San Tzu Ching‎ > ‎

S111: Those who are learners

111. 爲學者 

Wei2 hsueh2 che3 

Be learn one 

Those who are learners 

Wei see line 24. 
Hsueh see line 11. 
Che see line 49. 

112. 必有初

Pi4 yu3 ch'u1 

Must have beginning 

must have a beginning. 

Pi is composed of 八 pa to divide (line 88), its old radical, and 弋 i a sharpened stake, to shoot with a bow, as phonetic. It originally meant division to the uttermost limit, from which it is possible to obtain a glimmering of the modern sense of necessity. 

Yu see line 14. 

Ch'u see line 1. 

113. 小學終
Hsiao2 hsileh2 chung1 

Small learn end 

The Little Learning finished, 

Hsiao is said to be composed of 八 pa to divide (line 88), with a vertical line in the middle representing unity (line 30); hence, 

Hsueh see line 11. 

Chung is composed of 系 ssu silk as radical and 冬 tung winter (lines 58, 178) as phonetic. It was originally written without the radical silk; in other words, tung winter, the end of the year, was made to do duty for chung end. The latter character, as it stands, is explained in the Shuo Wen as 絿絲, and the point is further obscured by the definition of 絿 in the same work, namely = 急 chi flurried, wrongly rendered "remiss" by Dr. Legge in his translation of the Odes, p. 641. [The Little Learning is the name of an elementary treatise compiled by the famous classical commentator 朱熙 Chu Hsi, A.D. 1130 — 1200 (line 127). Eitel has here the "Filial Piety Classic" (line 131) instead of the Little Learning, as given in the best editions. The latter title is now in general use among foreigners, though the Chinese really means "Learning for the Young."] 

114. 至四書

Chih4 ssu4 shu1 

Reach four book 

they proceed to the Four Books. 

Chih see line 94. 

Ssu see title and line 37. 

Shu was originally composed of 聿 lu or yu a stylus (line 124), with 者 che (line 49) as phonetic, and meant to make known. This was subsequently contracted to the modern character and classed under yueh to speak as radical. [The Four Books form the first portion of the Confucian Canon and are learnt by heart by all candidates who hope to do anything at the public examinations. They are enumerated in lines 115 — 130. See also line 135.]