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S167: When the Classics are understood

167. 經既明

Ching1 chi4 ming2

Classic when clear 

When the Classics are understood, 

Ching see title. It may here be noted that the term Classics is not applied only to the works mentioned in lines 135, 136, but includes also the Four Books (line 115 et seq.). Eitel wrongly inserts "six," although the commentary particularly repudiates any such limitation: 四書六經皆經也 Ssu shu liu ching chieh ching yeh the Four Books and Six Classics are all Classics. 

Chi see line 159. 

Ming see line 110. 

168. 方讀子

Fang 1 tu 1 tzit 3 

Then read philosopher 

then the writings of the various philosophers should be read. 

Fang see lines 14, 30. 

Tu see lines 110/ 134. 

Tzu see line 11. [This injunction includes 諸子 chu tzu (line 176) philosophers generally, orthodox and otherwise, line 169 guiding the student towards his right goal, the ultimate glorification of Confucianism. Eitel wrongly restricts it to "the ten philosophers," meaning the five philosophers mentioned in lines 171—174, with five other lesser lights, the works attributed to some of whom are now recognised to be spurious, viz. 列子 Lieh Tzu, 管子 Kuan Tzu, 韓非子 Han Fei Tzu, 淮南子 Huai-nan Tzu, and 鶡冠子 Ho Kuan Tzu.] 

169. 撮其要

Ts'o4 ch'i2 yao4 

Choose the need

Pick out the important points in each, 

Ts'o is composed of 手 shou hand as radical, and 最 tsui to collect (line 202) as phonetic. 

Ch'i appears to have been written 兀 (see line 143) in early ages, meaning a stand for exhibiting things. It is defined as a word for pointing at things, a demonstrative, and is now classified under radical 八 pa (line 88). It is sometimes a demonstrative, and sometimes merely the article, definite or indefinite. 

Yao is composed of an obsolete character representing the two hands as radical, and 交 chiao to interlace, originally a picture of crossed legs, as phonetic. The whole is a picture of a man standing with his arms akimbo, and meant waist, now written 腰 with 肉 jou flesh as radical: hence necessary, important, to need, etc. Read yao1 it means to meet, to intercept, to make an agreement, etc. 

170. 記其事

Chi4 ch'i2 shih4 

Record the affair 

and take a note of all facts. 

Chi see line 118. It is not meant that such facts should be learnt by rote, but rather noted for use. 

Ch'i see line 169. 

Shih is composed of 史 shih historian (line 176), its old radical, with a contraction of 之 chih (line 1) as phonetic, and originally meant duties of office, to serve. It is now classed under radical  亅(obsolete), and means business, affairs, but here points towards facts, as opposed to theories, which facts heterodox writers may have simply misinterpreted.