opinions, make themselves intelligible, detach themselves from Tao, adapt them-
selves to circumstances, avoid reality and effect appearance. Those who are not
commendable may not be honoured with functions nor endowed with posts.
Instead of "those who are nor commendable" v. I. "the worthies of the world".
does not cause the people to contend.
Do not contend for merit and glory but return to nature.
Not to praise treasures difficult to gain
This means that a prince ought not to rule with a love for precious treasures. He
should cast the money [back] to the mountains [where it came from] and throw
the pearls and jewels into the lakes.
causes people not to become thieves.
If the superiors turn towards purity, the inferiors are not greedy.
For 净 "purity" v. I. 静"stillness"_
Not to show things desirable
One ought to banish the songs of Cheng and to keep away adulators.
commentary is a quotation from Lun-yü. For 佞人, adulators" v. I.
美人 "beauties", which differs from the reading of the Lun-yü and is therefore to be rejected.
does not lead the mind into confusion.
Do not be bad and excessive nor unstable and confused.
Therefore the government of the saint
This means to govern the country together with the body.
治身 "to govern the means in Taoist the same as "to lead the life of
an ascetic". We will therefore regularly translate it by „to practise asceticism".
empties their minds and fills their bellies,
Abandon desire and flee from confusion and trouble. Enclose Tao in your
bosom, embrace unity and retain the five spirits.
Instead Of 抱一 "embrace unity" an expression alluding to ch. 1o, there is a variant
抱道 "embrace Tao", which is rejected by Li Ch'iao. On the five spirits of Howe's, see ch. 6.
weakens their will
Side with the weak and supple and do not stay with the powerful.