CONTENTS. This short book of eleven chapters treats of certain ancient worthies, and their attitude towards 
the rulers of the day. 

CONTENTS. This short book of eleven chapters treats of certain ancient worthies, and their attitude towards 
the rulers of the day. 


一  1 微子去之,箕子為之奴,比干諫而死。2 孔子曰:殷有三仁焉。

CHAPTER I. i. The viscount of Wei withdrew from serving the tyrant Chou; the viscount of Chi became his slave; Pi Kan remonstrated with him and suffered death. 2. The Master said: "The Yin had three men of Virtue." 

[Note]. 1. The period was that of the tyrant 紂 the last of the Yin Emperors B.C. 1153-1122. Wei Tzu was his stepbrother by a concubine. Chi Tzu and Pi Kan were his uncles. C. 微箕 Names of two small states, both referred to modern Shansi, 微 being 潞城縣 in 潞安府and 箕 being 榆社縣 in 遼州. 子爵也 The fourth grade of nobility, viscount. Wei Tzu 見紂無道去之以存宗祀 seeing Chou's lawlessness withdrew, to preserve the ancestral sacrifices, i.e. lineage. Chi Tzu and Pi Kan both frequently remonstrated with Chou in vain. Pi Kan was put barbarously to death, the tyrant having his heart torn out, that he might see a sage's heart! Chi Tzu was imprisoned and only escaped death by feigning madness, and acting as fool for his nephew. 

2. They preferred rectitude with exile, degradation, or death to enjoying the pleasures of sin for a season. 


二 柳下惠為士師,三黜。人曰:子未可以去乎?曰:直道而事人,焉往而不三黜?枉道而事人,何必去父母之邦?

CHAPTER II. Hui of Liu-hsia filled the office of Chief Criminal Judge, but had been repeatedly dismissed, and people said to him, "Is it not time, sir, for you to be going elsewhere?" "If I do honest public service," said he, "where shall I go and not be often dismissed? And if I am willing to do dishonest public service, what need is there for me to leave the land of my parents? 

[Note]. Cf. XV. 13. For 三 cf. V. 19 and XI. 5. C. 士師, 獄管 Criminal judge. He was under the 司寇 or Minister of Crime, but with many subordinate magistrates under him. Cf. Chou Li XXXIV. 3. 黜, 退也 To retire, but the ordinary meaning of 黜 is to dismiss, or degrade. Being of such a retiring spirit, 辭氣 he merits the description gentle 和 yet he was not gentle enough to warp his principles for the sake of office. He was not one of those men thankful that: "A merciful Providence had fashioned him holler, In order that he might his principles swaller." L. Serving men in an upright way, where shall I go to and not experience such a thrice-repeated dismissal? If I choose to etc. country of my parents. Z. pluries munere dejectus fuit. K. three times dismissed. People then said etc. If I honestly do my duty etc. If I am willing to sacrifice my sense of duty etc. Couv. il fut plusieurs fois destitue de sa charge. Si je veux servir le public en observant toutes les regies de l'honnetete etc. en faisant fléchir les lois de la probite ma patrie. 


三 齊景公待孔子,曰:若季氏則吾不能,以季、孟之間待之。曰:吾老矣,不能用也。孔子行。

CHAPTER III. Duke Ching of Ch'i speaking of how he should receive Confucius said: "I cannot receive him on an equality with the Chief of the Chi house; I will receive him in a style between the lords of Chi and Mêng." "But," he resumed, "I am old, and cannot make use of him." Confucius departed. 

[Note]. Date, about B.C. 516. C. 魯三卿, 季氏最貴, 孟氏為下卿 They were of the three great houses of Lu; Chi was the most honoured, Mêng having the lowest rank. Confucius departed "not because of his proposed treatment, which was very honourable, but because his principles had no chance of adoption." L. I cannot treat him etc. He also said, I am old; I cannot use his doctrines. Z. juxta Ki inter et Mong medium tractate ilium. At etc. non potero ejus opera uti. K. wished to employ Confucius. I cannot make him a Minister of State, but I will make him a privy Councillor. Couv. Je ne puis plus le traiter avec autant d'honneur que etc. je ne pourrais mettre en pratique ses enseignements. 


四 齊人歸女樂,季桓子受之,三日不朝。孔子行。

CHAPTER IV. The men of Ch'i sent to Lu a present of a troupe of female musicians, whom Chi Huan Tzu accepted, and for three days no Court was held, whereupon Confucius took his departure. 

C. 歸 is taken as 饋.XVII. 1. 季桓子, 魯大夫, 名斯 Chi Huan was the real power in Lu. According to the 史記 in the 14th year of 定公 the Sage was Minister of Crime 司寇 in Lu and also prime minister. Such order and progress did he produce that the rulers of Ch'i (齊人) became afraid of Lu growing powerful, and sent a counter-attraction to Duke Ting, which Chi Huan received for him, of 80 beautiful singing-girls, and many fine horses. Confucius being totally eclipsed and his plans for reform neglected, retired both from office and from the State. 


五 1. 楚狂接輿,歌而過孔子,曰:鳳兮!鳳兮!何德之衰?往者不可諫,來者猶可追。已而!已而!2. 今之從政者殆而!孔子下,欲與之言。趨而辟之,不得與之言。

CHAPTER V. i. Chieh Yü, an eccentric man of Ch'u, one day came singing past Confucius (carriage), saying. "Oh, Phoenix! Oh, Phoenix! What a fall is here! As to the past reproof is useless, but the future may still be overtaken. Desist! Desist! Great is the peril of those who now fill office." 

2. Confucius alighted, desiring to speak to him, but he hurriedly avoided the Sage, so he got no chance of a talk with him.

[Notes] 1. Date circa 488, 楚 is the State of that name. 接輿 "the cart meter" is said to be the adopted name of 陸通 a native of Ch'u. A more reasonable comment might be that here it means he met the cart and that the nickmme was given to him in consequence. He was a hermit who feigned craziness to escape the world, 佯狂辟世 Confucius was on his way to Ch'u, and Chieh Yü 過其車前 passed in front of his carriage. 凰有道則見 The Phoenix only appeared in periods of high moral promise. Chieh Yü likens Confucius to the phoenix, and rebukes him under that guise for behaviour unbefitting a phoenix. 何德之衰 How your character has fallen off! 已,止也 Cease, 而, 助辭 Enclitics to aid the rhythm. L. The madman of Ts'oo, Tseëe-yu, passed etc. Oh Fung! How is your virtue degenerated! Future may be provided against. Give up your vain pursuit etc. Peril awaits those who now engage in affairs of government. Z. Tsie yu cantans etc. Couv. Que ta vertu est diminuée! Il n'est pas plus temps d'empécher par des avis tes égarements passes ; mais tes fautes futures peuvent encore être prévenues. Cesse done etc. Ceux qui maintenant à la tete des affaires, sont en grand danger. 


六 長沮、桀溺耦而耕。孔子過之,使子路問津焉。長沮曰:夫執輿者為誰?子路曰:為孔丘。曰:是魯孔丘與?曰:是也。曰:是知津矣!問於桀溺,桀溺曰:子為誰?曰:為仲由。曰:是魯孔丘之徒與?對曰:然。曰:滔滔者,天下皆是也,而誰以易之?且而與其從辟人之士也,豈若從辟世之士哉?耰而不輟。子路行以告,夫子憮然曰:鳥獸不可與同群!吾非斯人之徒與而誰與?天下有道,丘不與易也。

CHAPTER VI i. Ch'ang Chü and Chieh Ni were cultivating their land together, when Confucius was passing that way, so he sent Tzu Lu to enquire for the ford. 

2. "And who is that holding the reins in the carriage?" asked Ch'ang Chü. "It is K'ung Ch'iu," replied Tzu Lu. "Is it K'ung Ch'iu of Lu?" he asked. "It is," was the reply. "Then he knows the ford," said he. 

3. Tzu Lu then questioned Chieh Ni. "Who are you, sir?" asked Chieh Ni. "I am Chung Yu," was the answer. "Are you a disciple of K'ung Ch'iu of Lu?" "Yes" replied he.  "All the world is rushing head long like a swelling torrent and who will help you to remedy it?" he asked, "As for you, instead of following a leader who flees from one after another, had you not better follow those who flee the world entirely?" With this he fell to raking in his seed with out a pause. 

4. Tzu Lu went off and reported to his Master what they said, who remarked with surprise: "I cannot herd with birds and beasts, and if I may not associate with man kind, with whom am I to associate? Did right rule prevail in the world I should not be taking part in reforming it." 

[Note]. 1. Nothing is know of these two men. C. 二人隱者 They were two recluses, 藕, 竝耕也 Farming together. Confucius was retiring from楚 to 蔡, 津, 濟度處 A place to ford over. L. were at work in the field together etc. Z. bini stantes arabant. K. working in the fields. Couv. associes pour cultiver la terre. 

2. 是知津Seeing it is he, he knows etc. or, such a one as he etc. Evidently a hit at the much wandering Sage, his omniscience and the hopelessness of his task. C. 執與, 執轡在車也 Holding the reins in the cart, for its driver Tzu Lu. 知津數周流,自知津處 was always travelling about and naturally must now the ford. 

3. 滔滔 etc - Rushing like a torrent, thus it is every where under the heavens. 且而 Moreover. 與其......豈若Rather than... much better etc. 從 Follow從辟人之士 a leader who withdraws from gf one man (prince) after another C. 滔滔流而不返 Rolling onwards and never receding. 以猶與 the sense of with or take part, 言天下皆亂,將谁與變易之 there is absolutely universal upheaval, and whom are you going to get with you to reform it? 且而 is stated to be 且汝 more over, you etc. 辟人, 謂孔子 ie. Confucius was escaping from one to another. 辟世,桀溺自謂 meaning Chieh Ni himself. 耰, 覆種也 Covering his seed. L. Disorder, like a swelling flood, spreads over the whole Empire and who is he that will change it for you? Than follow one who merely withdraws from this one and that one etc. Z. torrentis instar ruens imperium totum ita est, et quisnam sinet immutari? K. better to follow those who renounce the world altogether than etc. run from one prince to another. Couv. Tout l'empire est comme un torrent qui precipite. Qui vous aidera à le réformer? Au lieu de suivre une philosophe qui fuit des hommes etc. 

4. 吾非斯人之徒與 If I do not associate with the species 徒 man etc. C. 憮然猶悵然 Surprised, 惜其不喻己意也 sad that they did not understand him. 言所當與群者斯人而已 i.e. those with whom a man ought to associate with are these very men, scorned by these hermits, 豈可絕人逃世以為潔哉 Can a man t> c deemed clean for cutting himself off from his fellows and running from the world! 不與易也is interpreted by 我無用變易之 the Kmpire were well ordered I need not be changing it. 聖人不可有忘天下之心 A Sage could not have a heart forgetful of his country. L. It is impossible to associate with birds and beasts as if they were the same with us. If I associate not with these people, with mankind, with whom etc.? If right principles etc., there would be no use for me to change its state. Z. ego igitur nisi horum hominum generi coeam, cui vero sociabor? Si imperio vigeret ordo, K'ieou nil conferret mutationi. K. If I do not live and associate with mankind etc.? no need for me to do anything to change it. Couv. Si je fuis la société de ces hommes (des princes et de leurs sujcts), avec qui etc. ? je n'aurais pas lieu de travailler a le réformer. 


一 子路從而後,遇丈人,以杖荷蓧。子路問曰:子見夫子乎?丈人曰:四體不勤,五穀不分,孰為夫子?植其杖而芸。二 子路拱而立。三 止子路宿,殺雞為黍而食之,見其二子焉。四 明日,子路行以告。子曰:隱者也。使子路反見之。至則行矣。五 子路曰:不仕無義。長幼之節,不可廢也;君臣之義,如之何其廢之?欲潔其身,而亂大倫。君子之仕也,行其義也。道之不行,已知之矣。 

CHAPTER VII. 1. Once when Tzu Lu was following the Master on a journey he happened to fall behind. Meeting an old man carrying a basket on his staff, Tzu Lu asked him, "Have you seen my Master, sir?" "You," said the old man, "whose four limbs know not toil, and who cannot distinguish the five grains, who may your Master be ? " With that he planted his staff in the ground and commenced weeding. 

2. Tzu Lu joined his hands together in salutation and stood waiting. 

3. The old man kept Tzu Lu for the night, killed a fowl, prepared millet, and gave him to eat, introducing also his two sons. 

4. Next morning Tzu Lu went his way and reported his adventure; "He is a recluse," said the Master, and sent Tzu Lu back again to see him, but on his arrival the old man had gone. 

5. Whereupon Tzu Lu said to the sons: "It is not right to refuse to serve one's country. If the regulations between old and young in family life may not be set aside, how is it that he sets aside the duty that exists between a Prince and his ministers? In his desire to maintain his own personal purity, he subverts one of the main principles of society. A wise man in what ever office he occupies, fulfils its proper duties, even though he is well aware that right principles have ceased to make progress." 

[Note]. 1. C.丈人,亦隱者 A hermit. 蓧,竹器 A bamboo utensil. 分,辨也 Discriminate, 五穀不分猶言不辨菽麥爾,責其不事農業而從師遠遊也 Not distinguishing the five grains means not knowing maize from wheat, so to speak, and was a rebuke for not occupying himself with farming instead of wandering round after a philosopher. L. carrying across his shoulder on a staff, a basket for weeds. Your four limbs are unaccustoned to toil etc. who is your Master? Z. quatuor membris non laboras, quinque fruges non discernis etc. K. Have you seen the Teacher, sir? Couv. Vous ne remuez ni pieds ni mains ; vous ne savez pas meme distingucr les cinq especcs cle grains etc. 

2. C. 知其隱者敬之也 Recognising him to be a recluse he shewed him respect. L. joined his hands across his breast and stood before him. 

3. L. kept Tsze-lu to pass the night in his house etc. feasted him. He also introduced to him etc. Z. paravit millium et apposuit illi. K. making millet pudding for him to eat etc. presented his two sons. Couv. L'invita á passer la nuit dans sa maison etc. 

4. C. 孔子使etc. 欲告之以君臣之義而丈人意子路必將復來故先去之以滅其迹 Confucius sent Tzu Lu etc, wishing to point out to him the duties of princes and ministers, but the old man, surmising Tzu Lu would soon return, departed early in order to cover up his tracks. L. Next day etc. 

5. 不仕 Not to take office. The君子 is taken by some to mean Confucius. C. 子路述夫子之意如此 thus narrated his Master's ideas. 蓋丈人之接子路甚倨而子路益恭,丈人因見其二子焉,則於長幼之節,故知其不可廢矣,故因其所明以曉之. When the old man received Tzu Lu very arrogantly, the latter shewed him the more respect, and, seeing that the old man knew to introduce his two sons, he evidently recognized that the institutions of seniority were not to be discarded, hence Tzu Lu wished to shew him the logical outcome of what he already admit ted. L. Tsze Lu then said to the family. Not to take office is not righteous. If the relations between old and young may not be neglected, how is it that he sets aside the duties that should be observed between sovereign and minister? Wishing to maintain etc., he allows that great relation to come to confusion. A superior man takes office and performs the righteous duties belonging to it. As to the failure etc., he is aware of that. Z. Velle puram servare suam personam, et tamen perturbare magnum societatis ordinem! Sapiens magistratum geret, expleturus suum officium: doctrinam non habere cursum, jam scimus hoc. K. if it is wrong to ignore the duties arising out of the relations etc. how is it right to ignore the duties a man owes to his sovereign and country? Couv. Refuser ses charges, c'est manquer á un devoir. S'il n'est pas permis de negliger les égards dus à ceux qui sont plus ages que nous, quelqu un a-t-il le droit etc. d'un sujet envers son prince? Le sage accepte les charges, pour remplir le devoir etc. Le bon ordre ne regne pas; c'est que nous savons depuis longtemps. 


一 逸民:伯夷、叔齊、虞仲、夷逸、朱張、柳下惠、少連。二 子曰:不降其志,不辱其身,伯夷叔齊與!三 謂:柳下惠、少連,降志辱身矣。言中倫,行中慮,其斯而已矣。四 謂虞仲、夷逸:隱居放言,身中清,廢中權。五 我則異於是,無可無不可。

CHAPTER VIIL I. The men noted for withdrawal into private life were Po I, Shu Ch'i, Yii Chung, I I, Chu Chang, Hui of Liu-hsia, and Shao Lien. 2. The Master observed: "Those of them who would neither abate their high purpose, nor abase themselves, it seems to me were Po I and Shu Ch'i. 3. Concerning Hui of Liu-hsia and Shao Lien, while they abated their high purpose and abased them selves, what they said made for social order, and what they did hit off what men were anxious about, and that is all. 4. Concerning Yü Chung and I I, though in their seclusion they were immoderate in their utterances, yet they sustained their personal purity, and their self-immolation had weighty cause. 5. "But I am different from these. With me these is no inflexible thou shalt or thou shalt not." 

[Note]. 1. C. 逸, 遺逸 To leave, depart, 民,無爵位之稱 A term for those not in office, people. For Po I and Shu Ch i see V. 22. C. says Yü Chung is the same as 仲雍 (i.e. 吳仲) younger brother of 泰伯 VIII. I. Of I I and Chu Chang nothing is known. They are not mentioned in the 經 and 傳. For Hui of Liu-hsia see cap. 2 and XV. 13. He did not actually withdraw as a recluse. Shao Lien was a 東夷人 a man of the eastern barbarian tribes, who 善居喪 admirably performed his mourning duties. Sec Li Chi XXI. i. 14. L. The men who have retired to privacy from the world. Z. Elapsi sacculo viri. Couv. Ont vécu en simples particuliers. 

2. Or, The not lowering their resolves, and not dis honouring themselves. 與 Are they not? L. Refusing to surrender their wills, or to submit to any taint in their persons; such, I think, were etc. Z. non demittens suum animum, nee deprimentes suum pcrsonam, nonne etc. K. would not give up their high aims, and in that way, had not to put up with dishonour to their persons. Couv. N'ont-ils pas tenu invariablement leur resolution etc. de peur de se souiller? 

3. 中 To hit the centre. C. 倫, 義理之次第也 The grades (or relations) arising out of the law of right. 慮, 思慮也 cares, anxieties, 中慮, 言有意義合人心 hit the anxious thought, means to have ideas consonant with the general feeling. L. It may be said of etc. that they surrendered their wills, and submitted to taint in their persons, but their words corres ponded with reason, and their actions were such as men arc- anxious to see. Z. at verba quadrasse recto ordini, actiones quadrasse communi sensui. K. in whatever they said were found reasonable, etc. commendable. Couv. Confucius dit que etc. faisaient fléchir leur resolution et s'abaissaient eux-mêmes; que etc. conforme à la droite raison etc. avec le sentiment commun des hommes. 

4. c. 仲雍居吳,斷髮紋身,裸以為飾Chung Yung dwelt in Wu, cutting off his hair and tattooing his body (? like the natives), and looked on nakedness as adornment. 隱居獨善合乎道之清,放言自廢合乎道之權their seclusion and solitary uprightness they accorded with the purity of Truth, and even in their extreme language and self-immolation they were on the side of Truth. 權 means bias, the weighty side; see IX. 20. L. while they hid themselves in their seclusion they gave a license to their words, but in their persons they succeeded in preserving their purity, and etc. acted according to the exigency of the times. Z. occultos degisse, et licentius locutos, at personam obtinuisse purita tem, suique subductionem congruisse epikeiae. K. pure in their lives, and so entirely secluding themselves from the world, they rightly used their discretion. Couv. donné des avis avec une liberté excessive etc., le sacrifice des dignites leur etait permis a cause des circonstances.
5. Or, No may or may not, i.e. no rigid unalterable line of conduct laid down such as these men followed. C. 孟子曰, 孔子可以仕則仕,可以止則止,可以久則久,可以速則速,所無可無不可也. Mencius says, When Confucius saw it right to take office he did so, when right to cease he did so etc. L. I have no course for which I am predetermined, and no course against which etc. K. idem. Z. nil absolute teneo, nil absolute respuo. Couv. Je ne veux ni ne rejette rien absolument, (mais je consulte toujours les circonstances). 



CHAPTER IX,--I. The Bandmaster Chih migrated to Ch'i; 2. Kan, the band leader at the second repast, migrated to Ch'u ; Liao of the third repast to Ts'ai; while Chüeh of the fourth repast migrated to Ch'in. 3. The big drummer Fang Shu penetrated to (the north of) the River; 4. the kettle drummer Wu penetrated to the river Han; 5. while Yang the assistant master, and Hsiang the player on the stone chime penetrated to (an island in) the sea. 

[Note]. 1. C. considers this to be a continuation of the last chapter, and it records the dispersion of the band of Lu, (which Confucius had reformed), on the degeneration of morals and music in that State in the time of Duke 哀But these words are unlikely to have been uttered by Confucius, 未必夫子之言也 These eight men are counted as 賢人 for refusing to prostitute their art to gratify an immoral Court. I. For Chih, see VIII. 15. 大 read 太 the Chief as contrasted with ty 少師 the assistant master. 

2. The Emperor had four formal meals a day, princes had three, but the Duke of Lu having Imperial privileges had four. It is assumed that the band played at each of these meals, though as to the first there is no evidence. These three men are supposed to have taken turns in leading; but may it not be that the instrument which announced the three meals differed with each? 

3. The River is the Yellow River. C. 河內 the north of the river as contrasted with 河外 the south. 

4. The 播鞀 was a small drum with a handle attached to the barrel, struck by a button flying loose at the end of a string ; the pedlar s drum of to-day. 

5. C. Confucius learnt the harpsichord from 襄, 海, 海島也 an island. K. one, it is said, went out over sea, perhaps to Japan! 



CHAPTER X. The Duke of Chou addressing (his son), the Duke of Lu, said : "The wise prince does not neglect his relatives; nor does he cause his chief ministers to be discontented at his not employing then; he does not dismiss old servants from office without some grave cause for it; nor does he expect one man to be capable of everything."  

[Note].C. 此伯禽受封之國,周公訓結之辭. This advice was given by Duke Chou to his son Po Ch'in on his appointment to the State of Lu, (while Duke Chou acted as Imperial Regent). The saying is said to have been traditional in Lu, to have been repeated by Confucius to his disciples, and recorded by them. C. reads 施 as 馳, i.e. 遺棄也 To cast aside. 以, 用也 Employ. 大故謂惡逆Contumacy. L. The virtuous prince etc., Without some cause he does not dismiss from their offices the members of old families. He does not seek in one man talent for every employment. Z. sapiens non eliminat suos consanguineos etc. veteranos et antiques, si non sit gravis causa, tunc non adjicit; non exigit perfectionem in uno homine. K. great ministers cause to complain that their advice is not taken; never expect from a man that he will be able to do everything. Couv. Un prince sage ne neglige pas etc. ne rejette pas les membres des anciennes families qui ont servi I'Etat de generation en generation. Il n'exige pas qu un officier possède à lui tous les talents et tous les qualités.   



CHAPTER XI. It is Chou that has possessed the eight valiant men, Po Ta, Po Kua, Chung T'u, Chung Hu, Shu Yeh, Shu Hsia, Chi Sui and Chi Wa. 

[Note]. C. Some place them in the days of成王, others in the days 宣王. All the eight are said to be brothers, sons of the same mother, and born in pairs;-- 母四乳而生八子 but there is no possibility of resolving the authenticity of this tradition, 然不可考矣. Note the names of the various twins伯,仲,叔,季, primus, secundus etc. Reminders to a decadent age of the virility of a past generation. L. To Chou belonged the eight officers etc. Z. octo heroes. Couv. huit hommes remarquables.