Sung4 ch'i2 chi4
Sung ch'i connect
Then followed the Sung and the Ch'i dynasties,
Sung is composed of 宀 mien shelter as radical and 木 mu wood, and originally meant a hut, a dwelling. It is now a common surname, and here stands for a dynasty, A.D. 420—479, generally known as the 劉宋 Liu Sung, from the surname of its founder, to distinguish it from the great Sung dynasty (line 251).
Ch'i under its old form was a picture of ears of grain growing up level, and was intended to express the idea of evenness. It is here the name of a dynasty, A.D. 479—502.
Chi is composed of 糸 ssu silk and an old word which meant broken turned round as though mended; hence its meanings, to splice, to continue a line.
Liang2 ch'en2 ch'eng2
Liang ch'en receive
and after them the Liang and Ch'en dynasties.
Liang is composed of 木 wood as radical, with 水 shui water, and 刅 ch'uang to wound (= 創 line 242) as phonetic. It means a bridge, a beam, and is here the name of a dynasty, A.D. 502 — 557. See lines 73, 245.
Ch'en is composed of 阜 fu4 or fou4 a mound, 阝 in combination, always on the left (line 230), as radical, 木 mu wood, and 申 shen to report as phonetic, and has apparently no connection with 東 tung east (line 62). It means to set forth, to state, and is here the name of a dynasty, A.D. 557—589.
Ch'eng is composed of 手 shou hand as radical, with 卩 chieh the half of an official seal or tally, and an obsolete character meaning the hands reverently folded. It signifies to receive from a superior.
Wei2 nan2 ch'ao2
Be south court
These are the southern dynasties,
Wei see line 24.
Nan see line 61. Referring to the four dynasties in lines 227, 228, to each of which the word nan southern is often prefixed.
Ch'ao is composed of 倝 kan dawn (into the composition of which enters 旦 tan the sun appearing above the horizon, dawn), an old radical, and 舟 chou boat as phonetic. It was originally read chao1 , and meant early morning (line 265). Read ch'ao2 it means the Court, audiences being held at dawn, and so by extension a dynasty. In consequence of its change of form it is now classed under radical 月 yüeh the moon.
Tu chin1 ling2
Capital chin ling
with their capital at Nanking.
Tu is composed of 者 (line 49) and 邑 i a town or hamlet, 阝 incombination, always on the right (line 228). It also means all, every.
Chin see line 66.
Ling is composed of J|l fou a mound (line 228) as radical, with a common phonetic. It means a tumulus, especially of a tomb. Chin-ling is here an old name for Nanking, the southern capital, which had also been the capital under the Eastern Chin dynasty (line 226).
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