Tou of the Swallow Hills
Tou 4 yen 4 shan 1
Tou swallow hill
Tou is composed of 穴 hsueh a hole as radical, with 賣 (see line 134), here an abbreviation for 瀆 tu a ditch, as phonetic. It was the surname of 竇禹鈞 Tou Yü-chün, a scholar of the 10th cent. A.D. He lived in 幽州 Yu-chou, a part of modern Chihli which fell under the jurisdiction of Yen; hence he received the sobriquet of Yen-shan, the name of the 順天 Shun-t'ien Prefecture under the 宋 Sung dynasty, A.D. 960-1260.
Yen was under its old form a picture of a flying swallow, the two halves of 北 pei north (line 61), between which 口 k'ou mouth (line 263) is inserted, representing the wings, and *fo huo fire (line 65), under which radical it is now classed, giving a good idea of the forked tail.
Shan was originally a picture of mountain peaks.
had the right method.
Yu 3 i 4 fang 1 .
Have duty method
Yu is composed of 月 yüeh moon as radical, below 又 yu a hand (line 18) as phonetic. The latter portion is said to have been the original character, moon being added as a differentia when the written language began to grow. Yu is the root idea of being and possession, q.d. to exist, to have, which senses have been fancifully derived from the moon present, not eclipsed. Read yu4,
it means plus.
I is composed of 羊 yang sheep (line 77) above 我 wo I (line 147) = my sheep, and points towards a great obligation in primitive ages. It can be best rendered in philosophy by duty towards one's neighbour (line 69). Thus it came to mean something provided from a sense of duty, as a burying-ground for the poor, troops to defend the people's liberties (line 240), etc. It also signifies meaning, purport.
Fang originally meant, and is supposed to be a picture of, two boats joined together. Then it came to mean square, and by extension a place. Here it stands for the colloquial 方法 fang fa a means of doing. For an adverbial sense, see line 30.
He taught five sons,
Chiao4 wu3 tzu3
Teach five son
Chiao see line 5.
Wu was originally written X, and for short X. It is now classed under radical 二 erh two (line 116), representing heaven above and earth below, the cross lines shewing the interaction of the male and female principles of Chinese cosmogony.
Tzü see line 11.
each of whom raised the family reputation.
Ming 2 chu 1 yang 1
Name all raise
Ming is composed of 夕 hsi evening (line 266) and 口 k'ou mouth as radical. It is explained thus: "In the evening it is dark and one cannot see, so that it is necessary for a man to call out his name." The word ming (see title) is now mostly used of a man's personal name, which is taboo except to parents and to the sovereign. Tou's five sons all rose to high office.
Chu is composed of 人 jen man as radical, with 具 chu (line 84)
Yang is composed of 手 shou hand as radical, with a common phonetic which must be distinguished from 易 i (line 126). [Zottoli and Eitel are both wrong in making ming refer to the sons.]
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