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S009: To feed without teaching


17. 養不教

Yang 3 pu 1 chiao4 

Feed not teach 

To feed without teaching 

Yang is composed of 羊 yang sheep as phonetic and 食 shih eat as radical, and means to bear children, to feed. Read yang4, it means to minister to, to attend upon, especially one's parents. 

Pu see line 5. 

Chiao see line 5. 

18. 父之過

Fu4 chih1 kuo4

Father arrive transgreee

is the father's fault. 

Fu was originally an ideogram, being composed of 又 yu again, which anciently meant a hand with three fingers stretched out and was the original form of the more modern 右 yu right hand, and a ferule. A common name for a father is 家嚴 chia yen (lines 19, 192) the family severe one, while a mother is called 家慈 chia tz'u the family gentle one. In the mouth of the child fu becomes 爹 tieh daddy (line 9). Fu sometimes 
= male (line 210). 

Chih see line 1. 

kuo is composed of the walking radical and a common phonetic. It means to pass by or over; hence, to transgress, an error, a fault. It is used colloquially to form the past tense, thus: 來 lai come, 來過 came. See line 162. 

19. 教不嚴 

Chiao4 pu 1 yen 2 

Teach not severe

teach, without severity 

Chiao see line 5. 

Pu see line 5. 

Yen is composed of two 口 k'ou mouths which formed the ancient radical (now a single k'ou) and a phonetic. It originally meant a sharp order, hence severe; see line 18. 

20. 師之惰

Shih 1 chih 1 to4 

is the teacher's laziness. 

Teacher arrive lazy 

Shih is composed of an old form of 堆 tui a mound or bank on the left, with 帀 tsa to encompass as ancient ( 巾 chin napkin modern) radical on the right. It originally meant a body of 2500 soldiers (line 240), and its composition may possibly have reference to a mud fortress; then it came to mean to take as a model, a teacher, a master workman. Confucius said 三人同行必有我師 san jen  tung hsing, pi yu wo shih, if three men are walking together, one will be my teacher, i.e. able to teach me something (see title, lines 1, 106, 67, 112, 
14, 147). 

Chih see line 1. 

To is composed of 心 hsin heart as radical and a phonetic (line 235). 

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