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S025: If jade is not polished

25. 玉不琢

Yu k pu 1 cho 2 

Jade not polish 

If jade is not polished, 

Yü was originally composed of three equidistant horizontal lines joined by a vertical stroke. It is now written with a dot, which is omitted in composition, to distinguish it from 王 wang (line 190). It is the gem par excellence of China, a species of nephrite or jade, and is held to possess five virtues. It is used for all kinds of ornaments, and is also put into the mouths of corpses to preserve them from decay. 

Pu see line 5. 

Cho is composed of 玉 yu jade as radical, and a phonetic which is 豕 shih pig (line 78) with its feet tied together. It means to prepare jade. 

26. 不成器

Pu 1 ch'eng2 ch'i4

Not become utensil ) 

cannot become a thing of use. 

Pu see line 5. 

Ch'eng is composed of 戊 mou or wu flourishing, and what under the old form was 丁 ting a cyclical character, a man, a nail, etc. It means to accomplish, to complete. Ch'i is composed of four 口 k'ou mouths with 犬 ch'üan dog (Hue 78) in the middle. It originally meant receptacles for food etc., the mouths of which are represented as guarded by a dog. It also means anything which can be put to some definite use. Confucius said 君子不器 chun tzu pu ch'i the superior man is not a thing, i.e. of restricted use; mathematically, he is not a function of one variable but of many. 

27. 人不學

Jen 2 pu 1 hsueh 2 

Man not learn 

If a man does not learn,

Jen see line 1. 

Pu see line 5. 

Hstieh see line 11. 

28. 不知義

Pu 1 chih 1 i4 

Not know duty 

He cannot know his duty towards his neighbour. 

Pu see line 5. 

Chih is composed of 矢 shih the arrow or bolt in a crossbow as radical and phonetic, and (口 k'ou mouth. It is defined in the Shuo Wen (line 22) as language, the outward expression of inward ideas; but from the earliest times it is found meaning to know, to perceive. 

I see line 14. It has here a variant, 理 eternal principles, found in inferior editions.