也. but the other seems more natural and does the Sage more credit. L. Am I a bitter gourd! How can I be hung up out of the way of being eaten? Z. Qui potero suspendi et non manducair? K. Am I after all only a bitter gourd to be hung up and nut eaten at all. Couv. Suis-je done une courge ventrue, qui peut être suspendue, et ne pas manger ou n être pas mangée ?
CHAPTER VIII. 1. The Master said: "Yu, have you ever heard of the six good words and the six things that obscure them?" "Never," was the reply. 2. "Sit down then, and I will tell you." 3. " Love of kindness without a love to learn finds itself obscured by foolishness. Love of knowledge without a love to learn finds itself obscured by loose speculation. Love of honesty without a love to learn finds itself obscured by harmful candour. Love of straightforwardness without a love to learn finds itself obscured by warped judgment. Love of daring without a love to learn finds itself obscured by insubordination. And love for strength of character without a love to learn finds itself obscured by intractability."
I. The six words, or virtues, are 仁,智,信,直,勇, and 剛, and the six things that throw their baleful over them are 愚,蕩, 賊,絞,亂and 狂. The virtues are hidden from sight by the vices induced through neglect of training. C. 蔽,遮掩也 To throw into the shade, obscure, dull, eclipse. L. Yew, have you etc. to which are attached six becloudings etc. Z. sex notiones cum suis sex obstructionibus. K. the six virtues and their failures. Couv. six paroles etc. et les six ombres etc.
2. C. 禮, 君子問更端則起而對 According to rule, when a superior asked some point, the inferior stood up to reply ; that is why Confucius asks Tzü Lu to sit down, see 禮記 I Part I, iii, 21.
3. To take pleasure in goodness but not to take pleasure in studying (its principles), that which puts in the shade here is indiscretion. C. 六言皆善德,然徒好之而不學以明其理,則各有所蔽, The six words are all admirable characteristics, but if one only enjoys them without studying to know the principles involved in them, then each has its own overshadower. 愚若可陷可岡之類 Like those who are easily taken in, cf VI 14. 蕩謂窮高極廣而無所止 Means those who wander far and wide in their pursuits, with never a resting place; vague and superficial; 備旨 says like the peculations of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu. 賊謂傷害於物Injurious to others. (絞 is described by 備旨 as 急切如證父讓羊之類不能容 eager and unable to hold anything back, like the son who testified against his father for appropriating a sheep). 勇者剛之發 The product of strength of character. 剛者勇之體 The substance from which courage springs. 狂, 燥率 Haste, impatience, intolerance. Tzu Lu deemed courage a virtue, but through not learning to control it he lost his life. L. There is the love of being benevolent without the love of learning, the beclouding here leads to a foolish simplicity; knowing, dissipation of mind; sincere, injurious disregard of consequences; straightforwardness, rudeness; boldness, insubordination, firmness, extravagant conduct. Z. Amare humanitatem sine amare discendi, hujus vitium, inscitia; scientiam, evagatio; fidelitatem, offensio; ingenuitatem, imprudentia; strenuetatem, perturbatio; fortitudinem, temeritas. K. First, there is the mere love of morality; that alone, without culture, degenerates into fatuity ; knowledge, dilettantism ; honesty, heartlessness ; uprightness, tyranny ; courage, recklessness; strength of character, eccentricity. Couv. Le défaut de celui qui aime à se montrer bienfaisant, et n’aime pas à apprendre, c’est le manque de discernement ; la science, tomber dans l’erreur ; tenir ses promesses, nuire aux autres ; la franchise, d’avertir et de reprendre trop librement etc. ; du courage, troubler d’ordre ; fermeté d’âme, la témérité.
CHAPTER IX. 1. The Master said: "My young disciples, why do you not study the Poets? 2. Poetry is able to stimulate the mind, 3. it can train to observation, 4 it can encourage social intercourse, 5. it can modify the vexations of life ; 6 from it the student learns to fulfill his more immediate duty to his parents, and his remoter duty to his Prince ; 7 and in it he may become widely acquainted with the names of birds and beasts, plants and trees." i. This is said to have been uttered after Confucius had completed his editing of the Odes, and perhaps "the Odes" would be a more correct term than "Poets" or "Poetry." 夫 The, this. C. 小子, 弟子也 Disciples. L. My children, why do you not study the Book of Poetry. Z. O filioli, quare etc. Carminum libro. K. poetry. Couv. Mes enfants, etc. Cheu King.
2. C. 感, 發志氣 Stimulate the will. L. The Odes serve to stimulate the mind. Z. possumus nos excitare. K. Calls out the sentiment. Couv. nous exciter à la pratique de la vertu.
3. C. 考,見得失 To examine one’s progress. L. for purposes of self-examination. Z. possumus nos inspicere. K. stimulate observation. Couv. à nous examiner nous-mêmes.
4. C. 和而不流 To sociability and not to roaming. L. the art of sociability. Z. possumus sociales evadere. K. enlarges the sympathies. Couv. à traiter convenablement avec les hommes.
5. C. 怨而不怒 Vexation borne without anger. L. regulate feelings of resentment. Z. possumus jure indignari. K. moderate the resentment felt against injustice. Couv. a nous indigner justement.
6. L. From them you learn the more immediate etc. Z. propiori servire patri, remotiori etc. K. while it has lessons for the duties of social life. Couv. à remplir nos devoirs etc.
7. L. From them we become largely acquainted with etc. Z. ct multa scire de avium etc. K. At the same time makes us acquainted, with the animate and inanimate objects in nature. Couv. Il nous fait connaitre beaucoup etc.
CHAPTER X. The Master said to his son Po Yü: "Have you done the Chou Nan and the Chao Nan? The man who does not do the Chou Nan and the Chao Nan is as if he stood with his face right up against a wall, eh?"
C. 為, 猶學也 To learn, so to speak. The two are the titles of the two first books in the Ode. 所言皆修身齊家之事 their contents all relate to self-culture and regulation of the family. 正牆面 etc. 一物無所見, 一步不可行 Not a thing visible, nor a step possible. L. Do you give yourself to etc. The man who has not studied etc. wall. Is he not? Z. tu an non operaberis etc. K. A man who has not studied those books will be out of his element wherever he goes. Couv. Etudiez-vous etc n’est-il pas comme un homme qui se tiendrait visage tourné vers un mur.
CHAPTER XI -- The Master said: "'Offerings!' they say, 'Offerings!' Can mere gems and silk be called offerings? 'Music!' they say, 'Music!' Can mere bells and drums be called music?"
The meaning seems to be that an offering, whether to the living or the dead, or, the material of worship in general, does not constitute 禮 any more than do mere instruments constitute music. The offering is a token of reverence as the instruments are tokens of harmony. C. 敬而將之以玉帛則為禮,和而發之以鐘鼓則為樂 Respect and its exhibition in gems and silk is li; harmony and the expression of it according to li is the meaning of music. L. "It is according to the Rules of propriety." they say; "it is etc." Are gems etc. all that is meant by propriety. "It is Music eh?" Z. Rituni dici, ritum nuncupari, qui inquam gemmas et serica significat? K. Men speak about Art! Art! Do you think that merely means painting and sculpture? Couv. Quand on parle d'urbanité et qu'on vante l'urbanité, veut on parler seulement des pierres précieuses etc,
CHAPTER XII. --The Master said: "He who assumes a stern appearance while inwardly he is a weakling, can only be compared with the common herd; indeed is he not like the thief who sneaks through or skulks over walls?"
C. 厲, 威嚴也 Stern. 荏, 柔弱也 Weak. 小人, 細民也 One of the petty kind. 穿, 穿壁 Dig through a partition wall, 窬, 踰牆 Climb over a wall. 言其無實盜名常畏人知也 It means that he has imposed a baseless character on people, and is in constant dread of being found out. L. He who puts on an appearance of stern firmness, while inwardly he is weak etc. small, mean people; yea, is he not like etc.? Z. habitu severi, intus autem flaccidi etc. K. austere in his look, but a weakling and a coward at heart, sneaking thief or a cowardy pickpocket. Couv. Ceux qui en apparence sont rigides observateurs des préceptes de la sagesse, et au fond n'ont aucune énergie, ne ressemblent-ils pas à ces hommes de la lie du peuple qui (la nuit) passent à travers ou par-dessus les murs pour voler etc.
CHAPTER XIII. The Master said "Your honest countryman is the spoiler of morals."
G 鄉者鄙俗之意 Has the meaning of common, vulgar. 原 is 愿 Honest. 鄉原, 鄉人之愿者也 The honest man amongst his villagers. The meaning is brought out by Mencius VII. ii. 37. Wan Chang asked: "Their whole village calls them honest men, and wherever they go they are honest men, why did Confucius call them despoilers of (or robbers of) virtue? Mencius replied, "If you want to prove them in the wrong, you can raise nothing against them. If you would blame, there is nothing to blame. They follow current customs, and throw in their lot with an unclean generation, assuming to his conscientious in heart and pure in action so that others are pleased with them, moreover, they think themselves right, hence you cannot take them with you in the ways of Yao and Shun." Their motto is: 生於斯世,為斯世也, 善斯可矣 "Being born in this age, live as this age does, be good and let that suffice." The meaning seems to be, Your good old tory is a barrier to progress. L. Your good careful people of the villages are the thieves of virtue. Z. vicorum integerrimi sunt virtutis pernicies. K. Your meek men of respectability etc. unmercifully destroy all sense of moral sentiment in man. Couv. Ceux qui passent pour hommes de bien etc. ruinent la vertu.
CHAPTER XIV. --The Master said: "To proclaim on the road what you hear on the way is virtue thrown away."
C. The Wise man stores up what he hears and experiences, for the nourishment of his character; to hear by the way and talk about it as he goes along is to lose it. L. To tell, as we go along, what etc. is to cast away our virtue. Z. in via audita statim in via enunciare, virtus est projectio. K. To preach in the public streets the commonplaces which you have picked up in the way is to throw away all your finer feelings. Couv. Répéter en chemin à tous les passants etc. c'est jeter la vertu au vent.
CHAPTER XV. i. "These servile fellows!" said the Master. "How is it possible to serve one's Prince along with them? 2. Before obtaining their position they are in anxiety to get it, and when they have got it they are in anxiety lest they lose it; 3. and if men are in anxiety about losing their position there is no length to which they will not go"
1. C. 鄙夫,庸惡陋劣之稱 A term for the despicable and low down. L. There are those mean creatures! How impossible it is along with them etc. Z. abjecti homulli! qui possis etc. K. These despicable men etc. Couv. Convient-il (de faire admettre a la cour) des hommes abjects, et de servir etc.
2. The 之 “it” may mean office or desire. 備旨 says it means 富貴 wealth and honours. L. While they have not got their aims their anxiety is how to get them etc. Z. li cum nondum id obtinuerint, anguntur ut illud obtineant etc. K. Before they gain their position, their only anxiety is how to obtain it etc. Couv. Avant
d avoir obtcnu les charges, ils ont en peine do Ics obtcnir etc.
3. c. 小則吮癰砥痔,大則殺夫與君,皆生於患失而已. The lower in rank perform the most loathsome offices, the higher are parricides and regicides, all through fear of losing their position. L. When they are anxious lest such things should be lost, there is nothing to which they will not proceed. Z. nihil erit quo non pertingant. K. nothing which they would not do. Couv. Alors, ils ne reculent devant aucun crime, pour etc.
CHAPTER XVI. i. "In olden times," said the Master," the people had three faults, which now-a-days perhaps no longer exist. 2. High spirit in olden times meant liberty in detail, the high spirit of to-day means utter looseness. Dignity of old meant reserve; dignity to-day means resentment and offence. Simple-mindedness of old meant straightforwardness; simple-mindedness today is nothing but a mask for cunning.
1. 或是之無 Perhaps there is the nonexistence of these. 氣失其平則謂疾,氣稟之偏者亦謂之疾 When the physical temperament has lost its balance it was called 疾 ; so also when there was obliquity of the disposition. L. Anciently men had their failings, which now perhaps are not to be found. Z. tres defectus. K. three kinds of imperfections in their character. Couv. sujets a trois defauts.
2. C. 狂者,志願太高 Wills too high, independent, too high-spirited. 肆謂不拘小節 Were not held by minor restraints. 蕩者踰大閑矣 Overstep the greatest bounds. 矜者持守太嚴Holding themselves too stiffly. 廉謂稜角哨厲Angular and severe. 忿戾厲則至於爭矣 Anger and offence result in wrangles, 愚者暗昧不明 Unenlightened, ignorant. 直謂徑行而遂 Taking the straightest road. 詐則挟私妄作矣 Cherishing secrecy in order to act improperly. L. The high-mindedness of antiquity showed itself in a disregard of small things; wild license; stern dignity, grave reserve, quarrelsome perverseness; stupidity, straightforwardness, sheer deceit. Z. Priscorum spiritus elatio erat lascivula, effrenatio; severitas, rigida, iracunda pugnacitas; ruditas, simplex, versutia et nil aliud. K. Passionate, impetuous men in old time loved independence, wild licence; proud men, modest and reserved, touchiness and vulgar bad temper; simple men, artless and straightforward, hides cunning. Couv. ceux qui avaient de grandes aspirations, negligeai ent les petites choses, licence; constant dans leurs resolutions, peu accessibles, coleres et intraitables; ignorants, siniples et droits, fourbes.
CHAPTER XVII. The Master said: "Artful address and an insinuating demean our seldom accompany Virtue."
CHAPTER XVII. A repetition of i. 3.
CHAPTER XVIIL The Master said: "I hate the way in which purple robs red of its lustre ; I hate the way the airs of Cheng pervert correct music ; and I hate the way in which sharp tongues overthrow both states and families."
C. 朱,正色 Red is a virgin colour; 紫, 間色, purple is a mixed colour (of black and red. the black dulling the red). 雅,正也 Ya means correct, (but cf IX. 14). 覆, 傾敗也 Overturn and ruin. The keen tongued can make things look the very opposite, the worthy unworthy and vice versa, so that if a Prince believed them, it would not be difficult to overthrow his country. L. I hate etc. takes away the lustre of vermilion; songs ot Chêng confound the music of the Ya, sharp mouths overthrow kingdom etc. Z. odiostrum detrahens minio; perturbantes graviorem musicam; acutum os etc. K. scarlet dims the perception for ver milion; modern popular airs etc. spoil the taste for good music; smartness of speech etc. Couv. Je n'aime pas la couleur pourpre, parce qu'elle est plus foncée que le rouge etc. Je déteste la musiquc etc. plus brillante que la bonne musique. Je hais les langues bavardes etc.
CHAPTER XIX i. I wish I could do without speaking," said the Master. 2. " If you did not speak, Sir," said Tzu Kung, "what should we disciples pass on to others?" 3. "What speech has Heaven?" replied the Master. "The four seasons run their courses and all things flourish, yet what speech has Heaven?"
Or, I want to do without talking. C. 學者多以言語觀聖人而不察其天理流行之實. Most of the disciples viewed the Sage through his words only, and did not examine into the fact of the universal principles behind them. L. I would prefer not speaking. Z. ego velim non amplius loqui. K. I would rather not speak at all. Couv. Je voudrais ne plus parler.
2. C. Tzü Kung was exactly of the type above referred to 正以言語觀聖人 L. What shall we have to record? Z. transmittemus. K. What shall we learn from you to be taught to others. Couv. transmet tront-ils à la postérité.
3. Or, what does Heaven say? C. 四時行 etc. 不待言而可見,聖人一動一靜莫非妙道精義之發,亦天而已,豈待言而顯哉 The four seasons run etc. and you do not wait for them to say so to see the fact. So every motion of the Sage was a revelation of his profound Truth and essential rectitude, indeed (a manifestation of) Heaven itself, and why wait for speech to see him revealed. E. Does Heaven speak? continually being produced, but does Heaven say anything. Z. coelum qui unquam loquitur? K. Look at the Heaven there; does it speak? Couv. tous les êtres reçoivent l'existence. Est-ce que le Ciel parle jamais?
CHAPTER XX. Ju Pei wished to see Confucius, who excused himself on the ground of sickness, but when his messenger had gone out at the door, he took up his harpsichord and began to sing, so that Ju Pei might hear it.
將命者 See XIV. 孺悲魯人，嘗學士喪禮於孔子，當時必有以得罪者Ju Pei was a man of Lu, who had studied official mourning under Confucius, to whom at this time he must have given some offence. Cf 禮記 XVIII. II. i. 22. Confucius took this mode of bringing it home. Possibly it was a lesson in manners to Ju Pei a lesson which has not been without formative influence on Chinese character.
CHAPTER XXL i. Tsai Wo asking about the three years mourning suggested that one year was long enough. 2. "If," said he, "a well-bred man be three years without exercising his manners, his manners will certainly degenerate, and if for three years he make no use of music, his music will certainly go to ruin. 3. (In a year), the last year's grain is finished and the new grain has been garnered, the seasonal friction sticks have made their varying fires, a year would be enough."
4. " Would you, then, feel at ease in eating good rice and wearing fine clothes?" asked the Master. "I should," was the reply.
5. " If you would feel at ease, then do so; but a well-bred man, when mourning, does not relish good food when he eats it, does not enjoy music when he hears it, and does not feel at ease when in a comfortable dwelling; therefore he avoids those things. But now you would feel at ease, so go and do them."
6. When Tsai had gone out, the Master said: "The unfeelingness of Tsai Yü! Only when a child is three years old does it leave its parents arms, and the three years mourning is the universal mourning every where. And Yü, was not he the object of his parents affection for three years!"
i. Or, asked about the three years mourning, saying, a year is already a long time. The three years of mourning at that time, as now, meant mourning in three years, that is 25 or 27 months. Before the Chou dynasty it meant three full years. This mourning necessitated the laying aside of all duties, the wearing of sackcloth (or mean clothes), the eating of poor food, much weeping and wailing, and, when stringently carried out, the presence of the mourner in a hut 諒陰 by the grave for three years. See 禮記 XXXI. When Confucius died Tzu Kung remained by his grave for three years. Tsai Wo the sceptical VI. 24, the lazy V. 9, the eloquent XL 2, very sensibly thought one year of such a useless burden sufficient, and advances two arguments one from human affairs, and one from nature. C. 期,周年也 A complete year. Same as 朞 XI, 10. L. Tsae Go asked etc. saying that one year was long enough. K. idem. Z. quando anni cursus jam sit diu multumque, Couv. assez long.
2. C. 恐居喪不習而崩壞 He feared that the neglect of Decorum and Music during mourning would result in losing them. E. If the superior man abstains etc. from the observances of propriety, those observances will be quite lost etc. Z. non exerceat ritus, ritus profecto exolescunt. K. For if a gentleman neglects the Arts and usages of life etc. lose his knowledge of them. Couv. Si le sage s'abstient de remplir les devoirs de convenance etc. tomberont en desuetude.
3. Or, the old crop passes away, and a new crop springs up. C. 沒, 盡也 Finished. 升, 登也 (i.e. 登倉)ascends (into the granary). 燧, 取火之木 The wood used for obtaining fire. 鑽燧改火 The twirling igniters change their fires, i.e. in 春 Spring, 楡柳 elm and willow ; in 夏summer, 棗杏 date and almond ; in 夏季 the last month of summer, 桑柘 mulberry and silkworm oak; in 秋autumn, 柞楢oak and ? ; in 冬 winter, 槐檀locust and sandal. L. Within a year the old grain is exhausted, and the new grain has sprung up, and in procuring fire by friction we go through all the changes of wood for that purpose. Z. novae fruges jam ascenderunt in aream; et terebrans scalptorium mutavit ignem. K. Again etc. old corn is mown away to give place to new etc. burn through all the different kinds of wood produced in all the seasons. Couv. les grains anciens sont consumés, les nouveaux sont recueillis ; les différentes sortes de bois ont tour à tour donne du feu nouveau.
4. C. After a parent s encoffinment a son should eat liquid food 粥 and wear sackcloth, and after burial eat coarse grain, drink water and wear plain garments. At the end of a year he may begin to enjoy vegetables and fruits, and wear a mourning cap and coloured silk facings, but his mourning waist-cord he retains, and be may not eat fine rice or wear brocades. L. eat good rice and wear embroidered clothes, would you feel at ease?
5. C. 旨亦甘也, 旨 also means 甘 L. superior man, during the whole period of mourning, does not enjoy pleasant food which he may eat etc. Therefore he does not do what you propose. But now you feel at ease and may do it. Z. comedens exquisita non gustat etc. ideo non faciet. K. does not enjoy good food when he eats it etc: therefore he does not do etc. Couv. ne trouve aucune saveur aux mets les plus exquis etc. Pour vous, si vous pouvez vous résoudre a le faire, faites-le.
6. C. 懷, 抱也 Embrace, nursing. 有三年之愛於is not read as three years love to his parents, but as in text. 備旨 says the 愛 refers to 戀抱 parental nursing. This was said for repetition to Tsai Wo, to prevent his taking Confucius assent as really intended. L. This shows Yii s want of virtue. It is not till a child etc. that it is allowed to leave the arms etc. universally observed throughout the Empire. Did Yu enjoy the three years' love of his parents. Z. Yu habetne trium annorum amorem in suos parcntes. K. What a mean man without moral feeling he is! I wonder if he was one who did not enjoy the affection of his parents when he was a child! Couv. Yu a mativais coeur. Les parents portent etc., C'est pour reconnaitre ce bienfait, que le deuil etc. a été adopté partout. Yu n'a-t-il pas été l'objet de la tendresse de ses parents durant trois annees?
CHAPTER XXII. The Master said: "How hard is the case of the man who stuffs himself with food the livelong day, never applying his mind to anything! Are there no checker or chess players? Even to do that is surely better than nothing at all."
The comma is always placed 終日 not after 飽食 C. 博, 局戲也 A game of chess, said to resemble draughts, and played with twelve pieces on the board. 奕,棊也 Chess played with 300 pieces on a board with 289 lines, that is 324 squares, the men being placed on the lines ; the modern board has 361 lines, or 400 squares. The invention of the game is attributed to the Emperor Yao. The 象棋 game has only 32 pieces and closely resembles the Western game. Its invention is credited to 武王 the founder of the Chou dynasty, but whether it was originally introduced from India, or from China into India and thence west is question for research. 已, 止也For 賢 see XL 15. C. says the Sage does not here teach men to play games, but uses an extreme illustration to show the evil of laziness. L. Hard is the case etc. mind to anything good. Are there not gamesters and chess-players. To be one of these would still be better etc. Z. At num non tales et scrupos? hos ducere adhuc sapientius quain abstinere. K. Simply cats two full meals without etc. Arethere not such things as gambling and games of skill? To do one of these things even etc. Couv. Quand on ne fait que boire et mange etc. qu'il est difficile de devenir vertueux! N'a-t-on pas des tablettes et des échecs? Mieux vaudrait se livrer à ces jeux etc.
CHAPTER XXIII Tzu Lu once asked: "Does a man of the superior class hold courage in estimation?" "Men of the superior class," said the Master, "deem rectitude the highest thing. It is men of the superior class, with courage but without rectitude, who rebel. It is men of the lower order, with courage but without rectitude, who become robbers."
C. 尚,上之也. Exalts it. 君子為亂,小人為盜, 皆以位而言者也 The chun-tzu turning rebel and the hsiao ren turning bandit, both refer to social position,義以為尚則其勇也大矣 He who highly esteems rectitude will also be of great courage. I,. The superior man holds righteousness to be of highest importance. A man in a superior situation hav ing valour etc. will be guilty of insubordination ; one of the lower people etc. commit robbery. Z. sapiens justitiam habet uti primam: dignitate eminens etc. erit turbulentus : privatus homo etc. erit latro. K. A gentleman wlio has valour etc. is likely to commit a crime. A man of the people etc. become a robber. Couv. Un homme eleve en dignite qui a de la bravoure etc. trouble le bonne ordre. Un homme prive etc. devient brigand.
CHAPTER XXIV i. "Do men of the superior order detest others?" asked Tzu Kung. "They do detest others," answered the Master." "They detest men who divulge other people s misdeeds. They detest those low class people who slander their superiors. They detest the bold and mannerless. They detest the persistently forward who are yet obtuse." 2. "And have you, T zu, those whom you detest?" he asked. "I detest those who count prying out information as wisdom. I detest those who count absence of modesty as courage. I detest those who count denouncing a man's private affairs as straightforwardness.
1. 備旨 says 稱 means 揚 spread abroad and 下流 is 下位. C. 稱人惡則無仁厚之意who weighs out (proclaims) the mis-doings of others is destitute of kindly consideration. 訕謗也To slander. 窒不通 Blocked up, blockheads. L. He has his hatreds. He hates those who proclaim the evil of others; low station slanders his superiors; valour merely, and are unobservant of propriety; forward and determined, of contracted understanding. Z. aversatur divulqantes aliorum mala; infima conditione, obtrectant superioribus etc. K. lie hates those who love to expatiate on the evil doings of others ; living low disreputable lives, those trying to live a higher life; valorous but without judgment and manners ; energetic and bold but narrow-minded and selfish. Couv. Est-il des hommes qui soient odieux au sage? Le sage halt ceux qui publient les defauts ou les fautes d'autrui; de basse condition qui denigrent ceux etc. plus élevée; les hommes entreprenants qui violent les lois; audacieux qui out l'intelligence étroite.
2. C. 徼私察也 Spy out. 訐謂攻發人云陰私 Attacking and revealing men's private affairs. L. those who pry out matters and ascribe the knowledge to their wisdom; only not modest and think they are valorous; make known secrets, straightforward. Z. alios explorant, id ducentes prudentia; ......qui occulta exprobantes, id existimant ingenuitatem. K. censorious, clever; presumptuous, brave; ransack out the secret misdoings of others in order to proclaim them, upright. Couv. ceux qui observent la conduite des autres, croyant que c'est prudence; ne veulent jamais céder, courage; reprochent aux autres des fautes secretes, pensant que c'est franchise.
CHAPTER XXV. The Master said: "Of all people, maids and servants are hardest to keep in your house. If you are friendly with them they lose their deference; if you are reserved with them they resent it."
養 To feed, bring up, 備旨 says it means 待 to treat. 女子 takes as 婢妾 female slaves and concubines. 近之 is to be approachable. 遠之 keep them at a distance. C. 此小人亦謂僕隸下人 servants and underlings. 君子之於臣妾, 莊以涖之, 慈以畜之, 則無二者之患矣 The wise man’s attitude towards his servants and maids (or concubines) is to rule them with dignity and treat them with kindness, thus he avoids these two annoyances. L. girls and servants are the most difficult to behave to, etc. Z. solomodo subnubae puellae atque servitii homines sunt tractatu difliciles. K. young women and servants etc.; familiar, forget their position etc. Couv. Les femmes de second rang et les hommes de service sont les personnes les moins mainables.
CHAPTER XXVI. The Master said: "Tf a man reach forty and yet be disliked by his fellows, he will be so to the end."
其終也已 He is at the end alieady; too late to alter. C. 四十成德之時, 見惡於人則止於此而已 At 40 a man's character is settled, and if he still be detested by his fellows, then here his end is reached. L. When a man at forty is the object of dislike, he will always continue what he is. Z. ille finitus est jam. K. object of dislike to me, he will continue to be so to the end of his days. Couv. conserve encore ties defauts qui le rendent odieux, ne se corrigera jamais.