Fan2 hsun4 meng2
All teach dull
In the education of the young,
Fan is composed of 二 erh two, a pair, and an old form of 及 chi to reach, to arrive. It originally meant to embrace fully, hence all, mankind, the world, earthly, etc.; and it is now classed under radical 几 chi a table or bench. Its literal sense may be allowed to vanish here, though of course its influence remains.
Hsun is composed of 言 yen words as radical, and 川 cli'uan streams
(四川 ssu ch'uan the province of that name) as phonetic.
Meng is composed of 艸 ts'ao vegetation and an important phonetic. It was originally defined as 王女 Wang nu prince's daughter, a name for wistaria, and came to mean in the dark, dull, stupid, the young, and then to teach. [Pere Zottoli wrongly renders by "Quicumque instruit rudes." For Eitel, see line 110.]
Hsu 1 chiang 3 chiu4
Must explain investigate
There should be explanation and elucidation,
Hsu is composed of 頁 yeh head as radical and 彡 shan hair, feathers. It was formerly a radical and a picture of whiskers or beard, which was its original meaning; hence the modern 鬚 hsu a beard. It appears to have been phonetically borrowed to express a word hsu to want, need, etc., and has now given up its sense of hair on the face to the more complicated modern
character. Is often incorrectly written 須.
Chiang is composed of 言 yen words with a phonetic which governs a larger group of characters pronounced like itself kou.
Chiu is composed of 穴 hsueh a cave as radical with 九 chiu nine as phonetic. It is also used in the sense of judicial examination. [The phrase chiang chiu further means to analyse; to reject the coarse and take the fine; to be particular about, etc.]
Hsiang2 hsiln4 ku2
Minute teach research
careful teaching of the interpretations of commentators,
Hsiang is composed of 言 yen words as radical and 羊 yang sheep as phonetic. It means to go into small details, to describe.
Hsun see line 107.
Ku is composed of 言 yen words as radical and 古 ku ancient (see line 261) as phonetic. It means to trace out original sources; hence, to adduce evidence in support of an interpretation, etc.
Ming2 chu4 tou4
Clear paragraph sentence
and due attention to paragraphs and sentences.
Ming is an ideogram formed by juxtaposition of 日 jih the sun, its modern radical, and 月 yueh the moon (line 52), and means bright.
Chu was originally composed of 口 k'ou mouth and 丩chiu to connect as phonetic, and meant crooked. It was pronounced chu and kou, for the latter sound 勾 being substituted later on, with diverging meanings. It is now classed under radical 勹 (line 85).
Tou is more commonly tu 2 to read, to study. See line 134. [To mark off the proper paragraphs and sentences is one of the functions of a teacher in China, all punctuation being usually omitted from classical works such as the Canon. Eitel has a strange rendering of the above four lines. "Now in all cases, when instruction is given to the ignorant, Although it is well to explain characters orally and exhaustively, Yet, detailed moral instruction in the sayings of the ancients is just as necessary as precision regarding syntactic punctuation"]
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