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S135: The Books of Poetry, of History, and of Changes

135. 詩書易

Shih1 shu1 i4 

Poetry book change

The Books of Poetry, of History, and of Changes, 

Shih is composed of 言 yen words and 寺 ssu (line 30). It seems to have originally meant purpose, will ; but its only known sense in the earliest records is poetry. Here it stands for the 311 ballads collected and edited by Confucius. 經 Ching (see title) is understood with each word in this line. 

Shu see line 114. It here stands for a fragmentary historical work which is said to have been edited by Confucius and embraces a period extending from the middle of the 24th cent, to the 8th cent. B.C. 

I see line 126. It is here the famous work (line 141), said to havebeen composed B.C. 1150, which contains a fanciful system of philosophy deduced from the combinations of the Eight Diagrams or eight sets of lines (line 179). 

136. 禮春秋

Li3 ch'un1 ch'iu1

Rites spring autumn 

the Rites of the Chou Dynasty,  the Book of Rites, and the Spring and Autumn Annals, 

Li see line 32. It here stands for two separate works, as given in the translation; otherwise it would be impossible to account for the Six Classics in line 137. Eitel solves the difficulty by splitting the Annals into two, thus "the Spring and Autumn Annals"! The two sets of Rites may be regarded roughly as the official and social codes of ancient China. 

Ch'un see line 57. This and the next character form the title of the annals of the native State of Confucius between B.C. 722 and 484. These annals are said to have been written by Confucius himself. Their name is derived from the custom of prefixing the season to each entry, spring including summer, and autumn winter (line 160). 

Ch'iu see line 58. 

137. 號六經 

Hao4 liu4 ching1 

Name six classic 

are called the Six Classics, 

Hao (read hao2 ) was originally composed of 号 hao a cry of pain and 虎 a tiger, and meant to call out, to wail, in which senses it is frequently seen. It came to mean a designation or mark, as above, and is now classed under radical 虍 hu a tiger. 

Liu see line 75. 

Ching see title. 

138 當講求

Tang1 chiang3 ch'iu2

Ought explain seek 

which should be carefully explained and analysed. 

Tang see line 36, 

Chiang see line 108. 

Ch'iu is classed under radical 水 shut water. With it is here understood the word 研 yen to grind (note the radical 石 shih stone). [The Six Classics are enumerated by Chuang Tzu (line 174) as the five given above, i.e. without dividing the Rites, and a Book of Music. Unfortunately the passage in question (ch. XIV, ad fin.) is undoubtedly an interpolation, and this classification must therefore be referred to a later date. It has been customary since the Sung dynasty (line 251), not the T'ang dynasty (line 239) as Wylie says, op. cit. p. 7, to speak of the complete Canon as consisting of 十三經 shih san ching Thirteen Classics. Such works as the Classic of Filial Piety (line 131), the ||J jj|| Erh Ya, an ancient vocabulary of classical and other words and phrases, sometimes spoken of as the Literary Expositor, and the two less known commentaries on the Spring and Autumn Annals (lines 164, 166), have been included; but there is actually no fixed list, various editions of the Thirteen Classics having been published with varying contents. Mayers, in his Reader's Manual, p. 352, reaches the full tale of thirteen only by counting two of them twice over. The Rites of the Chou Dynasty (line 136) was set aside under the Ming dynasty (line 254 K), and the number of so-called Classics reduced to five; hence we now speak of the Four Books (line 114) and the Five Classics.]