Yue4 kuo2 feng1
Speak State wind
We speak of the Kuo feng,
Yueh see line 57.
Kuo is composed of 或 huo some one, perhaps, as phonetic, in an obsolete word meaning enclosure, as radical.
Feng is composed of 虫 ch'ung insects, abbreviated from 蟲, and 凡 fan all (line 107) as phonetic. It is formed with insect because when the wind blows in spring, insects are called into existence. It was one of the 540 Radicals of the Shuo Wen retained among the 214 Radicals of K'ang Hsi's dictionary, and is here elliptical for 風俗. feng su wind common = manners and customs. [Kuo feng, the manners and customs of the States, is the title of the first section of the Book of Poetry (line 135). It is so called because it was customary for the various rulers of the Feudal States to forward to their suzerain, 天子 t'ien tzu the Son of Heaven, such ballads as were commonly sung by the people under their jurisdiction. These were then submitted to the Imperial Musicians, who were able to judge from their nature of the manners and customs prevailing in the various States, and the suzerain was thus enlightened as to the administration of his vassal Princes.]
Yueh4 ya3 sung4
Speak odes panegyric
we speak of the Ya and of the Sung.
Yueh see line 57.
Ya is composed of 隹 chui short-tailed birds (obsolete) as radical, and 牙 ya teeth as phonetic, and originally meant a crow, daw, etc., for which 鴉 , with 鳥 niao birds, has been substituted. It came to mean refined, but is here the title of a section of the Book of Poetry, subdivided into Lesser Ya and Greater Ya, the former being sung at ordinary entertainments given by the suzerain, and the latter on grand occasions when the feudal princes were gathered together.
Sung is composed of 頁 yeh head as radical, with 公 kung (line 147) as phonetic. It originally meant the countenance and was pronounced jung. Later on it came to mean to praise, a sacrificial ode, and is now commonly used in letters to express a wish or prayer.
Hao4 ssu4 shih1
Name four poetry
These are the four sections of the Book of Poetry,
Hao see line 137.
Ssu see title.
Shih see line 135.
Tang1 feng4 yung4
Ought chant hum
which should be hummed over and over.
Tang see line 36.
Feng is composed of 言 yen words as radical, with 風 feng wind (line 155) as phonetic. It has now come to mean to ridicule, to lampoon.
Yung has 永 yung everlasting (line 254 P) as phonetic, the latter character being remarkable as containing all the elementary strokes used in writing. It is pretty much the same as feng, the two characters signifying that peculiar method of crooning or humming over verses to oneself, almost universal in China. See line 263.
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