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S259: Ye who read history


Tu3 shih3 che3 

Read history one 

Ye who read history 

Tu see line 110. 

Shih see line 176. 

Che see line 49. 

260. 考實錄

K'ao3 shih2 lu4  

Examine true record 

must study the State Annals,

K'ao is composed of 老 lao old in its contracted form as radical, 
and 丂 ch'iao an obsolete word meaning vapour struggling to 
escape. Its original meaning was old (= lao), and, in addition 
to its common signification, it has also that of a deceased father. 

Shih is composed of 宀 mien a roof with 貫 kuan strings of money, 
valuables, beneath it, and originally meant wealthy; hence it 
came to mean full, solid, fruit, etc. . 

Lu is composed of 金 chin metal as radical, and a common phonetic. 
It is defined as the colour of metal or gold, and comes to mean 
to copy out. [The shih lu are the official annals of each monarch, 
which he is not allowed to see and which are published only after 
the close of the dynasty. Orders are occasionally given for the 
life of some eminent statesman to be included in these annals. 
Eitel translates these two lines by "Reading historical works or 
rather that-which-constitutes-it, consists in searching out the essential 
points of records." ! Zottoli is weak with "Studeus historiis scrutare 
veridica scripta," as he gives no note to say what "veridica scripta" 
are intended.] 

261. 通古今 

Tung1 ku3 chin1 

Pierce ancient modern 

whereby you will understand ancient and modern events, 

T'ung see line 131. 

Ku is composed of 十 shih ten and 口 k'ou mouth as radical, q.d. that which is handed down through ten generations. 

Chin is composed of three lines in triangular form, meaning to bring together, united, over a contraction of 及 ch'i to reach. It is now classed under radical 人 jen man. 

262. 若親目 

Jo4 ch'in1 mu4 

As personal eye 

as though having seen them with your own eyes. 

Jo is composed of 艸 ts'ao vegetation over 右 yu the right hand, and originally meant to choose vegetables. It now means to conform to, as though, you, etc. See line 299. 

Ch'in see line 31. 

Mu is said to be the picture of an eye with two pupils, turned up on end. 

263. 口而誦

Kou3 erh2 sung4 

Mouth then recite 

Recite them with the mouth, 

K'ou is obviously the picture of a mouth. 

Erh see line 45. 

Sung is composed of 言 yen words and an important phonetic (line 131). It is practically identical with yung in line 158. 

264. 心而惟

Hsin1  erh2 wei2

Heart then consider 

and ponder over them in your hearts. 

Hsin was originally a picture of the heart. It is regarded as the seat not only of the emotional but also of the intellectual faculties. 

Erh see line 45. 

Wei is composed of 心 hsin heart as seen in combination, and 隹 chui birds as phonetic. From its old signification have been developed such meanings as only, but, however, etc. 

265. 朝於斯

Ch'ao1 yü2 ssu1 

Morning at this 

Do this in the morning; 

Chao see line 229. 

Yü see line 35. 

Ssu is composed of 斤 chin axe as radical, and 其 ch'i (line 169) as phonetic. It originally meant to cut, to lop, and then came to be used as a demonstrative. 

266. 夕於斯

Hsi1 yü 2 ssu1 

Evening at this

do this in the evening. 

Hsi is a picture of the moon half visible, and originally meant vanished like the sun hidden by trees. 

Yü see line 35. 

Ssu see line 265. [Horace's "Nocturna versate manu, versate diurna."]