1. For Tzu Chang see II. 18 and Introduction 從政see VI. 6. 勞而不怨 IV, 18 ; 泰而不驕, XIII, 26 ; 威而不猛 VII, 37. L. Let him honour the five excellent, and banish away the five bad things etc. beneficient without great expenditure ; lays tasks on tht people without their repining ; pursuesivhat he desires with out being covetous ; maintains a dignified ease, without be ing proud ; majestic without being fierce. Z. beneficus,
sed sine expcnsis ; gravans, scd sine offensione ; dcsiderans, scd sine cupiditatc ; prospcritatc contentus, scd sine supcr- bia ; gravis, sed minime ferus. K. to benefit the people without wasting the resources of the country ; to encourage labour without giving cause for complaint ; to desire the enjoyment of life without being covetous ; to be dignified without being supercilious ; to inspire awe without being severe. Couv. exerce bienfaisance, sans rien depenscr ; il impose des charges aux peuple, sans le mecontenter; il a des desirs, sans etre cupide ; il est heureux et calme, sans orgueil ni negligence ; il a cle la dignite, sans avoir r en de dur.
2. 因民之所利 etc, By means of those things in which the people are prospered he prospers them,備旨 says 因means 依, , and 民之所利乃天地簡自然之利 Natural benefits or resources, e. g. agri culture, etc. 勞是不得已之事 lao means works of necessity, such as city walls, reservoirs etc. 仁指仁心仁政; Sympathetic feelings and policy. 眾寡以人言, 大小以事言; The one refers to persons, the other to affairs, L. makes more beneficial to the people the things from which they naturally derive benefit etc. ; chooses the labours which are proper and makes them labour on them etc. ; desires set on benevolent government etc. ; many people or few, or with things great or small, he docs not dare to indicate any disrespect etc. ; he adjusts his clothes and cap, and throws a dignity into his looks etc. looked at with awe etc. Z. 無眾寡; non distin- gucns plures pauciorcsque, non leviora graviorave, nunquam audeat parvifacere. K. To encourage the people to
undertake sueh profitable labour as will best benefit them, without etc. assistance out of the public revenue. fflH Jffc I is never presumptuous, and never regards anything as beneath his notice. Couv. II favorise tout ce qui procure des ressources au pcuple, etc. ; $; fc il desire quc son administration soit bienfaisante etc.
3. 不教而殺 Not to instruct them and yet punish with death, 虐 In the claws of a tiger. C 虐謂殘酷不仁; Cruelly tyrannical and inhuman. 暴謂卒遽無漸;Sudden outburst, 致期刻期也Oppressively fixing a date. 賊者切害之意緩於前而急於後以誤其民而必刑之是賊害之也Procrastination beforehand and urgency later, thereby put ting the people in the wrong, and in the way of certain punishment, is verily taking a rascally advantage of them. This probably means lack of foresight during the farmers slack season, then robbing them of their time for sowing or reaping. 猶言均之也均之以物與人Yumeans in general, bestowing things in general on people. 有司 A mere functionary, jack-in office. L. To put the people to death without having instructed them, this is called cruelty. To require from them suddenly, the full tale of work, without etc. warning etc. oppression. To issue orders, as if without urgency, at first, and when the time comes, to insist on them with severity ; injury. And, generally speaking, to give pay or regards to men, and yet to do it in a stingy way etc. acting the part of a mere official. Z. non instituere et tamcn morte punire, dicitur tyrannis; sine praemonitu uno intuitu velle opus absoluturn, clicitur violentia ; remissa mandare et urge re certum tempus, dicitur grassatio ; cum acquc ipsum dandum crit alicui, crogandi rccipicndi diffiultas dicitur facere substitutum. K. First, is cruelty ; that is the undue punishment of crimes committed through ignorance arising out of a neglected education ; tyranny etc., without first clearly giving public notice ; heartlessness, leave orders in abeyance, and sud denly to enforce their performance by punishment. And lastly meanness ; to treat subordinates as if bartering with them etc. behaving like professional men and not like gentlemen. Cotiv. No pas instruire ses sujets etc. cruaute. Sans avoir averti d avance, exiger etc. toute de suite, c est do la precipitation et de la violence. Donner des ordre.s peu prcssants etc. et urger ensuite 1 execution, cest assas- sincr le peuple. Ouand il est absolument necessaire de donner quelque chose tot ou tarcl, calculer avec parcimonie ce que Ton re^oit et ce que Ton donne, c est agir comme un intendant.
This chapter is undivided in Chu-tzu s edition. Here Dr. Legge s division has been retained for convenience of reference.
1. Tzu Chang enquired of Confucius saying, "How should a man
act in order to the proper administration of government ? " The Master replied : " Let him honour the five good and get rid of the four bad rules, then he will be a worthy administrator." " What is meant by the five good rules?" asked Tzu Chang. That the Ruler," replied the Master, " be beneficent without expending the public revenue, that he exact service without arousing dissatisfac tion, that his desires never degenerate to greed, that he be dignified but without dis dain, and that he be commanding but not domineering."
2. " What is meant by beneficence without expenditure?" asked Tzu Chang. The Master replied : " To benefit the people by the development of their natural resources ;
is not this a public benefaction without expense to the revenue ? If he select suitable works to exact from them who then will be dissatisfied? If his desires are for the good of others, and he secure it, how can he be greedy ? The wise ruler without considering whether the persons concerned are many or few, or the affair small or great, never permits himself to slight them, is not this to be dignified without disdain? The wise ruler arrays himself properly in robe and cap, and throws a nobility into his looks, so that men looking upon him in his dignity stand in awe of him, and is not this commanding without being domineering ?
3. " What is the meaning of the four bad rules ? " asked Tzu Chang. The Master replied, " Putting men to death without having taught them their duty, which may be called cruelty ; expecting the completion of works when no warning has been given, which may be called oppression ; remissness in ordering and then demand for instant performance, which may be called robbery; and likewise, when giving rewards to men, offering them in grudging fashion, which may be called being a functionary."