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S073: Rice spiked-millet pulse

73. 稻粱菽

Tao k Hang 2 shu1 

Rice, spiked millet, pulse, 

Rice spiked-millet pulse 

Tao is composed of 禾 ho grain and a common phonetic. It was anciently applied to glutinous rice, but is now used of common rice. 

Liang is composed of 米 mi rice as radical, below a contraction of 粱 liang (line 228) as phonetic. It is the millet of north China, "distinguished from the panicled millet by its long and dense compound spikes." Bretschneider. 

Shu is composed of 艸 ts'ao vegetation, with 叔 shu, originally to gather, now a father's younger brother, as phonetic. It is "a collective name for leguminous plants and their seeds." Bretschneider. 

74. 麥黍稷

Mai 1 shu 3 chi4 

Wheat glutinous-millet common-millet 

wheat, glutinousmillet, and common millet. 

Mai is composed of 來 lai to come, over an obsolete radical 夊 sui to walk slowly, and is now itself a radical. It is subdivided into 大 ta mai barley, and 小 hsiao mai wheat. 

Shu is composed of 禾 ho grain, with a contraction of 雨 yu rain as phonetic. It is specially mentioned as being sticky, and is said to have been called shu because it was planted during the 大暑 ta shu great heat. It is now a radical. 

Chi is composed of 禾 ho grain and a phonetic associated with husbandry, as might be inferred from its composition. It is called the chief of the five grains. 

[Shu and chi are said by the Chinese to be varieties, the former having glutinous seeds, of the common millet. However Dr. Hance and other competent botanists "were not able to make out any botanical difference between the two." Bretschneider.] 

75. 此六榖

Tz'u3 liu4 ku3 

This six grain 

These six grains 

Tz'u see line 59. 

Liu is composed of 八 pa eight (line 88) below the old pictorial form of 上 shang above, which was anciently represented by a line above a line (line 192). It is the number of change, the female numbers (see title) strengthening at six to reach their climacteric at eight, and is now classed under radical —  i one. 

Ku is composed of 禾 ho grain as radical, and a phonetic. It stands for cereals in general, and comes to have such meanings as alive, happy, which are apparently based upon the possession of grain. 

76. 人所食
Jen 2 so3 shih 2 

Man what eat 

are those which men eat. 

Jen see line 1. 

So see line 22. 

Shih, the composition of which is disputed, seems to have originally meant a grain of rice. It is now a radical, and read ssu4 it means food. [The commentary points out that the six grains mentioned must be held to include all the varieties which fall under each head.]