Wo3 chou1 kung 1
I Chou duke
Our Duke of Chou
Wo is composed of 戈 ko a spear as radical, and a character on the left which is regarded by some as an old form of 殺 sha to kill.
Chou see line 141.
Kung is said to be composed of 八 pa the back turned (line 88) on 厶 ssu private interests; hence to divide evenly, just, public- spirited, which would be the correct attitude for the ruler of a
State. [The Duke of Chou was younger brother of 文王 King Wen, the first sovereign of the Chou dynasty (line 141), whose empire he helped to consolidate. The mariner's compass is attributed to him by the Chinese. Died B.C. 1105.]
Tso4 chou1 li2
Make chou ceremonial
drew up the Ritual of the Chou dynasty,
Tso see line 123.
Chou see line 141.
Li see line 136. [This is the official set of Rites (see lines 136, 138). It deals with the ranks and duties of government servants, and was originally divided under six heads (line 149), the last of which was found to be missing early in the 1st cent. A.D.]
Chu4 liu4 kuan1
Manifest six official
in which he set forth the duties of the six classes of officials,
Chu is composed of 艸 ts'ao grass as radical and 者 che (line 49). It is commonly used in the sense of to make or write a book.
Liu see line 75.
Kuan is composed of radical 宀 mien shelter, under which it is now classed, and an old word for heap, many. It is defined as officials serving their prince, the lower portion of the character giving the idea of plurality. [Pere Zottoli's rendering "exhibuitque sex praefectos" is unnecessarily hard and fast. The six divisions under which the Duke of Chou ranged all officials were 天官 t'ien kuan State Counsellors, 地官 ti kuan Ministers of Finance, 春官 ch'un kuan Ministers of Sacrificial Worship, 夏官 hsia kuan Ministers of War, 秋官 ch'iu kuan Ministers of Justice, 冬官 tung kuan Ministers of Public Works. These were to some extent prototypes of the modern Six Boards. See lines 50, 57, 58.]
Ts'un2 chih4 t'i2
Keep govern body
and thus gave a settled form to the government.
Ts'un was originally composed of 子 tzu child as radical and 才 ts'ai (line 49), and meant to ask compassionately after. It is now used in the sense of to preserve, to put on record.
Chih see line 130.
T'i is composed of 骨 ku bones (line 162) as radical, and a common phonetic (line 32). It means the body, to embody, form, shape, style, etc. [Eitel is wide of the mark with, "And preserved the rules of controlling personal conduct," thus making chih govern t'i. The idea of course is that the promulgation of a definite system put an end to anomalies by securing fixity of procedure.]
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