THIS is one of the richest Provinces of the Empire, and is bounded by the Provinces of Se tchuen, Koei tcheou, and Quang fi, on one side ; and on the other with Thibet, and a Savage People little known, and the Kingdoms of Ava, Pegu, Laos, and Tong king. It contains twenty-one Cities of the First Order, and fifty-five of the Second and Third, and is well watered with River and Lakes, which render it very fruitful.
All sorts of Provisions are very cheap, and they receive great Profits from the Gold which they find among the Sand in the Rivers, and Torrents that issue from some of the Mountains in the Eastern Part ; this gives reason to believe that there is abundance of Gold Mines, that would bring in immense Riches if allowed to be open'd.
Besides the common Copper Mines, which are found in other Provinces, they have here , particular kind of Copper call'd Pe tong, which is intirely white; it also produces red Amber, but no yellow : There are Rubies, Saphires, Agates, Pearls, Precious-Stones, Musk, Silk, Benjamin, a fort of Incense which is greatly admired. Lapis Lazuli, and very fine Marble.
There is also of that kind of Marble which is naturally painted with divers Colours representing Land skips, with which they make Tables ; some think Rubies, and other Precious-Stones, are brought here from the Kingdom of Ava.
They have excellent Horses, that are very strong and vigorous, but low; there are also a particular kind of Stags, that are no larger than our common Dogs, which the Nobility keep in their Gardens for their Diversion, as likewise great Numbers of Golden Hens, called Kin ki, which I have described in another Place.
These People are very strong, courageous, witty, and apt to learn.
The First City, and Capital of the Province, Yun nan fou,
THIS city , situated to the Banks of a large Lake, which they call the Southern Sea, which some Years ago was remarkable for its Beauty, and was upwards of a League in Circuit, and adorned with fine Buildings and Gardens. A Chinese Prince formerly kept his Court there , and the Tartars, who were then Masters of China, had granted him the Investiture of it, with the Title of King ; but this Prince having revolted, and taken Arms against the Emperor in the Year 1670, his Family was ruin'd, and he dying soon after of Old Age, his Troops were dispersed.
The Trade for Metals is greater here than in any other Province : There is a kind of Stuff which is uncommon, called Tong hai touan se, that is, Satin of the Eastern Sea , it is thick, made of Silk-Thread twisted, plain, without Lustre or Flowers, and is dyed into all sorts of Colours, as the Tonan tse, or common Satin ; They make also fine Carpets.
The City of Yun nan has more Reputation than Riches, the Shops are but poorly furnish'd , the Merchants are not wealthy, the Buildings but indifferent, and the Inhabitants thin when compared with the Capitals of other Provinces.
The Tsong tou, or Governor-General of the Provinces of Yun nan, and of Koei tcheou, resides here, as also the Viceroy of the Province, Within its District are four Cities of the Second Order, and seven of the Third.
The whole Country is very agreeable and fertile, the Waters are very good, the Climate is temperate, and the Canals are made large enough to admit considerable Barks.
The Inhabitants have Wit as well as Courage, and their Employment is either the Exercise of Arms, or Agriculture. The Horses of this Country are small, but strong and lively : Lapis Lazuli is found here, as also the Trees whose Wood is called Rose-Wood.
The Second City, Ta li fou.
THIS City is also built on the Banks of a Lake, which is very long, and well stock'd with all sorts of Fish, the City is large and populous, the Climate very mild, and the Soil fruitful.
This is the principal Place where they make curious Tables, and other Ornaments of fine Marble, which is got from a Mountain called Tien sung, and is naturally beautify'd with different Colours, so that one would imagine an able Painter had embellish'd it with Mountains, Flowers, Trees, and Rivers. Ta li has Under its Jurisdiction four Cities of the Second Order, and three of the Third.
The Third City, Ling ngan fou.
THE District of this City, which contains four Cities of the Second Order, and five of the Thirds consists of Plains, Vallies, and Mountains, whose Prospect is not disagreeable , it is watered by two Lakes and several Rivers, and is very fertile, especially in Rice and Wheat ; it produces also Honey, a great Quantity of Wax, and most of the Fruits which grow in China.
The Fourth City, Tchou hiung fou.
THIS City is situated in the Center of the Province, in a very fine Country , watered by several Rivers, and encompass'ed on all sides with beautiful Mountains which serve instead of Ramparts: The Air is healthful, and the Soil produces all sorts of Grain in abundance , there are also very good Pastures.
The Mountains yield Lapis Lazuli, and fine green Stones ; there are likewise Silver Mines, but they are not permitted to be open'd, It has within its District only Two Cities of the Second Orders and
The Fifth City, Tching kiang fou.
THE Situation of this City is very agreeable, being built on the Side of a Lake, and in a Plain surrounded with Mountains, which are at a proper Distance, to render the Prospect agreeable : Its District: is not large, and contains but two Cities of the Second Order, and two of the Third ; but it is watered with Lakes and Rivers, which make it very fruitful, and in which there are abundance of excellent Fish ; they make here Carpets of Cotton, which are very valuable.
The Sixth City, King tong fou.
THIS City is surrounded with very high Mountains, in which they say there are Silver Mines ; the Country abounds with Rice, and the Vallies are well watered with Rivers and Brooks. Altho' it is placed in the Rank of Fou, there is no other City in its District : To the West of this City there is one of those sorts of Bridges which I have already describ'd elsewhere , it is supported by Iron Chains, and the Sight of the Precipices, with the Motion of the Bridge when several Persons go over it together, generally fright Persons the first time they pass over it.
The Seventh City, Quang nan fou.
THIS City, as well as the preceding, hath no other within its Jurisdiction ; it is seated on the Frontiers of the Province of Koei tcheou, and is almost separated from the rest of the Province by frightful Mountains; however its Territory is not the less fertile. The Chinese call the Inhabitants of this Country Barbarians, because of their Unpoliteness.
The Eighth City, Quang fi fou.
THIS City is situated on the Banks of a Lake, and surrounded with Mountains ; it has two Cities of the Third Order within its District, but has nothing worthy of Observation,
The Ninth City, Chun nlng fou.
THIS City is very small, its Circuit being but half a League : It is surrounded with Mountains, and the passages leading to it are very narrow ; the Soil is fruitful, but the Inhabitants are as Barbarous in their Manners, as the Climate which they inhabit.
The Tenth City, Ku tsing fou.
ALTHO' this City is surrounded with Mountains, the Soil that is about them is pretty fruitful. Within its Jurisdiction are five Cities of the Second Order, and two of the Third : The Inhabitants are very laborious, and cultivate every Inch of Ground ; but they are so litigious, that they often spend their Fortunes in Law.
The Eleventh City, Yao ngan fou.
THE Territory of this City is considerable, altho' it contains but two Cities, one of the Second Order, and the other of the Third. It is intermixt with Mountains which are cover'd with fine Forests and fruitful Vallies, and produces abundance of Musk: Near the City there is a Well of Salt-Water, iron which they nuke very white Salt : The Inhabitants of this Country are strong and warlike.
The Twelfth City, Ko king fou.
THIS City is surrounded with Mountains, and has but one City of the Second Order in its District. It is seated on the Banks of a Lake whose Circumference is fix Leagues ; the People are courageous, and are generally armed with Bows and Arrows ; the Country produces Musk, and Pine Apples ; there are the finest Carpets made here ; and they pretend that there are Mines of Gold within its Mountains, bordering upon the Countries of Si fan, or Land of Lamas.
The thirteenth City, Vou ting fou,
THIS City is situated on the Confines of the Province of Se tchuen, in a very fruitful Country, watered with Streams and Rivers, where a considerable Garrison is kept to defend it from the Incursions of the Mountaineers of the Neighbourhood.
The Land is well cultivated, and abounds with Pasture Ground, which feeds a great number of Sheep.
Some of the Mountains are so steep, and the passages so narrow, that a Man can scarcely get to the Top ; the Inhabitants retire there in time of War, as to an inaccessible Refuge : It has but two Cities of the Second Order, and one of the Third within its District.
The Fourteenth City, Li kiang tou fou.
IT is said that the Inhabitants of this City, and its Territory, are descended from some ancient Colonies of Chinese, which came and fixed there ; it has no other City within its District, but is surrounded by Mountains which separate it from the Land of the Lamas : It is not doubted but that there are Mines of Gold within its Mountains. The whole Country is very well watered, and the Land fruitful ; there are found here Amber and Pine-Apples,
The Fifteenth City, Tuen kiang fou.
THIS City is built on the Banks of a large River, call'd Ho li kiang: It has no Jurisdiction, having no City depending on it. The Country is diyersify'd with Mountains and Vallies, watered with several Rivers, and abounds with Silk, Ebony-Wood, Palm-Trees, and Trees of Areca, which these People chew with the Leaf of Betel. There are abundance of Peacocks here.
The Sixteenth City, Mong hoa fou.
THIS City has nope depending on it, but is surrounded with High Mountains; nor is there any Country in the whole Empire that abounds so plentifully with Musk as this.
The Seventeenth City;Yung tchong fou,
THIS City is pretty large and populous, and is built in the midst of high Mountains, on the Border of the Province, in the Neighbourhood of a Savage People, whose Genius and Manners the Inhabitants of this Country partake of. The Country produces Gold, Honey, Wax, Amber, and a vast quantity of fine Silk, It has within its Districts one City of the Second Order, and two of the Third.
The Eighteenth City, Yung ning tou fou.
THIS City is built at the Extremity of the Province, and almost joins to the Land of the Lamas : On the East it hath a fine Lake, with four small Island, in it, but there is no City within its Jurisdiction. In this Country, as well as in the Kingdom of Thibet, there are a particular kind of Cows, of whose Tails divers Uses are made ; in particular, Stuffs through which Rain cannot penetrate ; and Carpeting, which is very valuable, and with which the Chinese Officers adorn their Standards and Bucklers.
The Nineteenth City, Yung pe fou.
THIS City is bulk in the midst of Mountains, its Territory is very fruitful, and there are large Plains watered by a fine Lake, and several large Rivers and Streams ; but it has no City within its District .
The twentieth City, Cai hoa fou.
THIS City has nothing worthy Remark, only that it is on the Confines of the Kingdom of Tong king, and is, on that side, the Key of the Province. It is situated in a Country which is full of fertile Vallies and high Mountains ; but has no Jurisdiction nor City depending on it.
The Twenty-first City, San ta fou.
THIS last City is on the Confines of the Kingdom of Ava, and is properly a Garrison to defend the Frontiers ; it is surrounded with Mountains, and the Vallies are watered with Rivers, which make the Soil very fertile.