Chou1 che4 tung1
Chou cart-rut east
When the Chous made tracks eastwards,
Chou see line 141.
Ch'e is composed of 車 ch'e cart as radical, and a common phonetic. It is colloquially read che4.
Tung see line 62. [In B.C. 781, during the reign of 平王 King P'ing, the capital was transferred from 鎬 Hao in the modern province of Shensi to 洛邑 Lo-i in Honan. [Eitel wrongly gives B.C. 770 as the date, and Pere Zottoli contents himself with a note explaining that the Court was moved "ad orientem."]
Wang2 kang1 chui4
Prince bond sink
the feudal bond was slackened
Wang see line 190.
Kang see line 53. .
Chui is composed of 土 t'u eartn as radical, with 隊 tui4 a group, a regiment, as phonetic. [The idea is that the allegiance of the vassal States to the 王 wang suzerain began to grow weak, which Pere Zottoli hardly seems to reach with "Regura disciplina corruit," as though wang referred to the feudal nobles. Eitel is nearer with "The sovereign's authority began to totter."]
Cheng2 kan1 ko1
Violent shield spear
the arbitrament of spears and shields prevailed;
Ch'eng is composed of the walking radical, and 呈 ch'eng, which now means to proffer or tender, as phonetic. It originally meant to go through, to move with speed, and then as here, to act with violence at slight provocation. [Eitel translates it "raised."]
Kan is composed, under its old form, of 入 ju to enter, upside down, and — i one. It originally meant to oppose, and must be distinguished from 千 (line 47).
Ko is supposed to be a picture, under its old form, of the particular kind of spear intended. It is composed of 弋 i a sharpened stake and — i one.
Shang4 yu2 shui4
Esteem travel counsel
and peripatetic politicians were held in high esteem.
Shang is composed of 八 pa (line 88) and 向 hsiang towards, and originally meant to add to; hence its adverbial value still, notwithstanding. It is now classed under radical 小 lisiao small.
Yu is composed of the walking radical and a phonetic which originally meant a streamer or pennant. It is used with 游, which is now a distinct character but which appears to have been once only another form.
Shui (see line 122) means to stop, to halt, to counsel, and here refers to a class of adventurers who wandered from State to State, offering plans for vengeance etc. on rival rulers. This character is also sometimes read yueh4, for 悅 to take pleasure in.
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