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S195: T'ang the Completer destroyed the Hsia dynasty

195. 湯伐夏

T'ang1 fa1 hsia4 

T'ang fell hsia 

T'ang the Completer destroyed the Hsia dynasty 

T'ang see line 188. 

Pa is composed of 人 jen man and 戈 ko a spear, and means to cut down, to destroy. See line 249. 

Hsia see line 57. [Gradually the sovereigns of this dynasty, which had been founded under such brilliant auspices (line 187), began to degenerate, the climax being reached under the reign of 桀癸 Chieh Kuei, who came to the throne in B.C. 1818 and for many years indulged in cruel brutality and lust almost unparalleled in history.] 

196.  國號商

Kuo2 hao4 shang4

State name shang 

and the dynastic title became Shang. 

Kuo see line 155. 
Hao see line 137. 

Shang see line 188. [Shang was further changed to 殷 Yin in B.C. 1401.] 

197. 六百載

Liu4 pai3 tsai2

hundred years, 

Six hundred year 

The line lasted for six 

Liu see line 75. 
Pai see line 46. 
Tsai see line 193. 

198. 至紂亡

Chih4 chou4 wang2 

Arrive chou disappear 

ending with Chou Hsin. 

Chih see line 94. 

Chou is composed of 糸 ssu silk as radical, and what appears to be 寸 ts'un an inch but is really an abbreviation of 肘 chou elbow, as phonetic. It originally meant crupper, but here stands for 紂辛 Chou Hsin, who was under this Yin or Shang dynasty precisely what Chieh Kuei (line 195) had been under the Hsia dynasty, the immediate cause of its downfall. Wang see line 159.