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S159: When odes ceased to be made

159 詩既亡

Shih1 chi4 wang1

Poetry when disappear

When odes ceased to be made, 

Shih see line 135. 

Chi is composed of 旡 chi to hiccough as phonetic, with an obsolete radical said to mean the fragrance of grain. It originally meant a small meal, rations, but is now a particle of finality, = since, already, etc. 

Wang is composed of 入 ju to enter and 乚 an old form of 隱 yin to conceal. It means to escape as a fugitive, to perish, lost, etc. Read wu = not. [The Rev. Eitel failed to seize the point of this line, to wit, "(As to the Spring and Autumn Annals) it was when the Book of Odes was already lost, that etc." But there is no suspicion that the Odes ever were lost, the true explanation being that with the decline of the suzerain's power over the Feudal States, the construction of Ya odes fell into desuetude. See Mencius, Book IV, Pt. II, ch. 21. Neither does Pere Zottoli provide a very lucid rendering in "Carmen cum cessaverit," especially as elsewhere he speaks of the "carminum liber."] 

160. 春秋作

Ch'un1 chiu1 tso4

Spring autumn make

the Spring and Autumn Annals were produced. 

Ch'un see line 136. 

Ch'iu see line 136. 

Tso see line 123. [Pere Zottoli here adopts a singular idiom, namely "chronicorum liber exurgit." If he employs "exurgit" (exsurgit for preference) to avoid the use of a passive, he misses a good chance of illustrating the powers of Chinese words, which readily lend themselves to any voice, mood, or tense, as required. For two interpolated lines see Appendix II.] 



161. 寓褒貶

Yu4 pao1 pien3

Dwell praise blame

These Annals contain praise and blame, 

Yu is composed of 宀 mien shelter as radical, with a common phonetic. It originally meant to sojourn, to be present in, and comes by extension to mean allegory, but Eitel is quite wrong in giving it here such an extended meaning as "Which, being metaphorically suggestive of either praise or censure. 11 

Pao is now composed of 保 pao to guarantee as phonetic, with 衣 i clothes as radical (line 82). K'ang Hsi gives a different combination as the classical form, but the Shuo Wen gives another; in fact there are several ways of writing this character, of which the one adopted is the most common. It originally meant long robes, and these, conferred by the sovereign, may have come to embody the idea of praise. 

Pien has 貝 pei pearl-oyster, valuables, as radical, with 乏 fa exhausted (said to be 正 cheng upright turned the wrong way round) as phonetic. It originally meant to injure. [This is the famous "praise-and-blame" theory, based upon the following words of Mencius, "Confucius completed the Spring and Autumn Annals, and rebellious Ministers and bad sons stood aghast." Hence it came to be said that "one word of such praise was more honourable than an embroidered robe, and one word of such censure sharper than an axe."] 

162. 別善惡

Pieh2 shan4 o 4

Separate good bad

and distinguish the good from  the bad. 

Pieh is composed of 刀 tao knife (in combination) on the right as radical, and an obsolete word which meant to scrape or cut a man's flesh from his bones. The latter is the phonetic of 過 kuo (line 18) less 口 k'ou mouth, and is 骨 ku bones less 肉 (月 in combination) jou flesh; it has nothing to do with 另 ling separate, as might be inferred from the way in which it is now written. [An old form of pieh was two 八 pa (line 88), and the modern 八 pa eight is now written in official documents 捌.] 

Shan see line 2. 

O see line 83. 
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