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S061: We speak of north and south

61. 曰南北

Yueh 4 nan 2 pei 3 

Speak south north 

We speak of north and south, 

Yueh see line 57. 

Nan is composed of an old word meaning abundant vegetation (q.d. the south), with ^羊 yang sheep inserted as phonetic. It is now classed under radical 十 shih ten (line 45). The south is the standard point, as the north with us, of the mariner's compass, which has been known to the Chinese since the 12th cent. A.D., and is said to have been developed from a legendary "south-pointing chariot" given to tribute-bearing envoys from Tongking 

more than a thousand years B.C. Chinese houses are as far as possible duly oriented, facing the south. See line 230. 

Pei was originally composed of two men, back to back. How it came to mean north is not clear. It is now classed under radical 匕 a spoon.

62. 曰西東

Hsi was originally composed of a bird roosting on a tree, which was thought sufficient to suggest the time for roosting when the sun is in the western sky; hence, by an aphetic process on a gigantic scale, the west. It is now classed under radical 襾hsia to cover. 

Tung is explained as 日 jih the sun among the 木 mu trees as radical (lines 52, 66). The east is the place of honour, and 東家 tung chia is the master of a house (line 192). The phrase 東西 tung hsi east- west means a thing, and it is an insult to say that a man is not a thing, implying that he is only raw material. 

62. 此四方

Tzu 3 ssu4 fang 1 

This four square 

This four points

Tz'u see line 59. 

Ssu see title. 

Fang see line 14. 

64. 應乎中

Ying 4 hu2 chung1 

Answer to middle respond to the requirements of the centre. 

Ying is composed of 心 hsin heart as radical, with an old form of 鷹 ying a falcon as phonetic. It means to respond, as to a call for services, etc. Read ying 1 it means ought, proper. 

Hu is composed of 兮 hsi an emphatic particle, with 丿 p'ieh (obsolete) as radical. It is defined as "language surplus" or expletive, is an interrogative particle, and has also several prepositional values. 

Chung is an obvious ideogram, classed under the obsolete radical 丨 kun to pass through. Read chung4 it means to middle, i.e. to hit the middle, to attain. 

[The above two lines have met with severe treatment at the hands of translators. Bridgman (1836) gave, "These are four points, which tend towards the centre;" Julien (1864), "These four sides of the world correspond to the centre of the earth'" Zottoli (1879), "Istae quatuor orae respondent cum centro;" finally Eitel (1892), "These are the four regions in mutual correspondence with regard to the centre." The idea however, according to the commentary, is simply this. The earth is the centre of the universe; the four points of the compass are associated with the four seasons, and, so to speak, supply these as required. At the same time it is difficult to escape from the belief that the real meaning of this line is "occupy fixed positions as regards any given centre," i.e. "fix the orientation around any given origin."]