Wei 2 jen 2 tzu 3
Be man child
He who is the son of a man,
Wei see line 24.
Jen is in the possessive case by position and by logical requirements.
Tzu see line 11. [Jen tzu is the same as J人之子 jen chih tzu which has been adopted by the translators of the Bible as rendering "the Son of Man" (Matt. VIII. 20 etc.). But these terms point rather to sons of men in general, and require the insertion of a demonstrative particle.]
Fang 1 shao 4 shih 2
Just young time
when he is young
Fang see line 14. It is here used adverbially and signifies just now, then, when, a moment ago.
Shao is composed of 小 hsiao small (line 113) as opposed to 大 ta great (lines 113, 127), and a sweeping stroke from right to left. It has come by extension to mean young, and when preceding a man's name is used in the sense of the Younger So-and-So, as opposed to 老 (line 24) the Elder. Its original meaning was few as opposed to 多 to many (line 302), in which sense it is now read shao3.
Shih has 日 the sun (line 52) as radical, pointing towards the meaning, and 寺 ssu a temple as phonetic. The latter is composed of 寸 ts'un inch as radical, which seems to refer to regulations, below an abbreviation of 之 chih (line 1) as phonetic, and is used in several important characters (line 135).
Ch'in 1 shih 1 yu 3
Intimate teacher friend '
should attach himself to his teachers and friends.
Ch'in is composed of 見 chien to see (line 42) and a phonetic. It is defined in the Shuo Wen by 至 chih (line 94), and one of its earliest meanings was to love, close attachment to; hence it comes to mean parents, relatives (line 35).
Shih see line 20.
Yu is composed of two 又 yu hands (line 18) entwined: hence its meaning. It is defined as "of the same class or kind." See also line 102.
Hsi 1 li 3 i4
Practise ceremonies usages
and practise ceremonial usages.
Hsi see line 4.
Li is composed of 示 shih divine manifestation, to proclaim, etc., as radical, with a phonetic (line 150) which meant a sacrificial vessel. It is defined as worship of the gods which brings happiness; hence, ritual. It bears also the varying meanings of etiquette, politeness, and propriety. It was coupled with music in the ancient educational system of China as an important factor in the art of government. Lao Tzü (line 7) explained ceremonies as "the outward expression of inward feelings," while admitting in another utterance that they are but "the veneer of loyalty and good faith." For the Book of Rites, see Hue 136.
I is simply i duty towards one's neighbour (line 28) as phonetic, with 人 jen man as radical. It originally meant a limit; then usages, observances, etc.
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